Ptd Guidelines


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Participatory Technology Development (PPT)

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Ptd Guidelines

  2. 2. PARTICIPATORY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Participatory Technology Development (PTD) is one of the established methods for ensuring effective people’s participation in developing technologies. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS PTD ? <ul><li>PTD is a process of purposeful and creative interaction between local farming groups and the change agency for generating acceptable and affordable technologies. It is a process of building up farmers capacity to identify, innovate, test and evaluate the intended technologies enabling them to find a solution for their perceived problems. </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE PURPOSE OF ‘PTD’ -For Farmers <ul><li>It helps in solving farm related problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Expands their horizon of knowledge by providing various options to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens their inquiring tendency. </li></ul><ul><li>Builds up the capacities to experiment. </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE PURPOSE OF ‘PTD’ -For Change Agency <ul><li>Helps in getting a deeper understanding of the farmers’ status. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in understanding of farming situations and priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a favorable situation for introducing its ideas on the field. </li></ul>
  6. 6. EXPECTED OUTCOME <ul><li>Development of ‘location specific technologies’ for the identified problem, by integrating the local technologies with the recommended technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved capabilities of farming groups in farm trials and innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater use of Low External Inputs and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) technologies in farm production. </li></ul><ul><li>Building and strengthening of linkages with partners enabling improved access to external resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved ‘farmer to farmer communication’. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups from critical mass for further diffusion of technologies. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ROLE OF ‘PTD’ <ul><li>To improve indigenous technologies by careful use of external inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable greater acceptance of ‘eco-friendly’ technologies by farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>To foster effective spread of new technologies within a region. </li></ul><ul><li>To make farmers more self reliant in agriculture. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘PTD’ <ul><li>Problem solving approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on LEISA technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Create learning situations for farmers to try on their own lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers as innovators and not passive receivers of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Trials based on farmers needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of concerned partners enabling linkages. </li></ul>
  9. 9. When to do PTD? <ul><li>When appropriate technologies are not available/known for a particular problem in a specific location. </li></ul><ul><li>When the existing technology involves high external input usage leading to high production cost and causing damage to the environment. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Where is ‘PTD’ done? <ul><li>PTD is done on farmers’ fields who are willing to take up trials. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is for comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>Control plots are also to be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Control plots should be similar to the trial plots in all the aspects. </li></ul>
  11. 11. PARTNERS IN ‘PTD’ <ul><li>Farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives from change agency. </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives from Dept. of Agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives from Agril. Research stns. </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives from input suppliers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. PROCESS INVOLVED IN ‘PTD’ <ul><li>Step 1: Getting started. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Setting up a goal/objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Designing experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Trying things out. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Sharing the results. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Keeping up the process. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ‘ PTD’ Step 1: Getting started. <ul><li>a) Purpose : It is a familiarization process. This includes how PTD practitioners from outside the community choose an area, introduce themselves, build up a good relationship with the local people, analyze the existing agricultural situation and form a basis for cooperation with network of farmers to start the process of technology development. This includes widening of all involved about the sociological, socio economic, cultural and political dimensions of the current situation. </li></ul>
  14. 14. ‘ PTD’ Step 1: Getting started. <ul><li>b) Process : </li></ul><ul><li>Village selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Building up rapport with the local communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather and analyze data on the existing agricultural situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Build contacts with necessary people in the village, like village leaders, school teachers, local institution heads, local experiment station staff etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify group of farmers willing to participate in the PTD process. </li></ul>
  15. 15. ‘ PTD’ Step 1: Getting started. <ul><li>c) Suggested methods : </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and group contacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Group meetings / discussions. </li></ul><ul><li>PRA / RRA. </li></ul><ul><li>Community walks. </li></ul><ul><li>Community led surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing secondary data. </li></ul>
  16. 16. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 1. <ul><li>A basic understanding of the socio-cultural and agro ecological situation in the selected villages. </li></ul><ul><li>A clear perspective on the cooperation between the local communities and the PTD team. </li></ul><ul><li>A core network of persons, groups and organizations that can play a role in strengthening and sustaining the local experimenting capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of farmers willing to conduct PTD identified </li></ul>
  17. 17. ‘ PTD’ Step 2: Setting up a goal/objective <ul><li>a) Purpose : </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose is to enable farmers to identify and prioritize problems, analyze information, identify options for dealing with the problems and develop an agenda for PTD. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ‘ PTD’ Step 2: Setting up a goal/objective <ul><li>b) Process : </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying crop related problems by farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritizing problems by farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Screening local knowledge and past experimentation for likely options for further testing or for unresolved problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering promising ideas from outside the villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching consensus on the plan of action for conducting PTD. </li></ul><ul><li>(selecting priority problem, developing selection criteria and screening options etc.) </li></ul>
  19. 19. ‘ PTD’ Step 2: Setting up a goal/objective <ul><li>c) Suggested methods : </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer workshops. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovator workshops. </li></ul><ul><li>Key informant group interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrammatic representation of: </li></ul><ul><li>- case histories </li></ul><ul><li>- preference ranking </li></ul><ul><li>-inventory of farmers indicators </li></ul><ul><li>-study tours </li></ul><ul><li>Preference ranking to understand farmers priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Study tours to gather ideas from other farms. </li></ul>
  20. 20. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 2. <ul><li>An accepted agenda for PTD </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in farmers skills in analysing problems and looking for options </li></ul><ul><li>Increased social awareness and self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>PTD groups established </li></ul><ul><li>An improved organisational basis for conducting systematic local trials. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ‘ PTD’ Step 3: Designing experiments <ul><li>a) Purpose : </li></ul><ul><li>To develop trials that suit farmers’ purposes and to strengthen their capacity (skills, organization and self confidence) in designing trials independently. The idea is to improve, reinforce and add to farmers’ experimental practice. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ‘ PTD’ Step 3: Designing experiments <ul><li>b) Process : </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing farmers trials in the past </li></ul><ul><li>(what do they try out/ how do they do it/ why do they do it etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and designing the selected trials (who/size of plots/control plots/criteria for location selection/treatment plans/layout trials/inputs required etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Developing protocols for evaluating trials (criteria for evaluation/who will do recording observations/monitoring, when, how etc) </li></ul>
  23. 23. ‘ PTD’ Step 3: Designing experiments <ul><li>c) Suggested methods : </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer to farmer training </li></ul><ul><li>Testing alternate options </li></ul>
  24. 24. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 3. <ul><li>Experimental designs that are reliable, evaluable and manageable by farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved skills of farmers to design trials. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation systems in place. </li></ul>
  25. 25. ‘ PTD’ Step 4: Trying things out <ul><li>a) Purpose : </li></ul><ul><li>To carry out, measure and assess the trials and build up farmers testing skills, strengthening their capacities to conduct and monitor trials. </li></ul>
  26. 26. ‘ PTD’ Step 4: Trying things out <ul><li>b) Process : </li></ul><ul><li>Actual implementation of the trials designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the skills required for conducting trials. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanges and linkage building with other communities and organizations. </li></ul>
  27. 27. ‘ PTD’ Step 4: Trying things out <ul><li>c) Suggested methods : </li></ul><ul><li>Step wise implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular group meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>Field days/Exchange visits. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening supportive linkages. </li></ul>
  28. 28. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 4. <ul><li>A growing number of experiments, with technologies relevant to local situations, are implemented and evaluated systematically. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of PTD network, within and between villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional linkages are built. </li></ul><ul><li>The practical skills of involved groups of farmers to implement and evaluate experiments systematically are strengthened. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing active support of outside organisations and institutions. </li></ul>
  29. 29. ‘ PTD’ Step 5: Sharing the results <ul><li>PURPOSE: </li></ul><ul><li>The main aim is to diffuse both promising options to try with as well as ideas and experiences about how to conduct trials i.e., innovative concepts, skills forms of organisation. </li></ul>
  30. 30. ‘ PTD’ Step 5: Sharing the results <ul><li>b) Suggested methods : </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer to farmer training individual level and group level (formal/informal training) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers meet </li></ul><ul><li>Field days and stakeholder workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Visit to sites where PTD is conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation and dissemination through products like manuals, audio-visuals etc. </li></ul>
  31. 31. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 5. <ul><li>Enhanced farmer to farmer diffusion of ideas and technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>An increasing number of villages involve themselves in processes of organized technology development, making use of the experiences of other communities. </li></ul><ul><li>A farmer-managed system of inter-village training and communication. </li></ul>
  32. 32. ‘ PTD’ Step 6: Keeping up the process <ul><li>a) PURPOSE: </li></ul><ul><li>After the trial process, to leave the communities with the ongoing capacity to implement effective and reliable PTD processes. </li></ul>
  33. 33. ‘ PTD’ Step 6: Keeping up the process <ul><li>b) Process : </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting PTD groups to consolidate. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening consolidation of inter-village cooperation, eg., by stimulating linking up with existing, or developing new, farmer’s organizations at area level. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating the institutional support for local PTD processes by promoting farmers participation in formal research programmes, providing training possibilities for staff of those institutions, promoting policy level support to PTD in area-development strategies and institutional mandates. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing local systems for monitoring the trials and diffusion process and its impact on the agro-ecological system and the livelihood of the communities involved. </li></ul>
  34. 34. ‘ PTD’ Step 6: Keeping up the process <ul><li>C) Suggested methods : </li></ul><ul><li>Regular group meetings, networking and building linkages with the formal research institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation/developing resource material </li></ul><ul><li>Developing linkages between PTD groups and mass media like radio, news papers etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring impacts. </li></ul>
  35. 35. EXPECTED OUTCOME OF STEP 6. <ul><li>Consolidated community networks/organizations for agricultural self management and a more supportive institutional environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Documented and operationalised PTD approach and resource materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensured relevant services and input supply. </li></ul>
  36. 36. CONCLUSION <ul><li>In the context of improving farming systems, technology development is a never ending process. No technology will ever be permanent. In such a situation, the farming communities should be change oriented. It is therefore of prime importance to strengthen their innovative spirit and build up the capacity to continue innovating. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Thank You For Your Kind Attention