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  1. 1. Stairways<br />
  2. 2. EVOLUTION OF STAIRCASE<br />Staircase are one of the oldest building elements in architectural histories…. Reflecting the prevailing philosophies and symbolic language.<br />WHY DO WE NEED STAIRCASE<br />To protect people from injuries and to facilitates access during movements from one level to the another in a building.<br />LOCATION OF STAIRStair should be placed at a central place in the building so as to give shortest access to all rooms. It should be well ventilated and airy.<br />
  3. 3. PRINCIPLES TO BE OBSERVED WHILE PLANNING AND DESIGNING A STAIR1.  Width of Stair: It should not be less than 1.00m.2.  Length of flight: The number of steps in a single flight should not be more than 12.3.  Pitch of the stair: It should be between 25 to 404.  Width of landing: It should be 150mm, more than the width of stair.5.  Winders or kite steps: Odd shaped steps should be avoided and incase found <br /> necessary. These should be provided at the start of a stair.6.  Han-rails: It should be 750 to 850 mm in height from the top of respective step or <br /> landing.7.  Step proportions: The size of rise and tread in a stair should be kept uniform <br /> through out the whole stair.<br />8. Headroom: Minimum of 2000mm of clear headroom is required above the pitch line  Following proportions are recommended:(i)  Residential buildings- Tread=250 mm                                        Rise=160 mm(ii)  Public buildings - Tread=300 mm                                    Rise=150 mm (iii) Industrial buildings, Railway station,                                   etc Tread =not less then 250 mm                                   =250 to 300 mm                                   Rise =not less then 150 mm                                   =150 to 190 mm<br /> o <br /> o <br />
  4. 4. Otherwise work out the sizes of rise and tread <br />by using any one of the following proportions<br />(i)   (2xRise)+(Going), In mm=550 to 600 mm<br />(ii)  Rise x tread, both in cm = 400 to 410 cm2.<br />(iii) With basic proportion of going 300 mm and rise 150 mm, add 10 mm to rise for every 20 mm deduction from going e.g. For a going of 280 mm the rise will be 160 mm. <br /> The above rules act as guide but the actual sizes depend upon the availability of space, while planning stairs practical-field.<br />
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  6. 6. BalustersThe smaller posts fitted between the stair and the handrail, usually decorative, and in timber or steel.<br />Bullnose StepThe step at the base of a stair which usually has a protruding semi- circular endCappingThe piece of timber that forms the edge or border for the carpet or other floor coverings, located at the edge of the floor on upper level<br />Closed StairA stair that has treads and risers<br />Cut StringerStringers that are cut to follow the profile of the treads and risers.<br />HandrailThe shaped or moulded piece of timber you hold on to as you walk up or down the stair. <br />Handrail ScrollThe decorative handrail piece at the start of the stair that curls around and sits above the bullnose step<br />Handrail WreathsThe sections that curve around corners to form a continuous handrail<br />LandingThe flat platforms usually located where a stair changes direction. <br />Newel PostsThe larger square posts at the start and the corners of a stair. They are usually turned, fluted, panelled or decorated in some way.<br />
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  8. 8. Open StairA stair that has no risers<br />RisersThe vertical pieces which are the solid infill between the treads<br />StringersThe main beams that support treads and risers<br />Tread BracketThe decorative pieces that fit to the face of a cut stringer in the more traditional type of stair<br />Tread NoseThe rounded leading edge of a step<br />TreadsThese are simply the steps you walk on<br />Winder StepsThe triangular treads used to change the direction of the stair, usually around right-angle corners<br />
  9. 9. STAIR GEOMETRY<br />Stair safety and geometry are related- rhythmic movement along a straight line is important for safe ascent or descent<br />
  10. 10. STAIR ANGLES<br />According to AS 1657-1992 (Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways & ladders- Design, construction & installation), stairways should be angled between 26.50 and 450-That’s between 1 in 2 and 1 in 1<br />Rise = 1<br />Going = 1<br />Rise = 1<br />Going = 2<br />450<br />26.50<br />
  11. 11. Stairway Landings<br />Stairways landings must be at least 30 inches deep and 22 inches wide at every 12 feet or less of vertical rise<br />Unprotected sides of landings must have standard 42 inch guardrail systems<br />Landing<br />
  12. 12. Platforms and Swing Doors<br />Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, provide a platform that extends at least 20 inches beyond the swing of the door. <br />
  13. 13. STAIR TYPE 1<br />Straight flight stair<br />4.1 Stairways >600mm between handrails<br />4.1 Slope not less than 26.50 & not more than 450<br />
  14. 14. STAIR TYPE 2<br />Straight two-flight stair with half-landing<br />4.2.1 stairs constructed in flights straight or curved horizontally<br />4.2.2 Number of rises not to exceed 18 in a flight; not more than 36 rises without a change in direction<br />
  15. 15. STAIR TYPE 3<br />Quarter-turn stair with landing<br />4.3.1 All treads to be slip resistant, with provision made for drainage<br />4.3.1 (a) Rises & goings (in the same flight) to be within ± 5mm<br />
  16. 16. STAIR TYPE 4<br />Dogleg stair with half-landing<br />4.3.2 Head clearance min 2000mm vertically from nosing of tread<br />4.3.3 Nosing of tread must be highlighted<br />
  17. 17. STAIR TYPE 5<br />Open-well stair with two quarter landings<br />4.3.1 (b) Each rise not less than 150mm & not more than 215mm<br />4.3.1 (c) Each going not less than 215mm & not more than 305mm<br />
  18. 18. STAIR TYPE 6<br /> Quarter-turn stair withwinders<br /> 4.4 Landings:<br />(a)  Length & width must be not less than the stairway<br />(b)  Landing minimum vertical clearance 2000mm<br />(c) Every access landing- standing space at least 600mm clear of cross-traffic or door swing<br />
  19. 19. STAIR TYPE 7<br />Spiral stair with central column<br />4.2.3 Radius to centre line of stairway not less than 600mm; where radius to centre line is less than 3000mm, maximum width of curved stairway 750mm<br />
  20. 20. STAIR TYPE 8<br />Circular stair with central well<br />4.3.1 (c) Each Going not less than 215mm & not more than 305mm<br />
  21. 21. STAIR TYPE 9<br />Geometric stair (900) turn<br />4.3.1 (d) 45 000< RxG <48 000<br />4.3.1 (e) Tread width must not be less than the going and there must be an overhang of at least 10mm <br />
  22. 22. STAIR CHAIR<br />
  23. 23. STAIR STEPS<br />
  24. 24. Handrail & Stairrail<br />
  25. 25. T<br />I<br />M<br />B<br />E<br />R<br />N<br />E<br />W<br />E<br />L<br /> P<br />O<br />S<br />T<br />
  26. 26. T<br />I<br />M<br />B<br />E<br />R<br />B<br />ALU<br />ST<br />E<br />R<br />S<br />
  27. 27. STEEL<br />BALUSTERS<br />
  28. 28. S<br />TONEBALUSTERS<br />
  29. 29. Different materials that are used in a stairs and <br /> there benefits?<br />TIMBER – Gives design flexibility, it is lightweight and easy to install.<br />GLASS – Gives an openness and a clean airy feel to a room that other materials just don’t provide.<br />STAINLESS STEEL – Is used for handrails and balustrade. It is easy to keep clean and is non-corrosive so it doesn’t rust.<br />STEEL – Hardwearing and incredible strength. This allows you to increase the span and length of the stair and makes it great for commercial stairs that are exposed to high traffic.<br />STONE – Marble stairs can have creative inlayed geometric or floral patterns and can also be carve into vertical slabs or tiles, granite gives a rich shiny look, sandstone provides a more rustic feel. One can choose different stones in combination as per tastes, needs and the décor of the surrounding area.<br />
  30. 30. STAIRCASE LIGHTING<br />Stairway Lighting is required, with light switches at top and bottom of the stairway if the stairs encompass more than three stair treads (Canada) or six stair treads (U.S.).<br />List of Common Stair Lighting Defects<br /><ul><li> Interior light fixtures or switches used on outside stairs - not weather protected (see </li></ul> photo at left)<br /><ul><li> Stair lighting missing or light switches not present at both top and bottom
  31. 31. Stair light switches not properly located (wrong height)
  32. 32. Stair lights burned out, damaged, not working
  33. 33. Stair or landing lighting too dim - insufficient lumens</li></li></ul><li>THINGS TO BE KEPT IN MIND<br /><ul><li> Define
  34. 34. Winder steps
  35. 35. Hang on
  36. 36. It’s a long way to the top
  37. 37. Stair generosity
  38. 38. Plan. plan, plan
  39. 39. Dimensions
  40. 40. Check with the experts
  41. 41. Continuous handrail
  42. 42. Riser positions, the size of handrails
  43. 43. Finishing the job</li></li></ul><li>Latest Stair<br /> This section is a showcase of the more recent stairs that are use nowadays. The combination of glass, timber, stainless steel, wires are being used widely. The large landing at the bottom of the stair, the combination of both open and closed risers  <br />
  44. 44. Feature Stair<br /> Feature stairs can be either classic or contemporary in design because what defines them is not so much their style as their prominence and importance to the interior design as a whole. Feature stairs are a statement, they represent the designer’s commitment to complete harmony of the space.<br />
  45. 45. Contemporary Stair<br />Contemporary stairs offer the designer opportunities that classic designs don’t – individuality and design. Contemporary  design can be gloriously simple using clean lines or gracefully curved.<br />
  46. 46. Curved Stair<br /> Curved staircases that have a highly complex structure, must also meet in-depth building regulations. It can be a paradox that the staircase must marry perfectly with the space provided and appear simple and almost effortless when completed. <br />
  47. 47. Modern Stair<br /> Modern stairs typically look clean and sleek. They often incorporate material such as glass and stainless steel and create a focal point for the home. With so many options now available in stair components and materials, modern stairs allows the designer to let their imaginations run wild.<br />
  48. 48. Classic Stair<br /> Classic stairs are reflective and have in the past at times fallen victim to the parody syndrome where grand designs of say the Victorian era are reproduced with little regard to detail, form or truth, only imitation. <br />
  49. 49. Traditional Stair<br /> Creating staircases of style and character, in the true traditions of a particular architectural era is something that you should only trust to the experts. Whether you are renovating, extending or building from scratch in any of the classical styles, you deserve to have attention paid to the integral design of the stair as well as the finer details.<br />
  50. 50. Commercial Stair<br /> Built commercial stairs for retail business such as cafes, nursing homes and apartment buildings, to name a few. The high quality materials should be used, it will ensure that the stairs will stand the test of time, particularly for commercial stairs which are subject to high foot traffic.<br />
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  54. 54. Click here to watch “How to build concrete stairs”<br />Click here to watch “How to build stairs”<br />