Paris Declaration, 2012
…teaching, learning and research
materials in any medium, digital or
otherwise, that reside in the public
domain or have been released under
an open license that permits no-cost
access, use, adaptation and
redistribution by others with no or
What types of OER exist?
Media + other information
Audio . . .
Tests . . .
Grammar and vocabulary
Corpora (FLAX) . . .
“… anyone can legally and freely copy, use, adapt
and re-share them” (UNESCO, 2002)
What is meant by FREE?
gratis vs. libre
FREE AS IN BEER = GRATIS
Photo credit: Jacob Fenger (Fengergold) (2006). Free beer tap in Bolzano.
Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/42934556@N00/245866252 /. CC-BY 2.0.
FREE AS IN FREEDOM = LIBRE
Photo credit: Oddsock (2006). Rainbow Freedom 1. Flickr.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/28648431@N00/255199017 CC-BY 2.0
Understanding “openness” in
Nadia Mireles (2012). Open Education Matters:
Why is it important to share content?
CC BY 3.0
Why does “open” matter?
Shared content can be improved upon.
It can reach people who would not normally have
access to such information and can be changed so
as to be of the most benefit possible to specific
The costs of use are limitedin the sense that we
don’t need to pay license rights for each student.
**Video credit: Nadia Mireles (2012). Open Education Matters:
Why is it important to share content? CC BY 3.0
To think about:
What are we teaching our students?
A. Use the work of others
B. Change the work of others
C. Permit others to use
Show full respect to the intent of the
Use: The 4 R’s Framework
• Use “as is”
• Modify to
• Share /
David Wiley (2009).
s/1123re copies CC By 3.0
What do we mean by copyright?
registration of work not
Life of creator + 50years or more;
anonymous work, 50 years after
Permission from copyright
holder (s) is needed to
reproduce a work , or segment of
a work, in any form.
All rights reserved
Cessation of rights by the
Not necessary obtain
permission as long as
specifications are respected.
Some rights reserved
From Resource to OER:
a. Retain copyright but grant
some permissions (partial cession of rights):
copy, modify, publish, distribute, *sell
b. Cede all rights
Creative Commons Licences, Open Government Licenses (UK, Canada),
GNU General Public Licence (Copyleft), MIT License, Apache License
How to grant permission or cede rights?
One option: Creative Commons Licences
Public domain CC0
Attribution CC BY
Attribution, Share Alike CC BY-SA
Attribution No Derivatives CC BY-ND
Attribution, Non-Commerial Use CC BY-NC
Learn more or apply an open license to your work: creativecomments.org
• Learning community
• Set an example
to be busy
have time to
we need to
Image credit: Urs Steiner (2011)
CC BY 2.0
VARIETY, BREADTH, AND RICHNESS
Real knowlege is to know the breadth of one’s ignorance.
Photo credit: Karen H. 2010. Fruit. CC BY 2.0
Photo credit: Ella Novak (2010) Fruit in a Basket. CC BY
Online at any time
Image credit: Mike Licht NotionsCapital.com (2010).
Surfing the Web. CC BY 2.0
Offline all the time?
Photo credit: Daniel Lobo / Daquella manera (2004).
Escuela rural. CC BY 2.0
Communities of practice
Sharing: Learners and
content creators; intended
and unintended audiences.
Image credits: Nadia Mireles (2012). Open Education matters: Why is it important to share? CC BY 3.0
Setting an example?
How many of the
copies that we
make for our
students are fair
Photo credit: Dani Luire/ Dani P. L. (2006).
Photocopy Monotony 02. CC BY 2.0.
(Check the quality!)
Bits and pieces to build upon
in designing your own course materials
Exercises for students
(reflect, combine adapt: active learning)
Evaluate your own work (benchmark)
Ready to use, or to adapt
Gerbil in Chair.
Pieces to build on, and to help you
reflect on your own work
The instructional design process and
the OER life cycle
Source: http://col-oer.weebly.com/module-6---the-oer-life-cycle.html . Last checked 4/03/2104
Portals and gateways
Other actors / organizations
Leanr more; suggested links:
JISC Open Educational Resources Info Kit: Stakeholders and benefits
Commonwealth of Learning: Publications
Challenges of sharing OER
Fear: The “risks” of peer comments.
Selection: What to share? How to do so? How to be
sure we have the right to share out work?
(Do we “own” our work?)
Format: Ease of access vs. ease of modification
Accesibility: Where can we share content other can
find? Site, blog, repositories?
Motivation: Why bother?
Image credit: Giulia
Forsythe,(2012). hy Open
CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Links: Exploring OER
Learning more about OER
Repositories & search
COL Open Educational
Reosurces OER (one-day
JISC Open Educational
Commonwealth of Learning
OER Dynamic Search Engine
University Learning =
OCW+OER = Free
Sample used in session:
Mexico’s Popocatéptl: to flee or not to flee