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An introduction to child abuse

An introduction to child abuse

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Safeguarding children sam Safeguarding children sam Presentation Transcript

  • Safeguarding Children
    ‘The sad history of where child protection has failed is littered with examples of different agencies having different procedures and different thresholds for intervention’
    Peter Clarke (All Wales Child Protection Procedures 2008)
  • Definition of child abuse and neglect
    A child is abused or neglected when somebody inflicts harm, or fails to act to prevent harm.
    Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting, by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger.
    A child or young person up to the age of 18 years can suffer abuse or neglect and require protection via an inter-agency child protection plan.
    (All Wales Child Protection Procedures 2008)
  • Definition of child abuse and neglect
     
    Making a child feel unwanted, ugly, worthless, guilty, unloved
    Being physically violent to a child
    Exploiting a child sexually
    Failing to provide the things needed for a child to grow
    Child abuse is not usually one single incident but part of a pattern of behaviour; it takes place over a period of time and its effects add up…….. abusers come from all social, economic, ethnic, racial and religious groups.
    (KIDSCAPE)
  • Physical abuse
    May involve:
    hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning
    scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child.
    physical harm may also be caused when a parent or caregiver fabricates or induces illness in a child whom they are looking after
  • Emotional abuse
    Persistent emotional ill treatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development.
    It may involve:
    conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved,
    that they are inadequate or valued only in so far as they meet the needs of another person
    age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children
    causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger e.g.
    witnessing domestic abuse within the home
    being bullied
    exploitation or corruption of children
    Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of ill treatment of a child, though it may occur alone
  • Sexual abuse
    Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening.
    It may involve:
    physical contact, including penetrative or non-penetrative acts
    non contact activities, such as involving children in
    looking at, or in the production of, pornographic material or watching sexual activities
    encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways.
  • Neglect
    Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development.
    It may involve:
    a parent or caregiver failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing
    failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger
    the failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment
    neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs
    may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance misuse
  • Fabricated or induced illness
    The term FII (Fabricated/Factitious/Induced Illness) should be reserved for parents who are causing the child harm, or risk of harm, as a result of deliberate fabrication/induction of illness. Cases may vary from very mild to severe and life threatening.
    It may include:
    exaggerating real illness and symptoms
    fabrication of symptoms - sleep apnoea, seizures, asthma attacks and allergy;
    falsifying signs, tests and records, for example addition of blood or sugar
    to urine, false temperature records
    inducing physical illness, for example poisoning, suffocation, starvation or
    inappropriate diet
    sudden unexpected death of infant or child
    false allegations of abuse;
    encouraging or requiring the child to appear disabled, including learning
    disability and/or obtaining unnecessary specialist treatments or equipment for the child.
  • Accidental injuries
    Usually found on:
    forehead
    nose
    chin
    bony spine
    elbows
    forearm
    hip
    knees
    shin
    Usually caused by: tripping, falling, slipping, playing, walking into things
  • Non-accidental injuries
    Usually found on:
    eyes – bruising (particularly both eyes)
    cheek, side of face – bruising finger marks
    mouth – torn frenulum
    shoulders – bruising, grasping marks
    genitals – bruising
    knees – grasp marks
    skull – fracture, bruising
    ears – pinch, slap marks
    chest – bruising
    back / buttocks / thighs – linear bruising, outline of belt / buckle, scalds, burns
    bite marks – note size of bite impression
  • Other signs
    aggressive behaviour
    withdrawn, timid behaviour
    failure to make / or maintain relationships
    low self-esteem
    lack of self-confidence
    school phobia
    inappropriate sexual knowledge
    poor health and hygiene
    inadequate clothing for the weather conditions
    lack of protection and supervision
  • What everyone should do
    Every person in contact with or working with children, young people and their families........should:
    understand their role and responsibilities to safeguard and promote the welfare of children;
    be familiar with and follow their organisation’s procedures and protocols for safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and know who to contact in their organisation to express concerns about a child’s welfare;
    be alert to indicators of abuse and neglect;
    have access to and comply with the All Wales Child Protection Procedures;
    understand the principles and practice contained in Safeguarding Children: Working Together under the Children Act 2004
  • If any person has knowledge, concerns or suspicions that a child is suffering, has suffered or is likely to be at risk of harm,
    it is their responsibility to ensure that the concerns are referred to social services or the police, who have statutory duties and
    powers to make enquiries and intervene when necessary
  • What to do if a child tells you that they or another young person is being abused
    show the child that you have heard what they are saying, and that you take their allegations seriously;
    encourage the child to talk, but do not prompt or ask leading questions;
    don’t interrupt when the child is recalling significant events.
    don’t make the child repeat their account;
    explain what actions you must take, in a way that is appropriate to the age and understanding of the child;
    do not promise to keep what you have been told secret or confidential, as you have a responsibility to disclose information to those who need to know. Reporting concerns is not a betrayal of trust;
    write down as soon as you can and no later than 24 hours what you have been told, using the exact words if possible;
  • report your concerns to your line manager or (if appropriate) the member of staff in your organisation with designated responsibility for child protection;
    ensure that your concerns are immediately reported to the duty social worker at the local office. Do not delay;
    do not confront the alleged abuser;
    do not worry that you may be mistaken. You will always be taken seriously by social services. It is better to have discussed it with somebody with the experience and responsibility to make an assessment;
    make a note of the date, time, place and people who were present at the discussion.
  • How to behave if a child tells you they are being abused
    listen – accept what is being said
    don’t express verbally or non-verbally
    how it makes you feel
    reassure – disclosing abuse is a very hard thing
    for a child to do
    don’t make false promises
    react – make it clear to the child what you have
    to do next and who you have to talk to
    write – write up your notes in as full a way as
    possible
    follow – the procedures in the setting
    talk – to a senior member of staff (remembering
    confidentiality)