1850 1850-70 1857 Bessemer Process Sweat Shops Fredrick Olmstead Developed Is a negatively Landscape architect,independently by the connoted term for spearheaded theBritish manufacturers. any working movement for the Henry Bessemer and environment planned urban parks. American ironmaker considered to be 1857 Olmstead helped William Kelly, soon unacceptably draw up a plan for became widely used. difficult or “greensward” which This technique dangerous. was selected to becomeinvolved injecting air Central Park in NYC. into molten iron to remove the carbonand other impurities.
1859 1862 1862 Social Darwinism Homesteader Homestead Act Grew out of the English Settler on the free naturalist Charles Darwin’s Congress passed in 1862. This Act land that thetheory of biological evolution. government was Darwin described his which offered 160 acres of land free to giving out by the observation that some Homestead Act. individuals of a species any citizen orflourish and passed their traits intended citizens along to the next generation who was head of while others do not. He the household. explained that a process of 1862-1900 up to natural selection weeded out 600,000 families less suited individuals and took advantage of enabled the best adapted to the governments survive. offer..
Credit Mobilizer Form in 1864, Exoduster stockholders gave thisAfrican American company awho moved form contract to lay the Post- track at two to Reconstruction three times thesouth to Kansas, actual cost and part of the pocketed the Homestead Act. profits.. 1862 1864 1864 1866 Sand Creek Massacre Buffalo Soldiers Most of the Cheyenne, assuming Formed in 1866, from the they were under the protection U.S. 10th Cavalry of the U.S. government had regiment, the buffalo peacefully returned to soldiers were established Colorado’s Sand Creek Reserve by congress as first of winter. General S.R. Curtis peacetime all-black telegram to Colonel John regiment in the regular Chivington that read, “I want no U.S. Army. These peace till the Indians suffer regiments served to a more.” Nov.29, 1864 his trooped variety of posts in the attack at dawn and killed over southwest and Midwest 1,150 inhabitants, mostly women region of the U.S. and children.
1867 1867 1867 Oliver Kelley Grange Grandfather Clause 1867 started the Grange members Stated that if a man spent most of theirPatron of Husbandry, failed the literacy test an organization for time and energy or could not pay the fighting the railroads. farmers that became poll tax, he was popularly know as The Granges battle entitled to a vote if plan included the Grange. Its he, his father, ororiginal purpose was teaching its members grandfather had been how to organize, how to provide a social eligible to vote before outlet and an to set up farmers private facilities. cooperatives and educational forum for isolated farm how to sponsor state families. legislation to regulate railroads.
Tammany Hall Transcontinental NYC most Railroad powerful Democratic A railroad linepolitical machine linking the Atlanticin 1868. Headed and the Pacific by Boss tweed. Coasts of the U.S. completes in 1869.. 1868 1869 1869 Trust Participants in a trust turned their stocks over to a group of trustees-people who ran the separate companies were entitled to dividends on profits earned by the trust.
1869 1870 1870 John D. Rockfeller Established the Standard Oil Company, took Graft Tweed Ring a different approach to mergers, they joined competing companies in trust agreements. Once a political machine He used trust to gain total control of the oil got its candidates into Boss Tweed became industry in America. In 1870 Rockfeller’s office, it could take head of Tammany Hall Standard Oil Company of Ohio processed advantage of numerous in 1868. Between 1869- two or three of the country crude oil. Within opportunities for graft-1971 Boss Tweed led the a decade it controlled 90 percent of the the illegal use of tweed ring, a group of refining. Rockfeller reaped huge profits by political influence for corrupt politicians in paying his employees extremely low wages personal gain. defrauding a city. and driving his competitors out by selling his oil at a lower price than it cost to produce it. Then he controlled the market, he hiked prices far above original levels.
Jacob Riis 1870, left his native Denmark for U.S. Riis found work as a police reporter, a job that took him into some of New York City’s worst slums, where he was shocked at the conditions in the overcrowded, airless, filthy tenements. Riis used his talents to expose the hardships of NYC Police. 1870 1871 1873 Andrew CarnegieFredrick Olmstead By 1865, Carnegie was so Planned busy managing the money landscapes for he had earned in dividendsWashington D.C. that he happily left his job at and St.Louis. the Penn. Railroad. He entered the steel business in 1873 after touring a British steel mill and witnessing the awesome spectacle of the Bessemer process in action.
Sitting Bull In early June, 1876, theGeorge A. Custer Sioux and Cheyenne held a sun dance, during which He reported that Sitting Bull had a visions ofhe the Black Hills soldiers and some Native had Gold “from Americans falling from their the grass roots horses. When Coloneldown”. Gold rush Custer and his troops was on. reached Little Bighorn River, the Native American were ready for them. 1874 1876 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn AKA Custer’s last Stand. Occurred on June 25 and 26, 1876. Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribe against the 7th Regiments of the U.S. 700 men led by Custer suffered a serve defeat.
George A Custer Led the 7th Regiment in the Battle of Little Bighorn. The Native American outflanked and crushed Custer’s troop. Within an hour, Custer and all of the men of the 7th Cavalry were dead. 1876 1876 1876 Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Alva Edison Invented the telephone Became a pioneer on the with Thomas Watson new industrial frontierhelp. It opened a way for a when he establishes the worldwide world’s first researchcommunication networks. laboratory in Mento Telephone particular Park, NJ. affected office workers and created new jobs for women.
Dumbbell Tenements Political Machine Law that required that An organized group that every inhabitable room controller the activities of ahave a window opening to Thomas Edison political party in a city, plain air, a requirement there also offered services Perfected the incandescent to voters and business in that was meant by light bulb and later invented exchange for political ofincluding air shaft between and entire system for financial support.. In the adjacent buildings. The air producing and distributing decades after the civil war, shaft gives each tenement electrical power. political machines gained the shape of a dumbbell. control of local government in Baltimore. 1879 1880 1880
Ida B. Wells Moved to Memphis in 1880’s to work as a teacher. She later became a editor of a paper. Radical Justice was a persistent theme in her reporting. The events of March 9, 1892 turned that theme into a crusade. Three African American business, friends of Wells, were illegally executed without a trial. 1880 1880 1880 George Pullman Ragtime Built a factory for A Blend a African manufacturing American andsleepers and other European musical railroad cars on forms, it originatedthe Illinois prairie. in saloons of the south in the 1880’s.
Joseph Pulitzer A Hungarian immigrant who hasGeorge Westinghouse bought the NY world Along with Edison, in 1883. Pioneeredadded innovations that popular innovation, make electricity safer such as Sunday and less expensive. edition, comics, sports coverage. 1881 1881 1883 Booker T. Washington Believed that racism would end once blacks acquires useful labor skills and proved their economic valve to society. By 1881 he headed the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. In which he aimed to educated African American by teaching diplomats and useful skills.
Sitting Bull By late 1876, however, the Sioux were beaten. Sitting Bull and a few followers took refuge in Canada, where they remained until 188. Eventually, to prevent his people’s starvation, Sitting Bull was Forced to Surrender. Later, in 1885 he Appears in William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show. 1884 1885 1886 Settlement House Mugwumps Community Centers in Republicans who slum neighborhoods that refused to vote provided assistance torepublican in1884. Blaire people in the area political and financial especially immigrants, corruption, supported many settlement workers Govern Cleavland lived at the house so that Democrat. they could learn firsthand about the problems caused by urbanization and help create solution.
Haymarket Affair Dawes Act Encouraged by the Congress passed this Act impact of the 1871 strike, aiming to Americanize thelabor leaders continues to Interstate Commerce Act Native American. The Act press for change. On the broke up the reservations Reestablished that right of evening of May 4, 1886, and gave some of the federal government to 3,000 people gathered at reservations land to supervise railroad activities Chicago Haymarket individual Indians, 160 acres and establish a five manSquares to protect. Police to each head of the Interstate Commerce brutality-a striker had household and 80 acres to Commission. been killed the day each unmarried adult. before. 1886 1887 1887
Jane Addams One of most influential member of the movement (Social Gospel Movement). Addams was also an antiwar activist, a spokesperson for radical justice and an advocate for quality of life issues. 1888 1889 1890 Wounded Knee Dec. 28, 1890, the 7th Cavalry, rounded up about 350 starvingGeorge Eastman and freezing Sioux and took Introduced his them to wounded knee creek in Kodak camera. South Dakota. The nest day The price $25 soldiers demanded that that included a 100 Sioux give up there weapons. Apictorial of film. Shot was fires and soldiers open fired with deadly cannons, within minutes they slaughtered about 300 unarmed Indians. This event brought the Indian War to an end.
Ellis Island Ghost Dance About 20 percent of A ritual Indians immigrants at Ellislands and way of Sherman Antitrust Act Island were life would be Made it illegal to form detained for a day or restored. Ghost a trust that interfered more before beingDance movement with free trade inspected. However, spread rapidly between states or with only about 2 percentamong the 25,000 other companies. of those who were Sioux on the detained were Dakota denied. Reservation. 1890 1890 1892
Omaha Platform Was the party Scab program adopted at the formativeA strikebreaker to convention of thekept the company Populism Party going while a held in Omaha strike was going Nebraska on July on. 4th, 1892 1892 1892 1892 1883 Populism Urbanization The movement of the The result of rapid people. Political growth of movement where the cities,mostly in the people have a greater region of the North voice in government East and Midwest. and seeking to Technological boom in advance the interests the late 19th century. of farmers and laborers. scab
Pullman Strike Pullman had hoped that his tightly controlled environment would ensure a stable work force. However, pay led to a violent strike in 1894. 1894 1894 1895 Eugene V Deb William RandolphSome labors leader felt Hearst that unions should The Wealthy Hearst had include all laborers- purchased the New York skilled and unskilled Morning Journal in 1895, in a specific industry and Owned the San which captured the Francisco Examiner. imagination ofEugene. 1894, the newunion won a strike for higher wages.
William Mckinley Plessy VS Ferguson 1896 Republican partynominated Ohioan William In 1896 this, the Mckinley for president. Supreme Court Mckniley got ruled that the approximately 7 million separation of races votes and carries the east. in public With Mckinley edition, accommodations Populism collapsed was legal and did burying the hopes of the not violate the 14th farmers. Amendment. 1896 1896 1896 Samuel Gompers Led the Cigar Makers International union to join with other craft union in 1896. The American Federation of Labor with Gompers as president , focused on collective bargaining.
Karl Marx Socialism carried to its extreme form- communism as advocate by him, would result in the overthrow of the capitalists system. 1896 1897 1899 Cross of Gold Andrew CarnegieImpassioned address deliveredby former congressmen William The Carnegie steel Jennings Bryan at the company Democratic convention in manufactured more Chicago on July 8, 1896. The steel than all the speech talk about the idea of factories in Greatlimiting the supply of gold and Britain. silver as currency and have paper currency so they would not have a shortage of money.
Angel Island Asians, primarily Chinese, arriving Andrew Carnegie on the west coast gained admission at this island in San Francisco BayBy the time he sold his Between 1910-1940 about 50,000 business in 1901, Chinese immigrants entered theCarnegie’s companies U.S. . Contrast form Ellis Island producer by the far immigrants endured harsh the largest portion of questioning and a long detention the nations steel. in filthy buildings while they waited to find out whether they would be admitted or rejected. 1901 1906 1910 Instate Commerce Commission Not until 1906, under President Theodore Roosevelt, did the ICC gain the power it needed to be effective.
Work CitedAll the pictures and photos were provided by Google imagesNez Perce: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nez_Perce_WarChief Joseph: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_JosephBuffalo Soldiers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_SoldiersGreenback: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenback_PartySweat Shop: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweat_ShopDumbbell Tenements: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Law-Tenement