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KM Middle East 2012 - Gurteen Seminar
 

KM Middle East 2012 - Gurteen Seminar

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David Gurteen's seminar at KM Middle East 2012

David Gurteen's seminar at KM Middle East 2012

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    KM Middle East 2012 - Gurteen Seminar KM Middle East 2012 - Gurteen Seminar Document Transcript

    • The kind of conversation I’m interested in is one in which you start with awillingness to emerge a slightly different person. Theodore Zeldin Conversation Theodore is an Oxford Historian Conversation Your most powerful KM tool Outline of the seminar • Knowledge Cafe Process • Other Conversational Cafes • Coffee • KCafe Applications • Adapting the KCafe • Getting buy-in • Capturing Outcomes • Coffee • Tips & Techniques • Cultural considerations • Informal Conversationwww.km-me.com 1 info@km-me.com
    • Gurteen Knowledge Café Process What is a Gurteen Knowledge Café? • A Gurteen Knowledge Café brings a group of people together to have an open, creative conversation on a topic of mutual interest. • To surface their collective knowledge, to share ideas and to gain a deeper understanding of the issues involved. • Leading to action in the form of better decision making & innovation & thus tangible outcomes. What resources are needed? • Not a lot! • A group of 20 – 30 people • A speaker and a facilitator • A room or other venue • Tables & chairs to seat 4 or 5 people per tablewww.km-me.com 2 info@km-me.com
    • What do you need in the room? • Unthreatening and hospitable environment • Good ambience, small cosy, good acoustics • Small round tables and 4 – 5 chairs • Optional: paper table cloths, felt tip pens, toys • NO flip charts • Refreshments What’s the process? • Speaker makes a short presentation 5 – 10 mins • Poses a trigger question • Small group conversations at tables • Three rounds 10 – 15 mins • Whole group conversation in a circle 15 mins • Share actionable insights 15 mins • Two hours in total What subjects are covered? • Any subject can be addressed • Explore questions that matter to the participants • Explore only one theme & questionwww.km-me.com 3 info@km-me.com
    • What’s the role of the facilitator? • Need not be a specialist • Should not take a lead in the discussions • Wander around and listen into the groups • Resolve any issues What’s the role of the participants? • To be prepared to emerge a slightly different person • To listen more than speak • To welcome differences • To withhold judgment • To avoid position taking How do things work in small groups? • No leader or chairperson • No reporting back • Everyone is equal • No group note taker • Can make own noteswww.km-me.com 4 info@km-me.com
    • How does the large group sit? • In a circle • Takes 2 minutes to move chairs • Facilitator & speaker sit in circle • Everyone can see & hear each other & are equal How does the circle work? • Group talks, minimal intervention from facilitator • No reporting back • Facilitator may need to encourage participation • Facilitator gently ensures that no one person or group dominates the discussion • Connects diverse perspectives Sharing actionable insights • Facilitator goes around the circle • Each person in turn shares something • A thought, an idea, an insight, something learnt • Preferably an action • OK to passwww.km-me.com 5 info@km-me.com
    • What are the outcomes? • Outcomes are what you take away in your head • Deeper understanding of the issues discussed • Deeper insight into other people’s perspectives • Better appreciation of your own point of view • Position to make more informed decisions • Improved relationships Café Principles • Relaxed, non-threatening, open conversation • Close to a pub or café conversation • No manipulation; no hidden agendas • Everyone equal; no table leaders; no reporting back • No one forced to do anything – OK to just listen • Trust people to talk about what is important to them • OK to go off-topic • No summarization or attempt to reach consensus • No capture of outcomes; no flip charts in the room The Café is NOT about • Making decisions • Gaining consensus • Capturing stuff • Making plans • Manipulating people in some waywww.km-me.com 6 info@km-me.com
    • What is special about the Café ? • No explicit or hidden agendas • No command and control • No desired outcomes • No push for consensus • OK to go off topic • Freedom to speak your mind Questions and Discussion Conversational Caféswww.km-me.com 7 info@km-me.com
    • Different Types of Café • Traditional Knowledge Café • World Café • Gurteen Knowledge Café • Other conversational tools Conversational Cafés • A conversational café is a simple process for bringing a group of people together to have open conversations about a topic of mutual interest with a specific business purpose in mind • Examples – World Café – Knowledge Cafés – Gurteen Knowledge Cafés Conversational Cafés • Knowledge Cafés • Knowledge Jams • Peer Assists, After Action Reviews, Retrospects • Anecdote Circles • Ritual Dissent • Reverse Brainstorm • Open Space Technology • Unconference, unworkshop and Barcamps • Conversation Dinners and Walkswww.km-me.com 8 info@km-me.com
    • Traditional Knowledge Cafe Traditional Knowledge Cafe • Leaders appointed at tables • Leaders report back • Stuff captured • Facilitator tends to be more controlling • No sharing circle • Facilitator tries to summarise • Attempt to reach consensus World Cafewww.km-me.com 9 info@km-me.com
    • World Café The World Café is a methodology for hosting conversations about questions that matter. These conversations link and build on each other as people move between groups, cross-pollinate ideas, and discover new insights into the questions or issues that are most important in their life, work, or community. How is the Gurteen Knowledge Café different from the World Café? • World Café 1995; Knowledge Café 2002 • More business oriented • Usually shorter • For smaller numbers of people • No table leaders • No reporting back • No capture • Less preparation required • Paper & pens on tables optional • Possibly less controlling World Café Principles 1. Set the Context 2. Create Hospitable Space 3. Explore Questions that Matter 4. Encourage Everyones Contribution 5. Connect Diverse Perspectives 6. Listen together for Patterns and Insights 7. Share Collective Discoverieswww.km-me.com 10 info@km-me.com
    • Resources: World Cafe • Website – http://www.theworldcafe.com/ • Community – http://www.theworldcafecommunity.org/ • Book – http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1576752585 Open Space Technology Open Space Technology Open Space Technology (OST) is an approach for hosting meetings, conferences, corporate-style retreats and community summit events. They are focused on a specific and important purpose or task— but beginning without any formal agenda, beyond the overall purpose or theme.www.km-me.com 11 info@km-me.com
    • Four Principles • Whoever comes are the right people • Whenever it starts is the right time • Whatever happens is the only thing that could have • When its over, its over The Law of two feet If at any time during your time together you find yourself in any situation where you are neither learning nor contributing, use your two feet, go someplace else. How is Open Space Technology different from a Knowledge Café? • Different Outcomes • OST Process is more complex • Used other than to gain mutual understanding – e.g. problem solving and defining agendas • Meetings tend to be larger – often 100s of people compared to dozens for the Café • Meetings tend to last longer – often days rather than hourswww.km-me.com 12 info@km-me.com
    • Resources: OST • Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Space_Technology • Open Space Community – http://www.openspaceworld.org Unconferences, unworkshops and barcamps Unconferences, unworkshops and barcamps • Open, participatory workshop-events, whose content is provided by participantswww.km-me.com 13 info@km-me.com
    • Resources: Unconferences • Barcamps – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BarCamp • Unconferences – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unconference • My website – http://www.gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/unconference – http://www.gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/conference-ideas Learn before, during and after Three simple conversational tools for embedding learning into everyday work Learn Before, During & After • Learn Before (peer assist) – pre start of project meeting to learn from previous projects • Learn During (AAR) – continuous AARs, mainly informal • Learn After (retrospect) – end of project AAR - formal – Post project reviewwww.km-me.com 14 info@km-me.com
    • What is an After-Action Review? • Review of an event – to promote learning – to reinforce success – to eliminate deficiencies What is an event? • An event has a – a beginning and an end – a purpose – measurable objectives • Project – entire action or • Project milestone – smaller part of an action • Internal meeting • Presentation • Meeting or phone conversation with customer, supplier, or partner How to run a After-Action Review • Questions – What were the desired outcomes? – What were the actual outcomes? – What were the differences? – What was learnt?www.km-me.com 15 info@km-me.com
    • What else do you need to know to run an After-Action Review? • Open climate – practice dialogue • Observe the event – if possible • Do immediately • Involve everyone – no hangers on • Record lessons – use technology What different types of After-Action Review can be held? • Formal – at end of project or project milestone – takes time – planned, need resources – need a facilitator • Informal – any time! May take just 5 mins – no resources, no facilitator • Personal – on your own, any time What are the benefits of After-Action Reviews? • Learn from experience • Inexpensive, easy • Immediate payoff • Learning at 2 levels: – Individual learning – Team learningwww.km-me.com 16 info@km-me.com
    • Learn Before, During & After • Learn Before (peer assist) – pre start of project meeting to learn from previous projects • Learn During (AAR) – continuous AARs, mainly informal • Learn After (retrospect) – end of project AAR - formal – Post project review Resources: After action reviews • Book: Learning to Fly – by Chris Collison and Geoff Parcell • Book: Proactive Reviews – By Ditte Kolbaek • Book: Sharing Hidden Know-How – By Katrina Pugh Anecdote Circleswww.km-me.com 17 info@km-me.com
    • Anecdote Circles • An anecdote circle is a gathering whose purpose is to generate and collect anecdotes about some issue or topic • Usually the anecdotes gathered will be used later in some sort of sense-making • They may be placed in a narrative database for sense-making and as a knowledge repository Resources: Anecdote Circles • Anecdote – http://www.anecdote.com.au/archives/2006/02/anecdote_circle_1.html • Guide – http://www.anecdote.com.au/file.php?fn=Ultimate_Guide_to_ACs_v1.0.pdf • Cognitive Edge – http://www.cognitive-edge.com/method.php?mid=41 Reverse Brainstormingwww.km-me.com 18 info@km-me.com
    • Reverse Brainstorming • Reverse brainstorming helps you solve problems by combining brainstorming and reversal techniques. By combining these, you can extend your use of brainstorming to draw out even more creative ideas. Reverse Brainstorming Process • Facilitator talks about theme & poses question. He/she explains the process. (10 mins) • Participants break into groups of five. Each Group has a flip chart. Asked to brainstorm the question and to write on the flip chart as many things as they can think of that will ensure the destruction of their profession. The more outrageous and destructive the better. (10 mins) • Facilitator asks people to wander around the room and look at the flipcharts and see what others have come up with. (10 mins) • Facilitator asks each group to identify the top three items on their list. (10 mins) • Facilitator asks each group to share their items - giving a few more words of explanation behind each. (10 mins) • Facilitator asks them to think about their three items and come up with three antidotes to them. i.e. 3 things hat if they did really well would ensure that their profession has a very bright future. (10 mins) • Facilitator goes around the room and ask each group to share their items - giving a few more words of explanation behind each. (10 mins) • Finally, facilitator asks them to sit at their tables and share their experiences and insights from the session in their group. Then they are brought back together and have a large group conversation about the session and what they have learnt. (20 mins) Possible Themes • How do we ensure our profession has no future? • How do we ensure that our KM initiative is a total failure? • How do we ensure that our project fails? • What are the most innovative and creative strategies to decimate key staff in an organization?www.km-me.com 19 info@km-me.com
    • Resources: Reverse Brainstorming • My website – http://www.gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/reverse-cafe • Mind Tools – http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCT_96.htm Ritual Dissent Ritual Dissent • Ritual Dissent is a workshop method designed to test and enhance proposals, stories, ideas or whatever by subjecting them to ritualised dissent (challenge) or assent (positive alternatives). • In all cases it is a forced listening technique, not a dialogue or discourse.www.km-me.com 20 info@km-me.com
    • Resources: Ritual Dissent • Cognitive Edge website – http://www.cognitive-edge.com/method.php?mid=46 Conversation Dinners and Walks Conversation Dinner European Training Foundation, Turin, Nov 2011www.km-me.com 21 info@km-me.com
    • Resources • Theodore Zeldin, Conversation, Dining And Dancing – http://muse.prettygetter.tv/dinners • Conversation Encounters – http://www.gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/conversation-encounter Café Style Talks Café Style Talks • Turn a conventional talk, workshop or conference into a mini-knowledge cafewww.km-me.com 22 info@km-me.com
    • Resources: Café Style Talks • Gurteen Knowledge website – http://www.gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/L003675/ Questions and Discussion First Coffee Breakwww.km-me.com 23 info@km-me.com
    • Some Applications of the Café Trinidad & Tobago Oil and Gas Dubai Holdings • On canals in Amsterdam • At end of week of workshops & visits • To help summarise the week • Develop plan for actionwww.km-me.com 24 info@km-me.com
    • UK National Audit office • Day long workshop • 3 presentations on social tools • A knowledge Café • Future leaders in the group • Future leaders determine action plan ISN Zurich The knowledge café has led to a dramatic improvement in terms of inter-team dialog, collaboration & knowledge sharing. Many internal work processes are now being overhauled for the better as a result of these knowledge cafes & we have seen an explosion of new ideas & initiatives on the part of staff at all levels of the organization. Simply put, the knowledge cafe format has empowered all our staff to speak up and take the initiative in ensuring the successful development of the ISN. Chris Pallaris, Chief Editor ISN, Zurich ING Bank Amsterdamwww.km-me.com 25 info@km-me.com
    • ING Bank, Amsterdam • Mireille Jansma and Jurgen Egges • Gather articles and reports about relevant trends in management, banking, and finance • Broadcast “Research Alerts” • When an Alert deserves serious attention, they host a Knowledge Café • Targeted at specific groups or open to anyone • Sometimes the Cafe is triggered by a Video • Follow through with online discussion groups ING Bank These types of initiatives focus on topics that are highly relevant and in- the-moment for managers and workers, and where the sharing of ideas and exchange of opinions lead to creativity and innovation. Is the Traditional Corporate University Dead? by Karl Moore and Phil Lenir, Forbes Magazine September 2011 Statoil, Norway • To surface issues as a result of a merger • Series of Cafés to bring retiring experts together with younger members to transfer knowledge – In a community hall on an allotment • Geophysicists – Discussion of preferred technologies – Exchange views on experiences • Management Training – But not called a Knowledge Caféwww.km-me.com 26 info@km-me.com
    • Department of Sustainability & Environment, Melbourne • Ran a divergent Knowledge Café in the morning – To explore the topic freely • Ran a convergent Open Space Session in the afternoon – To focus on ideas and plan action • “What can we do to break down the barriers between departments and work together more effectively?” Generic applications of the Café Generic applications of the Café • Pure conversational Cafés • Cafés can be adapted for specific purposes • Café techniques can be used in other activities e.g. Café style talkswww.km-me.com 27 info@km-me.com
    • Where might you use the Café? • Surface hidden problems & opportunities • Encourage knowledge sharing & informal learning • Improve decision making and innovation • Address disengagement and lack of voice • Help people make sense of the world • Help people feel ownership of things Knowledge Café + Open Space • Knowledge Café – divergent – Open, free flowing conversation around a subject – Surface a small number of topics to explore in greater depth – No capture • Open Space – convergent – Focused conversation around each of the topics – Capture key points and ideas Meetings • Break meetings into two • To have a conversation about the issues – Knowledge Café style – Divergent • To make decisions and plans – Debate and politics allowed! – Convergentwww.km-me.com 28 info@km-me.com
    • Questions and Discussion Getting buy-in for the Café Don’t try to sell the Café • Managers may have a problem with the Café • Dont return, all enthused & say "hey lets run a knowledge café “ • Dont do knowledge cafés for their own sake • What you have is a new tool • When you see problems or opportunities to adapt the Café and use it effectively then take them as they arise • Offer the Café as a solution to a problem • Do not try to “sell”www.km-me.com 29 info@km-me.com
    • An approach • Start with the purpose not the Café • Focus on an important issue that is not well understood • Adapt the Café to help address the issue • Don’t assume no buy-in if not a hard outcome • Find reason to run a Café for the managers! Capturing Outcomes Recording outcomes • Café is about the transfer of tacit knowledge • Not about making tacit knowledge explicit • Recording can kill the conversation • Avoid disrupting the conversation • No leader to record group notes • Personal notes OKwww.km-me.com 30 info@km-me.com
    • Reasons for Recording outcomes • That’s what we always do • We need a record • To share with others not here • Justify to boss • For a good “business purpose” • If nothing will be done with the notes then don’t do it! Ideas for recording outcomes • External person takes notes on laptop • Capture 1 item from each person & collate • Encourage people to blog the session Visual capture, Bogota 2009 • Audio capture and transcription • Visual capture Questions and Discussionwww.km-me.com 31 info@km-me.com
    • Second Coffee Break Tips and techniques The theme • A topic people feel passionate about • Complex issues • Only ONE question • Open ended question • Action orientedwww.km-me.com 32 info@km-me.com
    • The conversation • The question is only a seed • OK to go off topic • Conversation as close to a conversation at the pub or over dinner The speaker • Speaker and facilitator need not be the same • Facilitator: involved/not involved • Speakers can be controlling or dominant – Often run over time – Need to brief and handle carefully The facilitator • Important to be yourself • Do not control • Experiment a little • Take some risks • Don’t be afraid of silence • Timing can be difficult • Let people talk & leave them alone & you cannot go far wrongwww.km-me.com 33 info@km-me.com
    • The venue • Need not be a room • Boat on Thames • Canal Boat (long boat in Amsterdam) • Knowledge Walk/BBQ (Greenwich) • Pub (Stavanger) • Outside under sunshades (Scottsdale) • Actual café (London & Barcelona) The room • Important • Small, cosy • Small round tables • Good acoustics • Paper/toys on tables • NO flip charts in the room! The tables People need to be close enough to touch each otherwww.km-me.com 34 info@km-me.com
    • Doodling Holding in a lecture theatre • Difficult but not impossible • Problem of moving between groups • Problem of whole group conversation – reporting back • Need for microphones Using microphones • Avoid if possible • Need if group larger than 40 • People hold on to them • Kills the flow of conversation • One for you + 2 roving mikes • Passing technique 1 (London) • Passing technique 2 (KM Egypt) • Avoid fixed mikes (Jakarta)www.km-me.com 35 info@km-me.com
    • Small group • Don’t ask to sit with others they do not know • Change groups 3 times • Don’t specify a number or any rules • People do not like changing groups • Don’t force them! • Kuala Lumpur story Knowledge circles • Greenwich Story • KM World • Not difficult Circle process • Keep contributions short • Focus on action • Pick someone opposite you • Go around circle • Each person to say who they are • Ok to pass • Include yourself • Thank them • Use of a talking stickwww.km-me.com 36 info@km-me.com
    • Circle or whole group • Where you need facilitation skills • People will report back out of habit – Or ask you questions • In some cultures best to let them • Even for some groups let them – Central bank librarians story • Unless in expert mode do not join in too much • Tolerate silence – pause and wait Group dynamics • Dominant, outspoken people • Submissive, quiet people • Don’t directly address the issue • Make it clear by setting an example Dynamics of different sized groups • Very small: 4 or 5 people • Small: 4 – 12 people • Medium: 12 – 24 people • Ideal: 32 people • Large: 50+ peoplewww.km-me.com 37 info@km-me.com
    • Listening in • If expert mode then join in • If facilitation mode then try not to • Wander around and actively listen • “Eyeball” each person • Observe for issues • Watch, think, be prepared to adapt Wrap up • Circle is the summarisation • No need to summarise at length • Keep it short and simple • Thank people Questions and Discussionwww.km-me.com 38 info@km-me.com
    • Cultural Considerations Culture • I have run the Cafes in many different countries – UK – Spain – Norway – Russia – USA – Singapore – Hong Kong – Indonesia – Malaysia – Thailand – Australia – United Arab Emirates – Colombia – Brazil – New Zealand – South Africa Cultural stories • Jakarta • India – Open Café - mikes – Talk over each other – Workshop • Kuala Lumpur • Bangkok – Won’t change tables – Flee, video – Won’t go for coffeewww.km-me.com 39 info@km-me.com
    • Language issues • Ideally one common language • Speak in own language in small groups • But then can’t listen in! • Common language (English) in whole group • Even own language in whole group • Use of translators - serial or concurrent Encouraging informal conversation Informal Conversation The most widespread and pervasive learning in your organization may not be happening in training rooms, conference rooms or board rooms but in the cafeteria, the hallways and the cafe across the street. Junita Brown & David Isaacswww.km-me.com 40 info@km-me.com
    • Informal Conversation • Coffee and lunch • Brown bag lunches • Project/team meetings • Department & organizational meetings • Internal seminars Conversational Space • Building design • Cass Business School, BA, GSK, Canon UK • Coffee areas • Reception areas • Open plan verses cubicles verses offices Summarywww.km-me.com 41 info@km-me.com
    • www.gurteen.com David GURTEEN Gurteen Knowledge Fleet, United Kingdom Tel: +44 7774 178 650 Email: david.gurteen@gurteen.com Some slides I did not use Argument Argument is meant to reveal the truth, not to create it. Edward de Bono Edward de Bonowww.km-me.com 42 info@km-me.com
    • Applying what we already know The application of what we know already will have a bigger impact on health and disease than any drug or technology likely to be introduced in the next decade. Sir Muir Gray Types of Conversation Type Purpose Chit chat To build a relationship Argument To destroy a relationship Debate To defeat your opponent Negotiation To reach an agreement Discussion To come to a decision Brainstorming To generate ideas Dialogue To understand things Debate Dialogue Assuming that many people have pieces of the answer Assuming that there is a right answer and you have it. and that together they can craft a solution. Combative: participants attempt to prove the other side Collaborative: participants work together toward wrong. common understanding. About winning. About exploring common ground. Listening to find flaws and make counterarguments. Listening to understand, find meaning and agreement. Defending assumptions as truth. Revealing assumptions for re-evaluation. Critiquing the other sides position. Re-examining all positions. Admitting that others thinking can improve on ones Defending ones own views against those of others. own. Searching for flaws and weaknesses in other positions. Searching for strengths and value in others positions. Seeking a conclusion or vote that ratifies your position. Discovering new options, not seeking closure. Excerpted from, Yankelovich, Daniel. The Magic of Dialogue: Transforming Conflict into Cooperation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.www.km-me.com 43 info@km-me.com
    • Stephen Covey • Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood • Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply. To be a catalyst is the ambition most appropriate for those who see the world as being in constant change, and who, without thinking that they can control it, wish to influence its direction. Theodore Zeldin Conversation Business is a conversation Heres a definition of that pesky and borderline elitist phrase, knowledge worker. A knowledge worker is someone whose job entails having really interesting conversations at work. David Weinberger The Cluetrain Manifestowww.km-me.com 44 info@km-me.com
    • Business is a conversation The characteristics of conversations map to the conditions for genuine knowledge generation and sharing: theyre unpredictable interactions among people speaking in their own voice about something theyre interested in. David Weinberger The Cluetrain Manifesto Business is a conversation People implicitly acknowledge that they dont have all the answers (or else the conversation is really a lecture) and risk being wrong in front of someone else. And conversations overcome the class structure of business, suspending the organization chart at least for a little while. David Weinberger The Cluetrain Manifesto Business is a conversation If you think about the aim of Knowledge Management as enabling better conversations rather than lassoing stray knowledge doggies, you end up focusing on breaking down the physical and class barriers to conversation. David Weinberger The Cluetrain Manifestowww.km-me.com 45 info@km-me.com
    • Oh, the comfort - the inexpressible comfort of feeling safe with a person - having neither to weigh thoughts nor measure words, but pouring them all right out, just as they are, chaff and grain together; certain that a faithful hand will take and sift them, keep what is worth keeping, and then with the breath of kindness blow the rest away. Dinah Craik The kind of conversation I like is one where I don’t feel the need to censor anything I say! David Gurteen We have a deeply held belief that the way to make a difference in the world is to define problems and needs and then recommend actions to solve those needs. We are all problem solvers, action oriented and results minded. It is illegal in this culture to leave a meeting without a to-do list. We want measurable outcomes and we want them now. What is hard to grasp is that it is this very mindset which prevents anything fundamental from changing. We cannot problem solve our way into fundamental change, or transformation. This is not an argument against problem solving; it is an intention to shift the context and language within which problem solving takes place. Authentic transformation is about a shift in context and a shift in language and conversation. It is about changing our idea of what constitutes action. Peter Block Conversation is the way that humans have always thought together. In conversation we discover shared meaning. It is the primal human organizing tool. Even in the corridors of power, very little real action happens in debate, but rather in the side rooms, the hallways, the lunches, the times away from the ritual spaces of authority and in the relaxed spaces of being human. In all of our design of meetings, engagement, planning or whatever, if you aren’t building conversation into the process, you will not benefit from the collective power and wisdom of humans thinking together. These are not “soft” processes. This is how wars get started and how wars end. It’s how money is made, lives started, freedom realized. It is the core human organizing competency. Margaret J. Whatleywww.km-me.com 46 info@km-me.com
    • You rarely see the damage caused by bad relationships or the positive outcomes of good ones STOP doing things to people and start to work with them Its OK for people not to talkwww.km-me.com 47 info@km-me.com
    • Café is divergent Meeting is convergent Sharing tacit knowledge • Tacit knowledge is best shared through face to face conversation What is tacit knowledge? • It is drawn from our experience • And years of study • It is not stored as answers or explanations • It is stored as fragments in our brain • Tacit knowledge is our ability to draw on those fragments to construct a response to a problemwww.km-me.com 48 info@km-me.com
    • The importance of context • When asked a question we don’t know the asker’s situation – So we can only provide a general answer • To respond to a specific situation we need to learn more about it – By having a conversation and assembling the knowledge that applies to that context • Tacit knowledge is constructed in response to a question or to a problem in a specific context and at a specific moment in time What happens in a conversation • You can offer information about the issue • You can probe deeper about the situation • You can gain a sense of what the other already knows and so determine at what level to construct your answer • You can ask about the meaning of a term you are not familiar with • You can seek the reasoning behind a conclusion if its not evident • You can correct false assumptions Sharing tacit knowledge • The conversation goes repeatedly back and forth many times in a short period • Both parties actively try to understand the what the other is attempting to convey • Tacit knowledge is surfaced, constructed and exchanged through dialoguewww.km-me.com 49 info@km-me.com
    • Email and phone conversations • A conversation has two levels of meaning – Content & relationship • The relationship conversation is about such things as – “Can I trust you to give me an honest answer?” or – “Can I trust you to keep this in confidence.” • Expressed through intonation, gestures & facial expression – little can be conveyed over the phone or by email or eforum • Both are less effective mediums for transferring tacit knowledge than face-to-face conversation Licence • You may use these slides under the following Creative Commons Licence • Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/www.km-me.com 50 info@km-me.com