KM MIddle East 2012 - Collison Seminar


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Chris Collison's seminar at KM Middle East 2012

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KM MIddle East 2012 - Collison Seminar

  1. 1. Seminar: Assessing KM Capability, Understanding KM Tools and Developing KM Strategy KM Middle East March 14th 2012 @chris_collison Knowledgeable Ltd© Knowledgeable Ltd Building on the examples from this morning© Knowledgeable Ltd Our agenda for this afternoon • Organisational learning tools such as Peer Assist, After Action Review and Project Review • Knowledge Capture: – Examples of how to build and maintain knowledge assets around strategic topics • Communities of Practice: – Understanding the lifecycle of Communities and Networks, – Practical case studies and tools such as a “Network Charter Template”. • Leadership actions and behaviours which reinforce “asking”, “learning” and “capturing” in cultures which are already good at sharing. • Embedding in Strategy© Knowledgeable Ltd 1
  2. 2. BP’s original holistic knowledge management framework Knowledge in people and networks Captured Knowledge Learn during Using Individuals & Teams Goals Knowledge Results £$ Learn Learn before after Leadership & Culture© Knowledgeable Ltd Thomas Saur LESSONS LOST Learning and transfer are leaky processes.© Knowledgeable Ltd There’s a hole in my bucket... New project executes New Project Project Completed! ? Project Learning Review Meeting in the heads of the team Unasked questions Learning captured in lessons learned report Report stored... Loss of context, summarisation, loss of emotion, ...somewhere! post-rationalisation, legal restrictions...© Knowledgeable Ltd 2
  3. 3. Learning before doing – Peer Assists "...the politics accompanying hierarchies hampers the free exchange of knowledge. People are much more open with their peers. They are much more willing to share and to listen.” Lord Browne – BP CEO© Knowledgeable Ltd Peer Assist Animation from Bellanet/University of Ottowa© Knowledgeable Ltd Peer Assists - how they work Actions What’s What you know possible? What we both know What I know “Group-think” restricts possibilities© Knowledgeable Ltd 3
  4. 4. An extreme Peer Assist! Great Ormond St Hospital, London Ferrari F1 Pit Team© Knowledgeable Ltd Learning whilst doing - AARs What was What actually supposed to happen? happened? Include the unplanned. Col. Ed Guthrie (retd.) What can we Why was learn from there a this? difference? Conducted in a Rank-free environment… 10-15 minutes© Knowledgeable Ltd© Knowledgeable Ltd 4
  5. 5. © Knowledgeable Ltd Learning after doing – BP’s Retrospect Process • What was the objective of the project? • What did we achieve? • What were the successes? Why? How can we repeat the success? • What were the disappointments? Facilitated, forward looking team Why? How can we avoid meeting, soon after the project has them in future? ended. • ‘Marks out of 10’ Has a “customer” in mind…© Knowledgeable Ltd Asking the right questions… Why, why, why… What was the reason for that? What would someone have What led to that? to do to ensure that they repeated your success? Could you say a bit more about why you think that? What would you say to Could you give an example ensure that someone didn’t to illustrate? make the same mistake as you? How many marks out of ten What would your advice be would you give this? to another team about to do What would make it a ten? the same thing?© Knowledgeable Ltd 5
  6. 6. Rupert Brun CAPTUR E When you capture knowledge, you kill it.© Knowledgeable Ltd What is a “Knowledge Asset”? • Creating a knowledge asset is a creative, value-adding technique for capturing knowledge. It provides a consistent way to succinctly answer the question: “What does this organization know about subject x…?”. • The knowledge asset may contain guidelines, examples, templates, documents, contacts and links to people, distilled, structured and designed with an internal customer in mind.© Knowledgeable Ltd Why create a Knowledge Asset? • Some of the activities that we carry out are repeatable processes, yet we often fail to learn from ourselves because the learning has not been captured or structured with an internal customer in mind. • Having a well structured distillation of good practices will increase the likelihood that we repeat and build upon our successes, rather than investing time in reinvention.© Knowledgeable Ltd 6
  7. 7. The problem with lessons learned databases... What are the top ten things I need to know? Where can I get more detail? What can I re-use? Who can I talk to? A few Even more Still more More More More Lessons Lessons Lessons Learned© Knowledgeable Ltd BP’s Business Restructuring Knowledge Asset© Knowledgeable Ltd Knowledge asset in PowerPoint with embedded videos and stories© Knowledgeable Ltd 7
  8. 8. Summary of steps in a building a knowledge asset (i) 1. Is there a customer for this learning? Have a clear customer - current or future - in mind when you build your knowledge asset. Without a customer, you may be creating a “knowledge graveyard”! 2. Are you clear about the scope of your knowledge asset? What is the scope of your activity? What will it be called? The resulting product needs to cover a specific area of repeatable business activity. 3. Is there a community of practice or network relating to this subject? Knowledge Assets should ideally be owned by communities of practice who regularly refresh the content to keep it current. The community and their activities will be the source of the learning in the first place, the users of this knowledge in future, and the people who validate future additions to the product. 4. Is there existing material upon which you can base your knowledge asset? Often, someone in the company will have made efforts to record process steps, lessons or recommendations in some form - this will be important content to incorporate into your knowledge. Your first step will be to collate the existing material. 5. Look for the general guidelines. Provide some context so that people can understand the purpose and relevance of the knowledge asset. What was the business environment when this was created? Why was this seen as important at the time? Who brought this material together?© Knowledgeable Ltd Summary of steps in a building a knowledge asset (ii) 6. Build a checklist illustrated with examples and stories. The checklist should tell the user of the knowledge asset: “What are the questions I need to ask myself?” “What are the top ten things that I need to think about?” “What is the information that I need to gather?” “What are the steps that I need to take?” 7. Include links to people. Although the knowledge asset will include a lot of “explicit knowledge”, there will be far more knowledge still residing in the heads of the people as tacit knowledge. This knowledge is also a vital part of the knowledge asset and it is important to point to it wherever possible. 8. Validate the Guidelines. Having constructed a knowledge asset, with guidelines based on history and experience. The next step should be to circulate it around any relevant communities and ask: “Do the guidelines accurately reflect your knowledge and experience?” , “Do you have anything to add?” . 9. Publish the knowledge asset. You now need to make it widely available, so that the community or network can access it and add to it at any time. 10. Finally, keep it alive. Initiate a feedback and ownership process. Sustaining a knowledge asset is more difficult than creating it in the first place. When you publish and promote it, make sure there is an obvious feedback mechanism so that users can validate and improve it through use.© Knowledgeable Ltd Rupert Brun COMMUNITIES The heart of a KM Strategy© Knowledgeable Ltd 8
  9. 9. Words you might encounter…© Knowledgeable Ltd© Knowledgeable Ltd© Knowledgeable Ltd 9
  10. 10. © Knowledgeable Ltd© Knowledgeable Ltd© Knowledgeable Ltd 10
  11. 11. Value from Communities? (Wenger) Short Term Long Term • Help with challenges • Professional Development Individual • Access to expertise • Personal Reputation • Confidence • Professional identity • Fun with colleagues • Network • Meaningful work • Marketing • Problem solving Organization • Time saving • Strategic capabilities • Knowledge sharing • Innovation • Synergies across units • Talent retention • Reuse of resources • New strategies© Knowledgeable Ltd Example from International Gas Company© Knowledgeable Ltd Schlumberger • 70+ Technical communities and “Special Interest Groups” are actively managed and supported by a small central team (3 people). • Highly promoted on their intranet : every community has its own suite of collaboration tools • Every year, leaders are democratically elected by Community members. • In order to become a Schlumberger Fellow, you have to have led a Community. • Knowledge loss is less of an issue to Schlumberger because “ your entire career is your exit interview”.© Knowledgeable Ltd 11
  12. 12. Communities in Oracle • 80 “Professional Communities” – Facing customer groups and product types – Meet face-to-face annually – Provide personal stability • Community Self-assessment – Communication – Developing trust – Virtual Leadership – Cultural Understanding – Sharing Good Practice Communication Trust Leadership Culture Sharing© Knowledgeable Ltd Stages of Community Development • Planning • Getting Started • Building Momentum • Renewing Commitment • “Sunsetting” or reinventing© Knowledgeable Ltd Exploring the Community Lifecycle McCommunities? Community Paella?© Knowledgeable Ltd 12
  13. 13. Hints and tips: Publicly welcome new members to the group • When new members join, encourage them to complete their on-line profile first (photo are important), then send an email to the community to introduce them to the group, referencing a link to their profile. • This will give a sense of momentum to the group, and give established members a sense of new thinking/experience being available • Consider creating a “Community World Map”, showing the locations of all members (with photos?), and sharing this with the group electronically.© Knowledgeable Ltd Example of a community “world map” with expertise© Knowledgeable Ltd Hints and Tips: Stimulate demand by identifying some issues to work on… • People respond best to a real need from a colleague – but it can be tough to be the first to “ask for help”. – Encourage members of the community to share a current business challenge or problem – make some telephone calls if you need to. • Pursue responses behind the scenes – Again, make telephone calls to people who might be able to offer a solution, and encourage them to respond – it can be daunting to be the first to offer a suggestion too…© Knowledgeable Ltd 13
  14. 14. Hints and tips: Keep a steady rhythm of communication • Consider a regular electronic newsletter, summarising activity within the community. – Incentivise people to complete their profiles, through informal competition, recognition, peer pressures. Publicise progress (% of community with profiles) and highlight good examples in the newsletter. • Consider a schedule of monthly or bi-monthly virtual meetings or Webinars where community members or external experts present on a topical issue. – A kind of virtual “brown bag lunch” to share case studies – Ask community members which they would topics like to hear more about during these events, and if they have any recommendations for speakers.© Knowledgeable Ltd www.knowledgeableltd.comHints and Tips: Promote success stories inside and outside the community • Create “storyboards” or videos which summarise the way the community operates to address a particular issue or question. – See the RioTinto “bulldozer” story for an online video example: • Consider how community stories might be used externally to promote the company, or as part of induction and on-boarding.© Knowledgeable Ltd Example from Shell Brochure on Networks and KM© Knowledgeable Ltd 14
  15. 15. Understanding Communities with SNA© Knowledgeable Ltd What networking measures matter to businesses? • The previous football example showed the number of passes of the ball. • We need to select the ones which really matter. – Levels of trust? – Sources of advice and help? – Communication types – email, telephone, face-to-face? – Communication frequency? (daily, weekly, monthly etc.) – Awareness of others’ expertise? – Distribution of technical capability by geography or team? – How ideas get shared and innovation happens?© Knowledgeable Ltd Organisational Network Analysis – two key indicators Nodes indicate people, arrows indicate a connection. seeks technical advice Connections can be perceived as one-way or reciprocated. Jassim Zaheer They are characterized by a reason for the connection Arrows can be colour-coded to indicate the strength of a connection. Nodes with many connections are said to have high “centrality”. Nodes which bridge between groups are said to have high “betweenness”. Both of these are important characteristics for networking. ONA is often repeated after a period of time to demonstrate an improvement in connectedness.© Knowledgeable Ltd 15
  16. 16. Organisational Network Analysis example “I go to these people for advice and support” Key Connectors/Bridges How can we reinforce these? Brazil Switzerland US Island Groups – how can we connect these?© Knowledgeable Ltd Typical analysis topics • Identifying the risks and vulnerabilities – Which individuals and groups are disconnected? – Where is the integrity of the network in the hands of one individual? – How effective is communication? – What would happen if x, y and z left the company? (Network cohesion, key connectors) • Identifying roles – Who would make a good leader of a Community? – Who would make good regional representatives? • Identifying preferences – Which communication method is most effective for cascades? • Measuring trends – How much more connected are we in 2012 than we were in 2011?© Knowledgeable Ltd Using ONA to find silos, connectors and potential champions© Knowledgeable Ltd 16
  17. 17. Learning in Communities (Wenger, White & Smith, 2009)© Knowledgeable Ltd Rupert Brun LEAD E R SH I P Creating the Environment© Knowledgeable Ltd Knowledge-based Leadership Competencies© Knowledgeable Ltd 17
  18. 18. Leadership Actions from Centrica • When encountering a business problem, I reinforce the importance of learning from others - rather than simply providing an answer. • I personally demonstrate that “asking for help” is a sign of strength rather than weakness. • When reviewing a project proposal, I challenge to ensure that it brings to bear knowledge from other projects. • I coach my team to network more effectively - internally and externally. • My team see failure as something to learn from, not something to cover up.© Knowledgeable Ltd Leadership Recognition for Knowledge Management© Knowledgeable Ltd Rupert Brun S T RAT E GY Designing, Embedding, Measuring.© Knowledgeable Ltd 18
  19. 19. Integrating Acquisitions Launching Community Sustaining a Community Storytelling techniques Building a maturity model Capturing Personal Knowledge Peer Assist Peer Assist Peer Assist Project Review Plan for Identify Implement Strengths Design Achieve Integration & New Organisation Synergies Process Synergies Organisation Manage Transformational and Cultural Change Information/Document Management Tools Knowledge Asset Expertise Directory Collaborating Internally Collaborating with 3rd Parties© Knowledgeable Ltd Choosing a supplier Peer Assist Peer Assist Retrospect Project Review Peer Assist Clarify Assess Supplier RFI RFP Contract Requirements Proposals Selection Finding Expertise Knowledge Asset Expertise Diretory Knowledge Asset Collaborating internally and Collaborating with 3rd Parties Information/Document Management Tools© Knowledgeable Ltd The employee lifecycle Link to Alumni network. Knowledge-sharing (physical and virtual meetings) embedded in recruitment Continue to participate in existing criteria, selection processes communities. and screening. Involvement in judging/connecting entries for Company X awards? Recruitment Receive details on knowledge- Knowledge capture/salvage on exit. sharing approaches. Use of expertise directory. Connection to communities. Mentoring from Seniors? Retirement Induction Knowledge-sharing embedded in Access to lessons from previous job- management and leadership holder. development. Rapid connection to new Promotion Competencies include knowledge- Training and communities. and Job sharing and learning Encouragement to learn from Development change Course delegates encouraged to outside Company X. form and use communities. Link community leadership KM toolkit integrated into most /participation to technical promotion training programmes ladder? People encouraged to update expertise directory after training.© Knowledgeable Ltd 19
  20. 20. Communities accelerating time-to-competence Knowledge “salvage” on exit Value Community involvement Increased value through “post-retirement” Connection to a community Ongoing Access via Recruitment, Alumni Value from applying Development Programme know-how to individual & Training high-performance business delivery Breakeven Retirement Time Point Cost© Knowledgeable Ltd Assessment of KM Capability (Learning to Fly. Collison & Parcell 2004)© Knowledgeable Ltd BP’s KM Strategy • Look for what’s already going on inside the company. Find some heroes. • Check the external world for good practices and test them inside the organisation. • Focus on a few key tools and promote them. Make it simple and avoid creating a new language. • Work in depth in a few critical areas to prove the value. • Look to the existing company processes and ‘infect them’ with KM principles. • Build a community of KM Practitioners and Champions who can generate sustainability.© Knowledgeable Ltd 20
  21. 21. Thinking about sustainability… Training and support Embedding in process conscious conscious Challenge and education incompetence competence unconscious unconscious incompetence competence© Knowledgeable Ltd KM Strategy – Options for Implementation Top-down, Big Bang Slipstream Pilot Stealth© Knowledgeable Ltd 2010/H2 2011/H1 2011/H2 End H1 2012 Managing Vision for KM in Company (Getting) Knowledge Resources LeadershipCULTURE & LEADERSHIP Capability Flying the Development Information • Maximum use of the most profitable sources of accurate, quality data Definition Flag Centre • People understand rights and responsibilities to departmental information Risk Mgt Promoting • Manage electronic content effectively in line with corporate standards DRO ,Law Services Cross KAI • Tools for knowledge sharing supported by FOI Projects Monitoring Culture for knowledge sharing DPA Prioritising • Ability to find info easily, use networks, communities and systems Guidance RM Influencing Improvement • Embedded culture of learning lessons and continuous improvement Guidance Decisions • Distilling, Refining, Enhancing, Advising and Learning – Actionable for the Information Public Centre Departmental business to create value. Records Copyright/PSI Methodologies for • KM Team seen as playing a critical supporting role in a successful Access Guidance Identifying high organisation Seamless PIU Flow TNA value data Continuous Improvement Enterprise Competence framework Content Company by level for everyone Management Museum Wider use in KR (to reflect of EDRM LEAN specialisms) “Front door” Management Departmental Legal Gateway Initial Prototype Cross-Dept. Metadata Databases Coordination methodology for in Use Facilitating high Value Data learning Intranet Events Internal Information Content Guidance Centre Management 100 Day Text Mining in BG Format Capability plans Retention Spreadsheet periods of Legal Centrally established for Gateways managed budget for external contentPROCESS Customer Records used across Dept. Software tool E.g. Company info. Capturing for managing Experience gateway Toolkit Internet coordination Access for Role Profiles Information All Centre Wider use of Other Priority Project Mgt Search Tools BU Knowledge Lessons Learned KM Checklist Capability Collaborative Current Position Management Tools Departmental Framework Taxonomy • Fragmented approach to information and Captured Experience records management Knowledge • Technology changes fraught with difficulty Departmental Asset Network of Video stream Intranet Metadata • Poor directory capability makes it hard to Knowledge Scheme AV Output Facilitators access for all find people • Library is viewed as a reactive service Pilot Single Library Internet access to • People have nowhere to store lessons Expertise deliver external Management Funded Project Directory learned Automated Internet content System • Lack of learning rigour in Project Existing Service Searching for info EDRM management means that we reinvent the briefings in order Pilot “Knowledge Unresourced Idea to deliver to greater Virtual Standardisation wheel Space” audience Knowledge of Business • Complexity and politics makes it hard to Complementary Space Area Intranet Sites get any traction. Large programmes TS Info Brefings vacuum up the funding. PEOPLE CAPABILITY TECHNOLOGY + CONTENT© Knowledgeable Ltd 21
  22. 22. Thank You! @chris_collison Knowledgeable Ltd© Knowledgeable Ltd 22