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Cause and effect relationships


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  • 1. Cause and Effect Relationships
    By Kristin Davis
    May 2010
  • 2. Why teach cause and effect relationships?
    This unit is intended for 2nd grade students, including students with Early Intermediate and Intermediate English language proficiency
    I chose the theme of cause and effect relationships because it is a 2nd grade reading standard. The standard is listed as Literary Text: Develop an Interpretation- Describe cause-and-effect of specific events (EL.02.LI.06)
    I also chose this theme because it is something that students have some background knowledge about because of being in cause and effect situations themselves. It is an important concept for students to understand because it is something that they will experience throughout their lives
  • 3. Texts for teaching cause and effect relationships
    Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by Judith Viorist
    The Day Jimmy’s Boa Ate the Wash by Steven Kellogg
    The Berenstain Bears and the Truth by Jan and Stan Berenstain
    If You Give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff
    Tops and Bottoms by Janet Stevens
    All of these texts include cause and effect situations/relationships.Thetexts include pictures and illustrations, which will be helpful for English Language Learners. The visuals of the illustrations will help them better understand the concept. Also, they are entertaining books that will keep students interested.
  • 4. Strategies used throughout unit to help ell students
    Visuals (pictures in books, pictures on posters, sentence frames, etc.)
    Sentence Frames(help students express their understanding of a cause and effect relationship and practice using the language)
    Think Aloud (teacher helps model cause and effect relationships in read alouds)
    Comprehension Questions (teacher asks comprehension questions about read alouds to help determine how well students are understanding cause and effect relationships in stories)
    Think-Pair-Share (students will share ideas with each and model language as they share)
  • 5. Concepts to be understood by students
    The first concept that I want students to understand is what a cause is and what an effect is
    The second concept that I want students to understand is what a cause and effect situation/relationship is
  • 6. Sentence frames to used throughout unit
    Cause Effect
    ________, so ________.
    When ________, then ________.
    Since _______, _________.
    Effect  Cause
    ________ because ________.
  • 7. Lesson #1: Introduction of the concept of cause and effect
    Hang cause and effect poster and display sentence frames in pocket chart
    Ask students to share if they know what ‘cause’ or ‘effect’ mean (maybe Think-Pair-Share)
    Share with students the meaning of words
    Show students baggie with egg inside
    Drop egg and ask students what happened (students answer) and ask them why that happened (students answer)
    Draw a picture of the cause and effect on the poster and fill in sentence frames with student’s responses
  • 8. Lesson #2: Cause and Effect read aloud
    Review egg activity and meaning of ‘cause’ and ‘effect’
    Review sentence frames
    Introduce Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by having students Think-Pair-Share about a bad day they have had and what happened to them
    Have a few students share and discuss that the student’s job is to listen to the story for cause and effect situations
    Read the story
    Have students identify cause and effect situations and use cause and effect poster and sentence frames to record student’s responses
  • 9. Lesson #3: Cause and effect read aloud
    Review meaning of ‘cause’ and ‘effect’
    Introduce the read aloud by discussing what the words ‘boa’ and ‘wash’ mean
    Also have students make predictions about what they think might happen in the story (maybe Think-Pair-Share)
    Read The Day Jimmy’s Boa Ate the Wash
    Discuss cause and effect situations throughout the story by modeling and thinking aloud
    Fill in more on our cause and effect poster with a situation or two that happened in the story
    Students use sentence frames to write another cause and effect situation from the story
  • 10. Lesson #4: Cause and Effect matching activity
    Review the meaning of ‘cause’ and ‘effect’
    Review cause and effect situations that we have discussed (in stories and in real-life) from previous lessons
    Gather students in a circle on the floor and pick a volunteer to help me
    Show students how to play cause and effect matching activity with a partner
    Students will play with a partner
    Afterwards, they will work with their partner to fill out cause and effect worksheet by picking 3 or 4 of their favorite cause and effect situations and drawing pictures or writing sentences
  • 11. Lesson #5: Real-life cause and effect situations
    Review the meaning of ‘cause’ and ‘effect’, as well as the poster and sentence frames
    Introduce overhead with cause and effect fill-in-the-blank sentences
    Students help me fill in the blanks
    Think of more real-life cause and effect situations and write them in sentences