Cause and Effect Relationships By Kristin Davis May 2010
Why teach cause and effect relationships? This unit is intended for 2nd grade students, including students with Early Intermediate and Intermediate English language proficiency I chose the theme of cause and effect relationships because it is a 2nd grade reading standard. The standard is listed as Literary Text: Develop an Interpretation- Describe cause-and-effect of specific events (EL.02.LI.06) I also chose this theme because it is something that students have some background knowledge about because of being in cause and effect situations themselves. It is an important concept for students to understand because it is something that they will experience throughout their lives
Texts for teaching cause and effect relationships Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by Judith Viorist The Day Jimmy’s Boa Ate the Wash by Steven Kellogg The Berenstain Bears and the Truth by Jan and Stan Berenstain If You Give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff Tops and Bottoms by Janet Stevens All of these texts include cause and effect situations/relationships.Thetexts include pictures and illustrations, which will be helpful for English Language Learners. The visuals of the illustrations will help them better understand the concept. Also, they are entertaining books that will keep students interested.
Strategies used throughout unit to help ell students Visuals (pictures in books, pictures on posters, sentence frames, etc.) Sentence Frames(help students express their understanding of a cause and effect relationship and practice using the language) Think Aloud (teacher helps model cause and effect relationships in read alouds) Comprehension Questions (teacher asks comprehension questions about read alouds to help determine how well students are understanding cause and effect relationships in stories) Think-Pair-Share (students will share ideas with each and model language as they share)
Concepts to be understood by students The first concept that I want students to understand is what a cause is and what an effect is The second concept that I want students to understand is what a cause and effect situation/relationship is Effect Cause
Sentence frames to used throughout unit Cause Effect ________, so ________. When ________, then ________. Since _______, _________. Effect Cause ________ because ________.
Lesson #1: Introduction of the concept of cause and effect Hang cause and effect poster and display sentence frames in pocket chart Ask students to share if they know what ‘cause’ or ‘effect’ mean (maybe Think-Pair-Share) Share with students the meaning of words Show students baggie with egg inside Drop egg and ask students what happened (students answer) and ask them why that happened (students answer) Draw a picture of the cause and effect on the poster and fill in sentence frames with student’s responses
Lesson #2: Cause and Effect read aloud Review egg activity and meaning of ‘cause’ and ‘effect’ Review sentence frames Introduce Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by having students Think-Pair-Share about a bad day they have had and what happened to them Have a few students share and discuss that the student’s job is to listen to the story for cause and effect situations Read the story Have students identify cause and effect situations and use cause and effect poster and sentence frames to record student’s responses
Lesson #3: Cause and effect read aloud Review meaning of ‘cause’ and ‘effect’ Introduce the read aloud by discussing what the words ‘boa’ and ‘wash’ mean Also have students make predictions about what they think might happen in the story (maybe Think-Pair-Share) Read The Day Jimmy’s Boa Ate the Wash Discuss cause and effect situations throughout the story by modeling and thinking aloud Fill in more on our cause and effect poster with a situation or two that happened in the story Students use sentence frames to write another cause and effect situation from the story
Lesson #4: Cause and Effect matching activity Review the meaning of ‘cause’ and ‘effect’ Review cause and effect situations that we have discussed (in stories and in real-life) from previous lessons Gather students in a circle on the floor and pick a volunteer to help me Show students how to play cause and effect matching activity with a partner Students will play with a partner Afterwards, they will work with their partner to fill out cause and effect worksheet by picking 3 or 4 of their favorite cause and effect situations and drawing pictures or writing sentences
Lesson #5: Real-life cause and effect situations Review the meaning of ‘cause’ and ‘effect’, as well as the poster and sentence frames Introduce overhead with cause and effect fill-in-the-blank sentences Students help me fill in the blanks Think of more real-life cause and effect situations and write them in sentences