INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON Creating a blog using Blogger.com Instructional Design Project Kevin McManamon Boise State University, Spring 2011 Edtech 503-4172 Dr. Ching
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON TABLE OF CONTENTSSynthesis paper............................................................................3Part 1. Topic..................................................................................5 Part 1a. Goal statement...................................................5 Part 1b. Audience description........................................5 Part 1c. Rationale.............................................................5Part 2. Analysis report..................................................................6 Part 2a. Description of the need.....................................6 Part 2a. 1 Need analysis survey.........................6 Part 2a.2 Need analysis data results.................6 Part 2b. Description of learning context........................7 Part 2b.1 Learning context description............8 Part 2b.2 Transfer context description.............8 Part 2c. Description of learners......................................9 Part 2d. Task analysis flow chart....................................9Part 3. Planning.............................................................................10 Part 3a. List of instructional objectives.........................10 Part 3b. Objectives matrix table......................................11 Part 3c. ARCS table..........................................................12Part 4. Instructional guide.............................................................14Part 5. Learner content..................................................................17 Part 5a. Learner materials................................................17 Part 5b. Assessment materials........................................17 Part 5c. Technology tool justification.............................18Part 6. Formal evaluation plan......................................................19 Part 6a. Expert review.......................................................19 Part 6b. One-to-one evaluation........................................19 Part 6c. Small group evaluation.......................................19 Part 6d. Field trial...............................................................19Part 7. Formative evaluation report...............................................20 Part 7a. Evaluation survey.................................................20 Part 7b. Report of expert review........................................20 Part 7c. Designer’s response to review............................20Part 8. AECT Standards grid...........................................................21Appendix A- Needs assessment survey........................................24Appendix B- Needs assessment survey results...........................26Appendix C- Task list.......................................................................28Appendix D- Writing rubric assessment........................................29Appendix E- Task list check off.......................................................31
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON Synthesis paper “Experience doesnt always equate to expertise.” These are the words that arethe context for my reflection upon the Instructional Design process. At the start of thissemester, I had a number of years of classroom teaching experience (approximatelytwo decades in the field). What I soon realized in the earliest stages of this coursewas that years of being an instructor didn’t automatically qualify me as an experiencedinstructional designer. Thinking about designing instruction without being presentto “clear up any fuzziness” is remarkably different that having the ability to re-phraseor modify instruction as you proceed. One must remove themselves from the actualdelivery of the lesson, be able to diagnose the learners needs, design a lesson for alllearners to be engaged in and ultimately, benefit from. If asked to choose a metaphor to describe the instructional designprocess, I would have to respond that “instructional design is like being the playwrightfor a live play.” This is so because the instructional designer must know the needs ofthe target audience, much like a playwright needs to know what the actors on stagemust understand before they can realistically embody the characters they areportraying. Additionally, the instructional designer must proscribe the exact details of thesetting; much like the playwright describes the scenery, the lighting, the audio effects,the curtain times, music, choreography, etc. The instructional designer also has to havea vision for what the the teacher will need to be equipped with in order to successfullyexecute the lesson (goals, learning styles, rationale, materials, timing, assessments,etc.). The playwright will also have to be sure that all of the contributors to the liveperformance (director, actors, orchestra, light and sound crew, backstage personnel)have their roles clearly delineated, objectives identified, and measures of successoutlined for them. And it doesn’t stop on “opening night” either. When the reviews comein, the playwright needs to take the constructive criticisms to heart, to revise, improveand streamline the performance. Instructional designers need to do the same with thefeedback they receive. There is no such thing as a “perfect performance.” Neither isthere a perfectly designed lesson... but it’s the pursuit of perfection that lies at the heartof instructional design. As I reflect upon analyzing the instructional design process, what sticks out first andforemost is the need to select and design relevant content for the learners. In order todo that, one must know the needs of the learners. An instructional designer also mustknow what, if anything, is needed to be designed and for what purpose. As Smith andRagan (2005) write “the purpose of a needs assessment is to determine that thereactually is a need for new instruction to be developed.” (p.43) When designing thisproject, I needed to determine what was currently being taught in the way of “howto construct a blog” and also if students already knew how to do this. The needs
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONassessment survey helped me tailor these lessons to the target audience in such a waythat it would be needed and relevant instruction for them. Other aspects of instructional design that I recall being particularly memorablewere the ID Case analysis and peer review forms. This activity, as it was an exercisein the application of instructional design theory, was most challenging in that wehad to diagnose and prescribe treatment for a situation we could only read about.The necessity for clear instructional principles and genuine needs assessment wascritical throughout this activity. In the peer review forums, clarity of purpose, logic andobjective was on display for my peers to analyze, question, seek clarifications from andsuggest improvements. This process acted as another “set of eyes” for me and was aninvaluable part of my understanding of the instructional design process. As I look to the future, I see myself designing individual lesson and unit plansmuch differently. As a result of the knowledge I have gained from this course, I seethe areas of course design that I have been ignorant of previously, or at the very least,taken for granted. The value of determining the needs of the learners, the setting,every exacting detail of the content progression, the goals established for the learners,the assessments, feedback, the connection to learning theories, learning styles andstudents motivation all are areas that I will include into my instructional preparation anddesign. ResourcesSmith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley & Sons.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON Part 1. TopicPart 1a. Goal statementWhen given access to an Internet connected computer, the learner will be able to create apersonal blog using Blogger.com and to post three entries on their blog in response to specificprompts for each.Part 1b. Audience descriptionThe target learning group will be high school freshman in a social studies class.Part 1c. RationaleNeed:The students of the 21st century will be faced with educational and career challenges thathave never been faced by previous generations. Technological change is occurring at an everincreasing pace. The development of educational applications of these emerging technologieswill require today’s learners to be facile in navigating and managing these new tools for learning.Creating a blog and being able to understand their uses and real world applications will ensurethat these learners will be able to access a fast growing source of information necessary for theeducational and professional lives.Supplantive/Generative:The project contains elements of both supplantive and generative strategies. Approximately60% of the project would fall under the heading of supplantive and 40% being generative. Asthe project would be categorized as a procedure (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 189) the activitiesinvolved for the learner are primarily supplantive; following a proscribed set of steps in aprocess that do not contain much variation, each step is fairly simple to complete and donesequentially. A few opportunities for periodic decision points allow learners to choose one oftwo paths are in order to continue on track to the overall objective represent the less numerousgenerative strategy.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONMajor Instructional Strategy:The major instructional strategy this project would be classified under is procedural. The projectinvolves presenting a well organized set of instructional steps for learners to follow to create ablog and demonstrate the procedures necessary to post three personal entries on the newlycreated blog. The project entails three main tasks, with several sub tasks embedded in them. Asdelineated in Smith and Ragan (2005), this project would be classified as a complex procedure.The instruction will guide the learner through a series of operational tasks, each building uponthe previous step. This requires the learner to: (1) determine if the situation requires the learnerto understand the reason for performing a certain task, (2) recall the steps in the procedure forthe project, (3) complete the steps in the creation of their blog with three postings of a specifiednature, and (4) analyze the blog and the postings to determine if it has been completedcorrectly. Part 2. Analysis ReportPart 2a. Description of the needPart 2a.1 Needs analysis surveyThe following needs assessment survey was completed by 30 students to collect data for theneeds analysis. (See Appendix A).Part 2a.2 Needs analysis data reportNeeds Assessment Survey report:The following link to a Google spreadsheet contains the results of the data collected in theneeds assessment survey. (See Appendix B).Needs assessment survey- McManamon
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONData Analysis Report:The survey revealed some very positive information regarding the attitudes of the learners.Most responded that they were comfortable with basic operational tasks involving an Internetconnected computer. Additionally, most respondents indicated that they have experienceusing Google email accounts, Google Docs and a high degree of confidence with the basicword processing functions of entering text, copying and pasting into another document. Mostresponded that they have a high degree of confidence in their reading skills. Most replied thatthey are comfortable with computer based applications and are motivated to learn new technicalskills. Data received that was not surprising given the ages of the learners (14 or 15), manyare not regular readers of blogs, few have created their own blog and only 3 respondents havecreated a blog using Blogger.com previously.Part 2b. Description of learning contextThe substantiation of the need for this project is categorized as the Innovation model (Smith& Ragan, 2005). The changing nature of the world, in technological terms, leaves students inthe 21st century faced with a choice. The choice is couched in terms of (a) Stay current withemerging forms of communication in order to remain a capable culturally, educationally andtechnologically literate citizen; or (b) Remain ignorant of emerging communications trendsthereby risking cultural, educational and technological literacy. The intent of this project is tomake students aware of the wide array of blogging applications, as well as the cultural andeducational significance for their futures. At the end of this project, students will understand thesteps necessary to create a blog and their functionality in the realm of modern communications.Another aspect of the Innovation model that this project addresses is the changing nature of thetechnological expectation of students. A part of the school district belief statement includes therequirement of educating students to be prepared members of the societies they will inhabit andto have mastered the skills necessary to adapt to changing technologies.The teacher conducting this project will be myself and colleagues that teach the same course.As a collaborative team of teachers of the same course, we all agree that student mastery of theobjectives contained in the project will meet the needs of our learners. As a group of teachers,we all embrace emerging technologies and seek to integrate them into our classroom practices.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONThe group of teachers all are technologically savvy and motivated to learn about and teach newcomputer based skills.There currently exists no defined curricula for this project. It does however, fall generally underthe technological skill expectation held by both the school and the district.Part 2b.1 Learning context descriptionThe learning context is as follows and hardware environment consists of the following:(a) An Internet connected Macintosh computer, connected to a projector in a classroomdesigned to hold 40 students or less. This is designated a the “teacher computer” used fordemonstration purposes. The Macintosh computer has the latest operating system installed.(b) A computer lab in the school’s library containing 60 Internet connected Macintoshcomputers. Theses are designated as “student use computers” and have the latest Macintoshoperating systems installed. One of the computers in the lab area is connected to a projector fordemonstration purposes should the need arise.Part 2b.2 Transfer context descriptionLearners will be able to transfer the communication skills they will use in this project.Organization of thoughts, suitable for publishing will also be transferable as social media isbecoming an ever increasing aspect of life in the 21st century. Additionally, students will be ableto transfer the elementary web design principles they encounter in the creation of their blogs(style, color scheme, fonts, etc.).Part 2c. Description of learnersThe learners for this project are high school freshman, ages roughly split 50/50 between 14or 15 years of age, equal proportions males to females in a public high school in a suburbSouthwest of Portland, OR. The classes mirror the demographics of the school, havingapproximately 1,800 students, which are : Hispanic 15%, Asian 7%, African American3%, Native American 1%, White 74%; 3.2% of students enrolled in ESL classes; a 93.2%attendance rate with a 93.7% graduation rate (from the 2009-2010 school year).The prior knowledge of the students regarding computer technologies indicate a high degreeof confidence of basic computer skills, well over 80% responded being comfortable or verycomfortable. Additionally, the students have experience with word processing and email login skills. The students surveyed indicate that less than a quarter have ever created a blogpreviously, but over three quarters indicated that are motivated or highly motivated to learn newtechnology based skills.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONPart 2d. Task analysis flowchartLink to Information Processing Chart
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON Part 3. PlanningPart 3a. List of instructional objectives1. When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will be able to turn on a computer. 1.1 When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will be able to locate and open an Internet browser on a networked computer. 1.2 When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will be able to enter a specified URL address (http://www.google.com) in a browser’s search bar.2. When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will sign in using a previouslycreated gmail account.3. When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will navigate to the mainBlogger.com page. 3.1 When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will create a name for a new blog on Blogger.com. 3.2. When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will create a unique URL for their blog on Blogger.com. 3.3 When given an Internet connected computer, the learner select a template for their blog on Blogger.com.4. When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will use Google Docs to create three(3) blog entries for their blog. 4.1 When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will use Google Docs to create blog entry #1 containing a one page personal reaction after watching the film, “Guns, Germs and Steel.” 4.2 When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will use Google Docs to create blog entry #2 containing a one page summary of an article provided them based upon the film, “Guns, Germs and Steel.” 4.3 When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will use Google Docs to create blog entry #3 containing a one page prediction of what condition the continent of Africa will be in 100 years from today after watching the film, “Guns, Germs and Steel.”
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON5. When given an Internet connected computer, the learner will use Google Docs to copy andpaste all three blog posts into their blog as three separate entries on their blog on Blogger.comPart 3b. Objectives matrix table Learning Bloom’s taxonomy classification Strategy to be employed to Type of Objectives teach the objective learning 1. Psychomotor- Imitation Supplantive Procedural 1.1 Cognitive- Knowledge; Supplantive Discrimination Psychomotor- Manipulation 1.2 Cognitive- Application; Supplantive Procedural Psychomotor- Manipulation 2. Cognitive- Application; Supplantive Procedural Psychomotor- Precision 3. Cognitive- Application; Supplantive Procedural Psychomotor- Precision 3.1 Cognitive- Application; Generative Conceptual Psychomotor- Articulation 3.2 Cognitive- Application; Generative Conceptual Psychomotor- Articulation 3.3 Cognitive- Application; Generative Discrimination Psychomotor- Naturalization 4. Cognitive- Synthesis; Supplantive Procedural Psychomotor- Articulation 4.1 Cognitive- Synthesis; Generative Procedural Psychomotor- Articulation 4.2 Cognitive- Synthesis; Generative Procedural Psychomotor- Articulation 4.3 Cognitive- Synthesis; Generative Procedural Psychomotor- Articulation 5. Cognitive- Synthesis; Supplantive Procedural Psychomotor- NaturalizationPart 3c. ARCS table
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONATTENTIONA.1 Perceptual Arousal>Gain the students attention through the use of music- specifically, playing music for a shortspan (90 seconds) then fading the music out in just a few seconds.A2. Inquiry Arousal>Begin a discussion by asking the following question: “How would you like to apply a newtechnology to help you and your classmates learn about this content?”A3. Variability>Ask random students to suggest possible ways how new technologies might help them andtheir peers? Solicit answers.RELEVANCER1. Goal orientation>Introduce the learning objective- to create a personal blog on Blogger.com and make threepostings related to what they have learned from the movie “Guns, Germs and Steel.”R2. Motive matching>The teacher will introduce the blogging website Blogger.com to the class using an Internetconnected computer and a projector. Subsequently, the teacher will explain each lessonobjective they will complete and the order in which they will be completed.R3. Familiarity>The teacher will make available to the students the task list they will use to complete thelesson objectives.Teacher will compare written assignments that students are familiar with and then explain howblog posts are similar to homework but that that peers can read it, comment on it, share ideas,help peers better understand content and that blogs act as record they can review at any time.CONFIDENCEC1. Learning requirements>The teacher will provide a grading rubric for the lesson objectives.The teacher will then proceed to teach each progressive step in the computer lab.C2. Success opportunities>Teacher will monitor learners as they complete each objective. Provide positive feedbackwhen appropriate/ remediate and redirect as necessary.C3. Personal control>The students will have the freedom to select the theme, layout, colors etc. of their blog.Given the universal access that the online environment affords, students can access and updatetheir blog after school hours if so motivated.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONSATISFACTIONS1. Natural consequences>Students will see the evidence of their newly acquired skills as their blog is built.Encouragement will be given to them to “advertise” its existence by alerting friends andfamily members.S2. Positive consequences>Students will experience the sensation of “being published” as their thoughts and opinionsare accessible to anyone on the Internet.S3. Equity> Teacher feedback during the creation of their blogs will be given and also via email oncetheir blog is published.Keller, J.M. (1987). The systematic process of motivational design. Performance & Instruction,26 (9/10), 1-8.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON Part 4. Instructor guide 1. Day 1- First class period: Introduction (5-7 minutes) a. Gain attention- The instructor will have pre-selected music playing (school appropriate, for example: Jack Johnson, “Staple It Together”). Then quickly fade the music off to gain their attention. b. Arouse interest and motivation- Begin by asking students, “Would you would like to learn about a new technology that would help them to learn the content they are studying in a new way?” Ask the learners for possible technologies that could accomplish this goal. c. Inform learners of purpose- The instructor will inform the learners of the task they will be asked to accomplish- “To create their own personal blog and create three postings in reaction to the film Guns, Germs and Steel.” d. Provide overview- i. The instructor will explain the steps that will be accomplished over the next three class periods in the computer lab: learn what a blog is and how it functions, create their own blog, create three entries on their blog using Google Docs, and post those entries on their blog. ii. The instructor will make available a task list for the learners. iii. The instructor will inform the learners of the fact that writing personal reflections will help them to better understand the content and teach them how to use a tool for future learning in other curricular areas. 2. Days 1 and 2: Body (180 minutes/ 2 blocks of 90 minute classes) a. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge- Ask the students if they have ever read a journal or a series of diary entries. Ask them why they recall reading those journal entries and/or why the were memorable. Establish the power that writing has when conducted from a personal viewpoint, both for the reader and the writer. Explain that creating a blog and posting entries on their blog is similar to journal writing. Establish the analogy of the journal (the vehicle) to the new skill to be learned, blogging (the topic). b. Present information and examples- Use the Information Task Analysis flowchart to explain the specific steps each learner will take to complete this task. Use an Internet connected computer and a projector in the computer lab to demonstrate the following steps: i. Locate and open an Internet browser. ii. Navigate to www.google.com. iii. Sign in using a previously created Google account (or school provided Google supported account). iv. Navigate to www.blogger.com. v. Create a new blog on Blogger.com. vi. Create a unique URL for their blog on Blogger.com. vii. Select a template for their blog on Blogger.com.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON viii. Navigate to Google Docs and create three (3) individual word documents that satisfy the following requirements: 1. A one page personal reaction to the film “Guns, Germs and Steel.” 2. A one page summary of an article given to them based upon the film “Guns, Germs and Steel.” 3. A one page personal prediction of what the status of he continent of Africa will be one hundred years in the future as a result of watching the film, “Guns, Germs and Steel.” ix. Use the “edit, copy and paste” function in Google Docs to create three blog entries on their log on Blogger.com. c. Focus attention- Ask the learners if they have any procedural questions at this point. Remind them of the three web pages they will use in this task (Google, Blogger.com and Google Docs). d. Employ learning strategies- Encourage learners to refer to the task list and any individual notes they may have taken during the Information Presentation. The instructor will point out the ordered steps they need to accomplish that are contained on the task list. e. Practice- The instructor will signal that it time for the learners to begin creating their own personal blogs on Blogger.com. They are to complete the following tasks: i. Locate a web browser. ii. Navigate to Google.com. iii. Log in to Google account. iv. Navigate to Blogger.com v. Create new blog. vi. Create URL. vii. Select template. viii. Create three (3) blog entries in Google Docs. ix. Upload three (3) blog posts on own blog. f. Evaluate feedback- Instructor will circulate around the computer lab to assess individual progress and provide assistance as needed. 3. Day 2 (or 3 if needed) Conclusion (20 minutes). a. Summarize and review- To provide a summary and review of the tasks assigned and skills learned by the students, the instructor will repeat the steps of creating a new blog on Blogger.com. The new blog will be named/dedicated for that particular class period. The instructor will ask individual students to correctly identify the sequential steps and correct decisions needed to create the class blog. The blog entries are a list of the steps needed to create a blog, accomplished by learners providing the information for the teacher to post on the class blog as another form of summary and review. b. Transfer learning- In order to transfer learning to other curricular areas, the teacher will elicit suggestions from the students as to what other uses their blog could have to improve learning. Suggestions could be made such as a forum
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON to discuss mathematics concepts; a learning log for science classes; a place to publish their own writing, poetry or literary criticisms; or a forum to discuss current events, etc. c. Remotivate and close-To signal that the lesson is concluded, the instructor will play the same music used to gain the learners attention at the beginning of the lesson. After 90 seconds or so, quickly fade the music out and gain their attention. Indicate that the lesson is concluded and that you, as the instructor, are excited to view their blogs and read their postings. d. Assess learning- The instructor will then assess the learner’s blogs to establish if they have mastered the skills and appropriately posted to their blogs the required content. e. Provide feedback and remediation- Feedback can be given to the learners on their blogs in the form comments. Each student can be given direct and timely feedback from the instructor on the status if their blog (layout, name, theme, etc.) and also be given feedback on the quality of their posting (including a rubric score for each blog post). Any needed remediation can be given in the comments left by the instructor.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON Part 5. Learner contentPart 5a. Learning materialsLearning Material Purpose and Specified ApplicationTask List (see Appendix C) To give the students a sequential list of the necessary tasks for this project. A list of the required components of this project. To be given to the learners while the instructor conducts the Introduction phase of the lesson.Task Analysis Flowchart To give the students a visual list of the necessary tasks for this project. A list of the required components of this project. To be given to the learners while the instructor conducts the Introduction phase of the lesson.Guns, Germs and Steel Extension article (see This is an article created by the publisher ofAppendix F) the video series “Guns, Germs and Steel.” This will be given to them during the practice phase of the lesson, after they have viewed the film and created their blog.Instructor Guide Given to the instructor.Part 5b. Assessment materialsAssessment materials Purpose and Specified ApplicationWriting Rubric (see Appendix D) In order to alert the learners as to how their blog postings will be assessed. To be given to them during the practice phase of the body of the lesson, after they have created their own blog.Task assessment list (See Appendix E) Used to evaluate the learner’s task accomplishments.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONPart 5c. Technology tool justificationTechnology Tools RationaleInternet connected computer with projector Necessary for instructor demonstration.Internet connected computer lab Necessary for students to complete taskssGoogle.com Used for logging into Gmail supported school district provided Google account. Provides access to Blogger.com and Google Docs for the drafting, editing, remote access and storage of documents that will be posted on blog.Blogger.com Web based blogging platform.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON Part 6. Formative evaluation planPart 6a. Expert reviewThe SME I will access for this project will be Jill Hubbard, the web design instructor at my highschool.Part 6b. One-to-one evaluationThis project is to be carried out individually so I will assemble a few (five or less) students thatrepresent the spectrum of learners in my classes. They objective is to find any obvious errorsin the materials presented (an introductory presentation using Google docs, task list, gradingrubric, or supplemental material posted on my class web page for remediation), to check fortask comprehension, for clarity of the instructions/directions and to record any informal feedbackor utterances from students as they attempt the tasks (“I don’t see where I’m supposed to log in”etc.). Since this is a “procedural” task, questions will be asked regarding the clarity and logic ofthe steps involved in creating their blog and the separate entries.Part 6c. Small group evaluationBased upon the feedback from the on-to-one evaluations and revisions made, the small groupevaluation will be conducted with a group of ten students in a computer lab. This evaluationwill be conducted synchronously with this small group. This evaluation will seek to ascertain ifthe time allotted is sufficient to complete the blog and the three entries. Also, the small groupevaluation seeks to determine if the learners skills are at the appropriate level to complete theassignment. Another important part of the small group evaluation is to determine the pace ofthe tasks are too slow or fast for this representative group. Additionally, an important objectiveof the small group evaluation is what are the attitudes of the learners were while attempting tocreate their blogs. I would hope to find any areas of frustration with the website the studentsmay have. Finally, were the instructions clear and the steps logically placed for students tofollow?Part 6d. Field trailThe field trial will be conducted with an entire class, normally between 30-35 students rangingin academic standing. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if the revisions from theprevious to stages (one-to-one and small group evaluations) were effective and to determineany possible problems in carrying out this project in different locations (eg. varying computer labconditions). During the field trial evaluation, the designer will try to determine if the blogs can becreated as planned. Also, the designer may make any alterations to the administrative tasks thatneed to be made in order to most effectively lead a group of learners of this size.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON Part 7. Formative evaluation reportPart 7a. Evaluation surveyThe SME I will access for this project will be Jill Hubbard. I will ask her to evaluate the following: 1. Are the objectives clearly stated for both the learners and the instructor to follow? 2. Is the task analysis flowchart an accurate representation of the process? 3. Are the objectives listed in a logical and sequential format? Are any steps missing? 4. Does this project provide clear and sufficient guidance for the learners to accomplish the objectives? 5. Does she have any suggested alterations, additions or changes she would perceive to be necessary?Part 7b. Report of expert reviewAfter reviewing the material, my SME, Ms. Hubbard was very positive about the constructionof the project. She felt that the timeline was realistic and the goals were appropriate for thelearners. She was enlightened by some of the survey results (particularly the gulf between highpercentages of respondents frequent Internet use and low numbers of blogs being previouslycreated). In her opinion, having taught web design classes and used many web basedapplications with this age group, she was very complimentary regarding the lesson progressionin which the instructor models for the students how to navigate the web sites required for thisproject. She provided me with a valuable suggestion to include into the teacher’s materials amessage for learners to be wary about “Internet safety” for not only this project but in their otherInternet activities (social networks, mobile phones, etc.). She also provided a suggestion toinclude information for the students to learn about the value of commenting on other’s blogs(and having comments posted on theirs as well). Additionally, she suggested they investigatethe functions of wikis as another forum for collaborative learning.Part 7c. Designer’s response to reviewIn response to the feedback from my SME I will revise my teacher instructions to include astatement about Internet safety suggestions and guidelines for teenagers. The ease of postingsomething on the Internet coupled with the permanence it can be associated to someone isvitally important to remember.I will also choose to have a blog created that explains the steps associated with this lesson soas to make instructions and examples available to the students while away from school. Part 8. AECT Standards gridProfessional Standards Addressed (AECT)The following standards, developed by the Association for Educational Communications andTechnology (AECT), and used in the accreditation process established by the National Council
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONfor Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), are addressed to some degree in this course.The numbers of the standards correspond to the numbers next to the course tasks show on thelist of assignments. Not all standards are addressed explicitly through student work. AECT STANDARDS1.0 Design1.1 Instructional Systems Design1.1.a Utilize and implement design principles which specify optimal conditions for learning.1.1.b Identify a variety of instructional systems design models and apply at least one model.1.1.1 Analyzing1.1.1.a Write appropriate objectives for specific content and outcome levels.1.1.1.b Analyze instructional tasks, content, and context.1.1.2 Designing1.1.2.a Create a plan for a topic of a content area (e.g., a thematic unit, a text chapter, aninterdisciplinary unit) to demonstrate application of the principles of macro-level design.1.1.2.b Create instructional plans (micro-level design) that address the needs of all learners,including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.1.1.2.d Incorporate contemporary instructional technology processes in the development ofinteractive lessons that promote student learning.1.1.3 Developing1.1.3.a Produce instructional materials which require the use of multiple media (e.g., computers,video, projection).1.1.3.b Demonstrate personal skill development with at least one: computer authoringapplication, video tool, or electronic communication application.1.1.4 Implementing1.1.4.a Use instructional plans and materials which they have produced in contextualizedinstructional settings (e.g., practica, field experiences, training) that address the needs of alllearners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.1.1.5 Evaluating1.1.5.a Utilize a variety of assessment measures to determine the adequacy of learning andinstruction.1.1.5.b Demonstrate the use of formative and summative evaluation within practice andcontextualized field experiences.1.1.5.c Demonstrate congruency among goals/objectives, instructional strategies, andassessment measures.1.3 Instructional Strategies1.3.a Select instructional strategies appropriate for a variety of learner characteristics andlearning situations.1.3.b Identify at least one instructional model and demonstrate appropriate contextualizedapplication within practice and field experiences.1.3.c Analyze their selection of instructional strategies and/or models as influenced by thelearning situation, nature of the specific content, and type of learner objective.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON1.3.d Select motivational strategies appropriate for the target learners, task, and learningsituation.1.4 Learner Characteristics1.4.a Identify a broad range of observed and hypothetical learner characteristics for theirparticular area(s) of preparation.1.4.b Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the selection ofinstructional strategies.1.4.c Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence theimplementation of instructional strategies.2.0 Development2.0.1 Select appropriate media to produce effective learning environments using technologyresources.2.0.2 Use appropriate analog and digital productivity tools to develop instructional andprofessional products.2.0.3 Apply instructional design principles to select appropriate technological tools for thedevelopment of instructional and professional products.2.0.4 Apply appropriate learning and psychological theories to the selection of appropriatetechnological tools and to the development of instructional and professional products.2.0.5 Apply appropriate evaluation strategies and techniques for assessing effectiveness ofinstructional and professional products.2.0.6 Use the results of evaluation methods and techniques to revise and update instructionaland professional products.2.0.7 Contribute to a professional portfolio by developing and selecting a variety of productionsfor inclusion in the portfolio.2.1 Print Technologies2.1.3 Use presentation application software to produce presentations and supplementarymaterials for instructional and professional purposes.2.1.4 Produce instructional and professional products using various aspects of integratedapplication programs.2.3 Computer-Based Technologies2.3.2 Design, produce, and use digital information with computer-based technologies.3.0 Utilization3.1 Media Utilization3.1.1 Identify key factors in selecting and using technologies appropriate for learning situationsspecified in the instructional design process.3.1.2 Use educational communications and instructional technology (SMETS) resources in avariety of learning contexts.3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization3.3.1 Use appropriate instructional materials and strategies in various learning contexts.3.3.2 Identify and apply techniques for integrating SMETS innovations in various learningcontexts.3.3.3 Identify strategies to maintain use after initial adoption.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON4.0 Management (none specifically addressed in 503)5.0 Evaluation5.1 Problem Analysis5.1.1 Identify and apply problem analysis skills in appropriate school media and educationaltechnology (SMET) contexts (e.g., conduct needs assessments, identify and define problems,identify constraints, identify resources, define learner characteristics, define goals andobjectives in instructional systems design, media development and utilization, programmanagement, and evaluation).5.2 Criterion-referenced Measurement5.2.1 Develop and apply criterion-referenced measures in a variety of SMET contexts.5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation5.3.1 Develop and apply formative and summative evaluation strategies in a variety of SMETcontexts.SMET = School Media & Educational Technologies
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON APPENDIX ANeeds assessment surveyPlease provide the following information:Age:__________ Grade in school:___________ Gender: MALE FEMALE1) On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being not comfortable at all, 5 being very comfortable) describe yourabilities to independently operate a computer and to navigate on the Internet. 1 2 3 4 52) Do you regularly read any blogs?YES NO3) Have you ever created your own blog?YES NO4) Have you ever created your own blog on Blogger.com?YES NO5) Have you created a blog using any other website?YES NO (if “NO” skip to question #7)6) If “YES”, please identify from the following options: WordPress TextPattern Moveable Type Serendipity LifeType Other (please specify):7) I see myself creating a blog sometime in the next school year.YES NO8) I think that using a blog as an extension of a class at school would help me better understandcourse content.YES NO9) I would predict that having other students view my blog entries and leave comments wouldhelp me better understand course content.YES NO10) Do you have a gmail or gmail supported email account?YES NO
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON11) Have you ever used Google docs to create word documents before?YES NO12) Have you successfully utilized the “copy and paste” functions of a word processor before?YES NO13) On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being not confident at all, 5 being very confident) How confident areyou in your reading skills? 1 2 3 4 514) On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being not comfortable at all, 5 being very comfortable) describe yourcomfort level with computer based applications. 1 2 3 4 515) On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being not motivated at all, 5 being very motivated) describe yourgeneral attitude toward learning new technology based skills. 1 2 3 4 5
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON APPENDIX BNeeds assessment survey -resultsPlease provide the following information:Age:__________ Grade in school:___________ Gender: MALE FEMALE1) On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being not comfortable at all, 5 being very comfortable) describe yourabilities to independently operate a computer and to navigate on the Internet. 1 2 3 4 5 x x 5 10 152) Do you regularly read any blogs?YES 5 NO 253) Have you ever created your own blog?YES 7 NO 234) Have you ever created your own blog on Blogger.com?YES 3 NO 275) Have you created a blog using any other website?YES 6 NO 24 (if “NO” skip to question #7)6) If “YES”, please identify from the following options: WordPress: 2 TextPattern Moveable Type Serendipity LifeType Other (please specify): 47) I see myself creating a blog sometime in the next school year.YES 9 NO 218) I think that using a blog as an extension of a class at school would help me better understandcourse content.YES 14 NO 169) I would predict that having other students view my blog entries and leave comments wouldhelp me better understand course content.YES 10 NO 20
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON10) Do you have a gmail or gmail supported email account?YES 22 NO 811) Have you ever used Google docs to create word documents before?YES 29 NO 112) Have you successfully utilized the “copy and paste” functions of a word processor before?YES 27 NO 313) On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being not confident at all, 5 being very confident) How confident areyou in your reading skills? 1 2 3 4 5 x 1 7 11 1114) On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being not comfortable at all, 5 being very comfortable) describe yourcomfort level with computer based applications. 1 2 3 4 5 x 2 5 13 1015) On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being not motivated at all, 5 being very motivated) describe yourgeneral attitude toward learning new technology based skills. 1 2 3 4 5 x 1 6 15 8
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON APPENDIX CTask List Creating a Personal Blog 1. Turn on the computer and log in to the school network. 2. Open an Internet browser. 3. Navigate to www.google.com. 4. Sign into your TTSD gmail supported school email account. 5. Navigate to www.blogger.com. 6. Create a name for a new blog on Blogger.com. 7. Create a unique URL for your blog on Blogger.com. 8. Select a template for your blog on Blogger.com. 9. Navigate to your Google docs account and create the following: a. A one page personal reaction to the film, “Guns, Germs and Steel.” b. A one page summary of the supplemental article given you related to the film, “Guns, Germs and Steel.” c. A one page prediction of your vision of the continent of Africa 100 years from today based on watching the film, “Guns, Germs and Steel.” 10. Be sure to separately name, edit and spell check each one of your Google documents that will be posted on your blog. 11. Edit, copy and paste each of your Google documents as a separate blog posting on your blog on Blogger.com.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON APPENDIX DWriting Rubric AssessmentWriting Rubric for assignment #1: “Write a one page personal reaction to the film, “Guns,Germs Steel.” 5 3 1 Personal The writer includes The writer includes The writer includes only connection four or more personal two or three personal one personal reaction/ reactions/connection to reactions/connection to connection to the the content of the film. the content of the film. content of the film. Organization The posting is highly The posting has some The posting lacks organized and is very organized structure. organization and is easy to follow. difficult to follow. Conventions The posting is free of The posting contains The posting has many errors or contains very a some errors in errors of conventions few that do not impede conventions but overall and the effect is the reader. does not impede the that the paper is reader. unreadable. Length of The posting is more than The posting is one page The posting is less that paper one page in length. in length. one page in length.Writing Rubric for assignment #2: “Write a one page personal summary of the articlerelated to the film, “Guns, Germs Steel.” 5 3 1 Summary The writer includes an The writer includes a The writer does not excellent summary of predictable summary summarize the main the article. Insight is of the article. Only ideas of the article. present into the intent of minimal effort is made Little understanding of the original article and to draw new insight the article is obvious. connections are made to into the content of the the content. article. Organization The posting is highly The posting has some The posting lacks organized and is very organized structure. organization and is
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON easy to follow. difficult to follow. Conventions The posting is free of The posting contains The posting has many errors or contains very a some errors in errors of conventions few that do not impede conventions but overall and the effect is the reader. does not impede the that the paper is reader. unreadable. Length of The posting is more than The posting is one The posting is less that paper one page in length. page in length. one page in length.Writing Rubric for assignment #3: “Write a one page prediction of where you envision thecontinent of Africa 100 years in the future after watching the film, “Guns, Germs Steel.” 5 3 1 Prediction The writer includes The writer includes a The writer does not an insightful and well cursory prediction. Little include a prediction or argued prediction. support is evident. the prediction lacks any sense of probability. Organization The posting is highly The posting has some The posting lacks organized and is very organized structure. organization and is easy to follow. difficult to follow. Conventions The posting is free The posting contains The posting has many of errors or contains a some errors in errors of conventions very few that do not conventions but overall and the effect is that the impede the reader. does not impede the paper is unreadable. reader. Length of The posting is more The posting is one page The posting is less that paper than one page in in length. one page in length. length. APPENDIX ETask List Check off TASK YES NO
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONWas the student able to power the computer on?Was the student able to open an Internet browser?Was the student able to navigate to www.google.com?Was the student to sign into their student email account?Was the student navigate to www.blogger.com?Was the student able to create a new name for their blog?Was the student to create a unique URL for their blog?Was the student to select a template for their blog?Was the student to create three (3) word documents in Google Docs?Was the student post three (3) separate blog entries on their blog by edit,copying and pasting their documents from Google Docs?
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMON APPENDIX FGuns, Germs and Steel readingThe Story Of... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian GermsFrom: http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.htmlMuch of the credit for European military success in the New World can be handed to the superiority oftheir weapons, their literary heritage, even the fact they had unique load-bearing mammals, like horses.These factors combined, gave the conquistadors a massive advantage over the sophisticated civilizationsof the Aztec and Inca empires.But weapons alone cant account for the breathtaking speed with which the indigenous population of theNew World were completely wiped out.Within just a few generations, the continents of the Americas were virtually emptied of their nativeinhabitants – some academics estimate that approximately 20 million people may have died in the yearsfollowing the European invasion – up to 95% of the population of the Americas.No medieval force, no matter how bloodthirsty, could have achieved such enormous levels of genocide.Instead, Europeans were aided by a deadly secret weapon they werent even aware they were carrying:Smallpox.Smallpox is a viral infection which usually enters the body through the nose or throat. From here the virustravels to the lungs, where it multiplies and spreads to the lymphatic system. Within a few days, largepustules begin to appear all over the victims skin.Starting with the hands and the face, and then spreading to cover the rest of the body, each blisteris packed full of smallpox DNA. If punctured, these blisters become highly infectious, projecting freshsmallpox particles into the air and onto surrounding surfaces -such as someone elses skin. It is a diseasethat requires close human contact to replicate and survive.The total incubation period lasts 12 days, at which point the patient will will either have died or survived.But throughout that period, if gone unchecked, they may have passed the disease to an enormousnumber of people. But the disease requires close human contact to replicate and survive.Smallpox is a remarkably effective, and remarkably stable, infection – research has shown that over thecourse of 10 years, as few as three individual bases may change in a strains DNA. The disease found aneffective formula thousands of years ago, and theres no reason to change it.So where does this deadly disease come from, and why was it linked to Europeans?For thousands of years, the people of Eurasia lived in close proximity to the largestvariety of domesticated mammals in the world – eating, drinking, and breathing in the germs theseanimals bore. Over time, animal infections crossed species, evolving into new strains which becamedeadly to man. Diseases like smallpox, influenza and measles were in fact the deadly inheritance of theEurasian farming tradition – the product of thousands of years spent farming livestock.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONThese epidemic Eurasian diseases flourished in dense communities and tended to explode in sudden,overwhelming spates of infection and death. Transmitted via coughing, sneezing and tactile infection,they wreaked devastation throughout Eurasian history – and in the era before antibiotics, thousands died.But not everyone.With each epidemic eruption, some people survived, acquiring antibodies and immunities which theypassed on to the next generation. Over time, the population of Europe gained increased immunity, andthe devastating impact of traditional infections decreased.Yet the people of the New World had no history of prior exposure to these germs. They farmed onlyone large mammal – the llama – and even this was geographically isolated. The llama was never keptindoors, it wasnt milked and only occasionally eaten – so the people of the New World were not troubledby cross-species viral infection.When the Europeans arrived, carrying germs which thrived in dense, semi-urban populations, theindigenous people of the Americas were effectively doomed. They had never experienced smallpox,measles or flu before, and the viruses tore through the continent, killing an estimated 90% of NativeAmericans.Smallpox is believed to have arrived in the Americas in 1520 on a Spanish ship sailing from Cuba, carriedby an infected African slave. As soon as the party landed in Mexico, the infection began its deadly voyagethrough the continent. Even before the arrival of Pizarro, smallpox had already devastated the IncaEmpire, killing the Emperor Huayna Capac and unleashing a bitter civil war that distracted and weakenedhis successor, Atahuallpa.In the era of global conquest which followed, European colonizers were assisted around the world by thegerms which they carried. A 1713 smallpox epidemic in the Cape of Good Hope decimated the SouthAfrican Khoi San people, rendering them incapable of resisting the process of colonization. Europeangerms also wreaked devastation on the aboriginal communities of Australia and New Zealand.More victims of colonization were killed by Eurasian germs, than by either the gun or the sword, makinggerms the deadliest agent of conquest.The Story Of... Malaria – and other Deadly Tropical GermsFrom: http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/malaria.htmlThe role that germs have played in history, is not confined to those that originated in the temperate partsof the world. As anyone who has ever travelled into the tropics will know, this region is also plagued byinfection.The viruses found in the cooler parts of the planet have evolved to benefit from seasonal variationsin temperature. Influenza is one such virus, which thrives during the winter, when humans are forcedtogether into confined spaces. Tropical diseases are luckier: they thrive year-round in the heat and
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONhumidity of their region. These diseases exist at a fairly constant level, and are therefore known asendemic.A virus such as influenza is one of the simplest biological organisms on earth – its little more than a strainof DNA. The parasites responsible for endemic tropical germs, however, are far more complex – theyare tiny animals which are born and multiply inside the metabolic system of another creature. Parasitesresponsible for some of the nastiest diseases of the tropical world include trypanosomiasis (sleepingsickness), schistosomiasis ( blood flukes), parasitic worms and, most deadly of all, malaria.Malaria-carrying mosquitos require temperatures of more than 68 degrees Fahrenheit, which is whymalaria-carrying mosquitoes are only found in tropical parts of the world. Endemic throughout tropicalAfrica and other parts of the tropical world, particularly Papua New Guinea – malaria is responsible formore deaths every year than any other infectious disease. Malaria kills one African child every thirtyseconds and accounts for over a million deaths a year around the world.Malarial mosquitoes inject tiny parasites into the blood of their victim. The parasites head for the liver,where they multiply and then explode into the blood. As they invade healthy red blood cells they generatea sticky glue on the outer surface which forces the blood to stick to the sides of capillaries and arteries.Instead of a healthy flow of fresh oxygen-carrying blood around the body, malaria causes anemia andorgan malfunction through iron and oxygen deprivation. In the most serious cases – if it affects theblood supply to vital organs of the body, like the liver, heart or brain – the disease can be fatal. Cerebralmalaria is the name given to the most serious manifestation of the disease, where patients slip into comabecause the blood supplying their brain has become too sticky.The name malaria, meaning bad air, was coined during the colonial era to describe a disease thatstruck without warning and without discrimination. This single disease was the most serious obstacleto European conquest of the tropical world, responsible for thousands of settler deaths throughout theeighteenth and nineteenth centuries.Yet, mysteriously, the immigrants African neighbors seemed to survive. Cattle and horses imported fromEurope also seemed to drop dead as soon as they entered the Tropics. So what allowed African cattle, aswell as their owners, to survive these tropical germs?The answer was simple evolution.Over centuries of exposure to parasitic infections like malaria and sleeping sickness, tropical Africans andthe livestock they bred had developed degrees of resistance – and even immunity in some cases.The African way of life was designed to avoid mosquito-borne infection. Africans made their homes inhigh, dry areas when they could, away from the natural habitat of the mosquito. Also, African communitiesremained fairly small, which limited the level of disease transmission.Unfortunately, the arrival of colonizing Europeans, with their steam trains, machine guns and dreamsof industrial wealth, wreaked terrible damage on these centuries-old mechanisms of survival. Tornfrom their villages, forced to live and work together in massive numbers and in unsanitary conditions,tropical Africans fell ill as never before. The scourge of malaria throughout Africa today is, in part, theconsequence of the destruction of a way of life which had existed for thousands of years.
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT- McMANAMONToday, malaria is holding back progress on the continent of Africa. Besides killing millions of childrenunder five, higher rates of transmission mean that adults now also become sick and suffer debilitation.This cripples economic productivity and traps the population in a cycle of poverty. In spite of a literacyrate of 80%, the tropical nation of Zambia has 10% child mortality and one of the poorest economies inthe world – its no coincidence that most Zambians are infected by malaria at least five times a year.But there is hope. Malaria is treatable – and even eradicable. New drugs offer the hope of cheapvaccination for the most vulnerable in society, while education programs aim to rid the tropical world ofthe scourge of mosquitoes. Simple measures, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, can havea dramatic effect. In the 1950s, the World Health Organization instituted a global malaria eradicationprogram, and succeeded in ridding the disease from large parts of the tropical world.Most significantly, the islands of Singapore and Thailand were liberated from the disease and have sinceseen massive economic benefits. Today, Singapore is among the richest nations in the world, provingthat the obstacle of tropical germs is not insurmountable.