To make existing knowledge more widely available within organization
so that learning curve duration goes down and people in different branches of the organization won’t have to discover the same things over and over again
Innovation; to make it possible to cr eate new valuable knowledge
Adaptability; agility ; better mark et intelligence from more sources
“ It’s common to say that trees come from seeds. But how could a tiny seed create a huge tree? Seeds do not contain the resources needed to grow a tree. These must come from the medium or environment within which the tree grows. But the seed does provide something that is crucial: a place where the whole of the tree starts to form. As resources such as water and nutrients are drawn in, the seed organizes the process that generates growth.” Peter SENGE
How to Move from Tacit to Explicit : Tacit Explicit S OCIALIZATION E XTERNALIZATION C OMBINATION I NTERNALIZATION 4. A General Framework for an Effective KM Structure
Tacit Explicit S OCIALIZATION E XTERNALIZATION C OMBINATION I NTERNALIZATION FORMATION OF TACIT KNOWLEDGE. “Interaction with the world”. Learning by direct personal experience or through observing experiences of others. Coming across obstacles at workplace. Personal lessons devised from these obstacles. CONVERSION OF TACIT TO EXPLICIT. Knowledge shared through dialog, (be it e-mails, announcements, presentations, casual conversations, etc.) DISSEMINATION OF EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE. Learnings from the earlier phases integrated into company procedures and action plans. INTEGRATION OF EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE. Co-workers accepting the new ways of doing business. Turning explicit knowledge into action. Employees more inclined to share new experiences, sharing becomes intuitive.
PHASE Knowledge Management Mechanisms Knowledge Management Technologies Socialization Meetings, telephone conversations, and documents, collaborative creation of documents Databases, web-based access to data, data mining, repositories of information, Web portals, best practices and lessons learned Externalization Models, prototypes, best practices, lessons learned Expert systems, chat groups, best practices, and lessons learned databases. Combination Employee rotation across departments, conferences, brainstorming retreats, cooperative projects, initiation Video-conferencing, electronic discussion groups, e-mail Internalization Learning by doing, on-the-job training, learning by observation, and face-to-face meetings Computer-based communication, AI-based knowledge acquisition, computer-based simulations
Tacit Explicit S OCIALIZATION E XTERNALIZATION C OMBINATION I NTERNALIZATION ASSEMBLE AN ONLINE KNOWLEDGE BASE (and continually improve and expand it) Set up a help desk to answer questions about it. Should include data but not just statistics. Related insights and comments should be made available. FOCUS ON CONTEXT/EXPERIENCE NOT DATA/FIGURES A GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PREPARE A DIRECTORY OF EXPERTISE (who knows what) ESTABLISH A DIALOG/FORUM SPACE WITHIN THE KNOWLEDGE BASE LINKS BETWEEN RELATED PIECES OF INFORMATION REVIEW THE INFO DISPLAYED IN THE KNOWLEDGE BASE IN LIGHT OF NEW EXPERIENCES AND EXPERIMENTS. BETTER INFORMATION: NOT QUANTITY BUT QUALITY EXTERNAL ACCESS TO CLIENTS, MAKING THE KNOWLEDGE BASE ONE OF THE MAIN TOOLS THROUGH WHICH YOUR ORGANIZATION INTERACTS WITH THE CLIENTS.
-An organization culture that is more focused on production/ day-to-day tasks rather than creation of knowledge and innovation. ( “Work smart not hard”)
-Info presented in an uninspiring way (employees can’t understand how to benefit from it)
-Lack of trust; fear of plagiarism . Unwillingness to share knowledge
-Human condition; embarrassment, being afraid to make mistakes
Employees should know that their organization shall allow them to experiment even if they make mistakes along the way
-Too much bureaucracy ; too time-consuming to share knowledge
5. How to Measure the Effectiveness of an Organization’s KM Structure: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT METRICS AIM: To assess whether employees Want to contribute CRITERIA: To the knowledge base. Visits per employee Suggestions per employee (overall participation) Proportion of implemented suggestions Time taken to achieve a certain improvement Availability of information
6 . Evolution and Development of Knowledge Management: KM 1: Collecting KM 2: Sharing KM 3: Using KM 2.0 focused on sharing knowledge using web-enabled and social media tools. KM 1.0 focused on collecting knowledge "before it walked out the door". KM 3.0 focus on using existing knowledge to help people get their job done. KM 1.0 KM 2.0 KM 3.0 techno-centric people-centric productivity-centric command and control “ KM is extra work” Social “ KM is part of my work” Practical & Individual “ KM is helping me do my work”
In KM 3.0 “most limited resource is no longer information; it has become human attention—the ability to deal effectively with the growing volume and speed of information” Yogesh Malhotra An excessive amount of information available online, making it more difficult to separate the useful information from the noise. Difference Between KM 2.0 and 3.0 Having access to relevant quality documents is much better than having 1,000 irrelevant useless documents.
-Level 1 agents for initial client interactions, less sophisticated problems,
-Level 2 agents for problems that the 1 st level agents can’t solve.
A customer calls about a software problem.
As Level 1 agent prepares to find a solution, he/she gathers problem description along with info on product model and computer operating environment.
If Level 1 agent can find an existing solution in the knowledgebase, he/she shares with the caller. If not, puts the caller through to a higher level agent.
Expert agent then solves the problem, and makes an entry into the knowledgebase about the nature and solution of the problem. Next time, level 1 agents will have access to the solution of this particular problem.
A knowledgebase, which covers the company’s success measurement criteria and tips and hints on fixing several different types of management issues, is available within the consulting company’s database.
Instead of functioning in a vacuum, the knowledgebase, thanks to the foresight of the IT department, is able to pull valuable information from a wide selection of existing sources (drawing on the expertise of different departments within the company) in a wide variety of file formats, such as Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Adobe Acrobat and web pages in HTML.
“ [Knowledge management] is not just a tool-set it’s a cultural revolution.
The major implementation hurdle in a knowledge-sharing system is not the
technology. It is getting people used to it. Sharing ideas freely is one thing
when you are at a physical meeting and can see reaction. It is another when
you are working electronically.”
— Gig Griffith, Manager of Business Operations for Technical Services, Novell
In many companies, a knowledge-based support organization requires a cultural shift, a migration to an organization whose people are open and willing to share what they know with others in a more systematic way than what they may be used to.