A CROSS-CASE
ANALYSIS OF 44
RESEARCH BROKERING
ORGANIZATIONS
ACROSS CANADA
Dr. Amanda CooperApril 12, 2013
CONTEXT
Multiple Definitions by Sector
GETTING THE
RIGHT
INFORMATION
TO THE RIGHT
PEOPLE IN THE
RIGHT FORMAT
AT THE RIGHT
TIME SO ...
We prefer the term ‘knowledge mobilization’,
because it best embodies the idea that the use of
knowledge is a social proce...
TIME
SOCIAL CONTEXT
RESEARCH
USE
RESEARCH
PRODUCTION
Knowledge Mobilization
INTERMEDIARIES/
Research Brokering Organizatio...
 Rising number of intermediary organizations
 Significant role: interpret, package, disseminate
 Underexplored role, vi...
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
 What is the nature and impact of the work of Canadian
RBOs in knowledge mobilization in education?
1....
Intermediaries (RBOs)
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
TIME
SOCIAL CONTEXT
RESEARCH
USE
RESEARCH
PRODUCTION
1. TYPE OF ORGANIZATION
Go...
Methodology
 Challenge of identifying RBOs
 Inclusion Criteria
1. Target audience: Connects Producers AND Users
2. Missi...
Sampling
541 Potential
Organizations
479 Excluded
18 Meet
Criteria #1
44 RBOs Meet
Both Inclusion
Criteria
-24 excluded be...
A Matrix To Measure KMb Efforts
STRATEGIES
INDICATORS
Products Events Networks Extra
Strategies
INDICATOR
TOTAL
Different ...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Types
EaseofUse
Accessibility
AudienceFocus
OtherIndicators
Products
Events
Networks
OtherStr...
0 5 10 15 20 25
0 to 10
10 to 20
20 to 30
30 to 40
40 to 50
50 to 60
60 to 70
70 to 80
80 to 90
90 to 100
Frequency (Numbe...
Types of Canadian RBOs
1. What types of intermediary
RBOs exist in education in
Canada?
Intermediary RBOs
Governmental
Ministry
Research
Branches
District Level
Research
Services
Standard &
Evaluation
Funding
A...
44 RBOs ACROSS CANADA
1980
2000
•LDAC
•LDAS
•LDAO
•CMEC
4
19
6
10
3
2 Pre- 1960s
•CEA
•CD Howe
•AERO
•FRASER
•HANEN
•LitBC
•CODE
•TLP
•AIMS
•CPR...
Organizational Features
2. What are the organizational
features of RBOs?
Organizational Features
 Target Audience & Membership Composition
 Heterogeneous, homogeneous, no members
 Scope
 Loca...
Rank RBO Size (FTE) Budget Score %
1 1.2.1 RI Small (3) $250 000 81
1.2.4 Fraser Large (60) $12,808,690 81
1.4.2 CEA Small...
3. What knowledge mobilization processes are
RBOs involved in, and what dissemination
mechanisms do they use?
KMb PROCESSES
RESEARCH
PRODUCTS
CAPACITY
BUILDING
NON
RESEARCH
EVENTS NETWORK MEDIA
Reports Glossaries Strategic Plan Panel/ Talk E-Bull...
Comparing High, Med, Low
 RBOs vary widely in levels & kinds of KMb
activities(product strategies vs. events, networks, a...
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Linked In
Flickr
Delicious
YouTube Channel
Blog
Online Forum
RSS Feed
Share button
Twitter
Fac...
Twitter: Small networks, Low use
 30% of RBOs use social media
RBO
TotalTweets
Following
Followers
TotalTweets
(Sept-Dec2...
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
PREVNet
CEA
LCNB
CCPA
AIMS
HC
SQE
LDAC
P4E
LiteracyBC
TLP
E-Best
SSHRC
Fraser
RI
Total Tweets (S...
Social Media: Nature of Posts
 Opinion:
 “Are parents really partners in education? Should they be?”
 Promotion:
 “Las...
Discussion: RBOs
 Diverse RBOs exist at various levels of
education
 RBOs vary widely in size, levels of KMb efforts
and...
Future Research
 KMb Metric provides a preliminary approach,
but should be coupled with in-depth case
studies
 Extend to...
Thank-you!
Email: amanda.cooper@queensu.ca
Twitter: @ACooperKMb
Website: www.amandacooper.ca
Former Work-
Research Support...
Analysis of Brokering Organizations Across Canada
Analysis of Brokering Organizations Across Canada
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Analysis of Brokering Organizations Across Canada

  1. 1. A CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS OF 44 RESEARCH BROKERING ORGANIZATIONS ACROSS CANADA Dr. Amanda CooperApril 12, 2013
  2. 2. CONTEXT
  3. 3. Multiple Definitions by Sector GETTING THE RIGHT INFORMATION TO THE RIGHT PEOPLE IN THE RIGHT FORMAT AT THE RIGHT TIME SO AS TO INFLUENCE DECISION- MAKING (ONF) MOVING KNOWLEDGE INTO ACTIVE SERVICE FOR THE BROADEST POSSIBLE COMMON GOOD (SSHRC) THE PROCESS FROM THE CREATION OF EVIDENCE TO ITS ULTIMATE IMPACT (Knowledge Translation, CIHR) COLLABORATIVE PROBLEM- SOLVING BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND DECISION MAKERS THAT HAPPENS THROUGH LINKAGE AND EXCHANGE (Knowledge Exchange, CHSRF)
  4. 4. We prefer the term ‘knowledge mobilization’, because it best embodies the idea that the use of knowledge is a social process, not just an intellectual task, and as such is multidirectional, not just a matter of moving information from those that know to those that do not. At the same time, ‘mobilization’ implies effort and direction, not just random interaction. There are multiple, iterative phrases including the generation of new research knowledge when needed, the communication and application of established research knowledge, and the contextualization of research to suit particular environments (Cooper et al., 2009, p.166-167)
  5. 5. TIME SOCIAL CONTEXT RESEARCH USE RESEARCH PRODUCTION Knowledge Mobilization INTERMEDIARIES/ Research Brokering Organizations (RBOs) KMb
  6. 6.  Rising number of intermediary organizations  Significant role: interpret, package, disseminate  Underexplored role, virtually no empirical work RBOs: THE MISSING LINK? SIGNIFICANCE
  7. 7. RESEARCH QUESTIONS  What is the nature and impact of the work of Canadian RBOs in knowledge mobilization in education? 1. What types of intermediary RBOs exist in education across Canada? 2. What are the organizational features of RBOs? 3. What knowledge mobilization processes are RBOs involved in, and what dissemination mechanisms do they use?
  8. 8. Intermediaries (RBOs) CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TIME SOCIAL CONTEXT RESEARCH USE RESEARCH PRODUCTION 1. TYPE OF ORGANIZATION Gov’t Non-Profit For Profit Membership 3. KMb PROCESSES Message Strategies Functions Dissemination Mechanism 2. ORGANIZATIONAL FEATURES Mission Scope Target Audience Size Resources Membership Composition
  9. 9. Methodology  Challenge of identifying RBOs  Inclusion Criteria 1. Target audience: Connects Producers AND Users 2. Mission Statement: Explicitly KMb Related  Sampling Strategies  Ki-es-Ki Handbook, 4000+ educational contacts, Canadian Education Association  Systematic Web Search (record search strings)  RSPE program
  10. 10. Sampling 541 Potential Organizations 479 Excluded 18 Meet Criteria #1 44 RBOs Meet Both Inclusion Criteria -24 excluded because no website -67 excluded because they were French -388 do not meet criteria 1 and 2
  11. 11. A Matrix To Measure KMb Efforts STRATEGIES INDICATORS Products Events Networks Extra Strategies INDICATOR TOTAL Different types 3 6 6 5 /20 Ease of use 2 4 2 2 4 /14 Accessibility 3 6 4 3 /16 Audience Focus 4 2 4 /10 Extra Indicators 4 8 /12 STRATEGY TOTAL /12 /20 /20 /20 /72 • Interrater Reliability Testing of Tool: Intraclass Correlation= .799 • 3 raters per organization for 9 orgs (20% of RBOs Sample)
  12. 12. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Types EaseofUse Accessibility AudienceFocus OtherIndicators Products Events Networks OtherStrategies TOTAL INDICATORS STRATEGIES MeanScore(%) Matrix Categories KMb Efforts by Organization (N=105) RBOs Faculties of Education (N=21) School Districts (N=14) Ministries of Education (N=26) Kruskal-Wallis Test was significant: χ2 (3, N=105) = 42.31, p= .00 - There are significant differences between these groups Pairwise Comparison reveals: - RBOs & Faculties of Education perform similarly - School Districts & Ministries perform similarly
  13. 13. 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 to 10 10 to 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 40 to 50 50 to 60 60 to 70 70 to 80 80 to 90 90 to 100 Frequency (Number of Organizations) ScoreonKMbMatrix(%) Histogram: Total Scores by Type of Organization (N=105) RBOs Faculties of Education (N=21) School Districts (N=14) Ministries (N= 26)
  14. 14. Types of Canadian RBOs 1. What types of intermediary RBOs exist in education in Canada?
  15. 15. Intermediary RBOs Governmental Ministry Research Branches District Level Research Services Standard & Evaluation Funding Agencies Not for Profit University Research Centres Advocacy Issue Based Think Tanks For Profit Textbook publishers, Instructional program vendors Research Consulting Companies Media Membership Professional Network
  16. 16. 44 RBOs ACROSS CANADA
  17. 17. 1980 2000 •LDAC •LDAS •LDAO •CMEC 4 19 6 10 3 2 Pre- 1960s •CEA •CD Howe •AERO •FRASER •HANEN •LitBC •CODE •TLP •AIMS •CPRN •P4E •SAEE •EQAO •Galileo •MCLE •CCPA •CCBR •CRRU •LCBN •LDANS •SK Lit •LEARN •CEED •HELP •ORION •MERN •SQE •Harris •E-Best •CCKM •CSC •CCL •RSPE •E-Best •EYEON •PREVNet •SKE-EDU •ERESB •The Centre •Research Impact 1990 1970 196043% of the sample has arisen in the past decade 9% of the sample closed, lasting between 6-15 years Rise of RBOs
  18. 18. Organizational Features 2. What are the organizational features of RBOs?
  19. 19. Organizational Features  Target Audience & Membership Composition  Heterogeneous, homogeneous, no members  Scope  Local (n=2), Provincial (n=29), National (n=13)  Most RBOs are small (63%) RBO Size (FTE) n Min Max Mean Mode Small (1-10 FTE) 26 1 10 5 3 Medium (11-19 FTE) 4 11 14 12 11 Large (20+ FTE) 13 20 77 41 30
  20. 20. Rank RBO Size (FTE) Budget Score % 1 1.2.1 RI Small (3) $250 000 81 1.2.4 Fraser Large (60) $12,808,690 81 1.4.2 CEA Small (9) $2,044,892 81 2 1.2.4 AIMS Small (5) $872 234 78 3 1.2.0 CCL Large (77) $20,583,490 76 1.2.3 The Centre Large (25) $5,685,000 76 4 1.2.0 TLP Large (74) $5,293,039 75 1.2.1 HC Med (11) --- 75 5 1.2.0 CCBR Med (12) --- 74 6 1.1.2 E-BEST Small (6.5) --- 72 Top 10 RBOs  Resources do not necessarily imply stronger KMb efforts
  21. 21. 3. What knowledge mobilization processes are RBOs involved in, and what dissemination mechanisms do they use? KMb PROCESSES
  22. 22. RESEARCH PRODUCTS CAPACITY BUILDING NON RESEARCH EVENTS NETWORK MEDIA Reports Glossaries Strategic Plan Panel/ Talk E-Bulletins Press Release Summaries Research FAQs Editorials Conference Network Push Lit Reviews Toolkits Promotional Materials Annual Meetings Directories of Contacts Newspaper Systematic Online Tutorials Advocacy Workshop Social Media Radio Conceptual Research Support Services Annual Report Awards Ceremonies Online Forum TV Reference Lists Blog Policy Briefs Fact Sheets Success Stories Multimedia KMb Strategies
  23. 23. Comparing High, Med, Low  RBOs vary widely in levels & kinds of KMb activities(product strategies vs. events, networks, and media)  Think tanks use far more media strategies 0 100 200 300 400 500 CEA CCL SAEE SQE LDAO Media Networks Events Capacity Building Research Products HIGH KMb EFFORTS LOW Think tanks usually use MORE media strategies
  24. 24. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Linked In Flickr Delicious YouTube Channel Blog Online Forum RSS Feed Share button Twitter Facebook Website Frequency (Number of RBOs) OnlineStrategy Blogging, Microblogging (One/Two-way communication) Social Networking (Two-way communication) Social Bookmarking (Collaborative tool) Multimedia (Depends on active user) Passive (Depends on active user) Push (One way communication) Use of Online Strategies
  25. 25. Twitter: Small networks, Low use  30% of RBOs use social media RBO TotalTweets Following Followers TotalTweets (Sept-Dec2010) AverageTweets permonth SDTweetsper month Mean 416 344 905.5 149.29 34 9.719 Max 2250 2326 4913 594 149 26.3 Min 7 1 11 0 0 0 SD 612 589 1309 167.26 41 7.748
  26. 26. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 PREVNet CEA LCNB CCPA AIMS HC SQE LDAC P4E LiteracyBC TLP E-Best SSHRC Fraser RI Total Tweets (Sept 2010 – Dec 2010) RBOFrequency of Twitter Usage
  27. 27. Social Media: Nature of Posts  Opinion:  “Are parents really partners in education? Should they be?”  Promotion:  “Last chance to register for our conference”  Information:  “Premier’s arts awards tonight”  Update:  “Just watched waiting for Superman”.  Research Based:  “StatsCan: Canadian drop out rate declining. Drop out highest in AB, MB, QC, lowest in NL, BC, ON http://ning.it/a2auTU” Opinion 21% Promotion 14% Information 27% Update 4% Research Based 24%
  28. 28. Discussion: RBOs  Diverse RBOs exist at various levels of education  RBOs vary widely in size, levels of KMb efforts and dedicated resources  Dedicated resources do not necessarily imply stronger KMb efforts  Few organizations have comprehensive KMb strategies or systematic approaches  Social media emerging but not focused use
  29. 29. Future Research  KMb Metric provides a preliminary approach, but should be coupled with in-depth case studies  Extend to RBOs in other countries & sectors  More work (& larger samples) needed to differentiate efforts of diverse types of RBOs  Further exploration of relationships between organizational features and KMb efforts  Comparing effectiveness of different strategies is needed to assess impact of intermediary work
  30. 30. Thank-you! Email: amanda.cooper@queensu.ca Twitter: @ACooperKMb Website: www.amandacooper.ca Former Work- Research Supporting Practice in Education Website: www.oise.utoronto.ca/rspe

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