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Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards
                JISC Seminar on "Digital Media +100 years“
               ...
KEEP Team and Partner Institutions




     http://www.keep-project.eu
KEEP
Vision: preserving & facilitating access to digital objects
Strategy: developing an Emulation Access Platform




Wor...
KEEP Rationale

Only emulation can preserve all characteristics of a digital
object
   Content, structure, context, appear...
Digital Preservation

Why digital preservation?
   to ensure protection of information of enduring value for access by
   ...
The challenges of digital preservation
        It was ‘possible’ to preserve written material over
        millennia
     ...
Digital Preservation Strategies
Emulation
Migration
   Refreshing
   Software (File Format) migration
Bitstream Copying (R...
The Paradox of Migration


Migration compels us to stipulate on behalf of
future generations
Loosing look-and-feel
   dyna...
Migration vs Emulation


   Jeff Rothenberg

   David Bearman

   Michael Day


Bearman, D. (1999). Reality and Chimeras i...
Metadata is crucial for any preservation strategy

 Digital information is plagued by:
    Short media life
    Obsolete h...
Preservation metadata

Metadata is a “structured information that
describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes
it easi...
Benefits of Preservation Metadata

enables a digital object to become self-
documenting over time
                        ...
Types of Information for Preservation Metadata

provenance information/custodial history

authenticity information

preser...
Metadata for Authenticity


Authenticity refers to “the quality of being what it purports to be”
                         ...
Open Archival Information System (OAIS)
OAIS is an organization of people and systems
Preservation & access for a designat...
OAIS Information Model
What does it take to be OAIS Compliant?

Use common concepts and terminologies

Fulfil six mandatory responsibilities
   n...
The RLG WG on Preservation Metadata


An earlier effort (1997/98)
A set of 16 metadata elements
for digital images
Aimed a...
The NLA PANDORA Logical Data Model

The PANDORA project was
initiated by NLA in 1996
   Ensuring long-term access to
   si...
Preservation Metadata Standards Framework
       (National Library of New Zealand)
Networked European Deposit Library (NEDLIB)
  Funded by the European Commission's Telematics
  Applications Programme (199...
NEDLIB Metadata Elements
Networked European Deposit Library (NEDLIB)
             Metadata Elements
CURL Exemplars in Digital Archives(Cedars)

Cedars was a JISC funded project in the UK from 2001-2002
(Universities of Cam...
Cedars Metadata Elements




   CEDARS Metadata Elements (Based on: Stone & Day, 1999, p. 2)
PReservation Metadata Implementation Strategies

 From theory to practice
 OCLC/RLG working group (>30 international
 expe...
Can’t Environment be an entity in its own right?




                    Environment
PREMIS Data Dictionary
PREMIS Data Dictionary
LMER (Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources)




LMER metadata elements (Based on: Steinke, 2005)
LMER (Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources)




LMER metadata elements (Based on: Steinke, 2005)
Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard
MODS in METS




         Source: http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/louis.xml
PREMIS in METS




          Source: http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/louis.xml
PREMIS in METS




          Source: http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/louis.xml
Format Registries
Metadata for Emulation Framework


Analyse state-of-the-art

Avoid duplication

Interoperability

Metadata management
Thank you for listening!

       For comments email: Getaneh.Alemu@port.ac.uk
                University of Portsmouth, UK
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Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards

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Presentation of Getaneh Alemu (UPHEC) at the seminar "The Digital Media Collection +100 Years" in Bristol (16/09/2009) organised by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)

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Transcript of "Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards"

  1. 1. Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards JISC Seminar on "Digital Media +100 years“ 16th September 2009, University of Bristol David Anderson Janet Delve Dan Pinchbeck Getaneh Agegn Alemu Antonio Ciuffreda
  2. 2. KEEP Team and Partner Institutions http://www.keep-project.eu
  3. 3. KEEP Vision: preserving & facilitating access to digital objects Strategy: developing an Emulation Access Platform Work packages
  4. 4. KEEP Rationale Only emulation can preserve all characteristics of a digital object Content, structure, context, appearance and behaviour (Rothenberg & Bikson, 1999) Digital objects have become very complex Certain types of objects can not be migrated Lack of knowledge about obsolete data carriers
  5. 5. Digital Preservation Why digital preservation? to ensure protection of information of enduring value for access by present and future generations (Conway, 1990, p. 206). How long digital objects need to be preserved? Several hundred years (Exon, 1995) Digital Media +100 years (JISC, 2009) A century (Janée, G., Mathena, J., &Frew, J., 2008 ) Five years and more! (Verheul, 2006)
  6. 6. The challenges of digital preservation It was ‘possible’ to preserve written material over millennia But we struggle to preserve digital information even for few decades The speed of technological change Exponential increase in digital data(born digital) Obsolescence Withdrawal of institutional support Legal issues
  7. 7. Digital Preservation Strategies Emulation Migration Refreshing Software (File Format) migration Bitstream Copying (Replication) Digital archeology Analogue backup
  8. 8. The Paradox of Migration Migration compels us to stipulate on behalf of future generations Loosing look-and-feel dynamic websites, games, databases, executable programs Listing significant properties is complex Reliance on standards and formats
  9. 9. Migration vs Emulation Jeff Rothenberg David Bearman Michael Day Bearman, D. (1999). Reality and Chimeras in the Preservation of Electronic Records. D-Lib Magazine, 5(4). Rothenberg, J. (1999). Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation. Council on Library and Information Resources.
  10. 10. Metadata is crucial for any preservation strategy Digital information is plagued by: Short media life Obsolete hardware & software Defunct websites (Chen, 2001) Technology mediated access with a vengeance We can not control change but we can have good metadata So we need metadata for digital preservation
  11. 11. Preservation metadata Metadata is a “structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use or manage an information resource.” (NISO, 2004) Focus has been on descriptive/bibliographic metadata Information that supports and documents the long- term preservation of digital objects (Lavoie and Gartner, 2005, p.2; OCLC/RLG, 2005).
  12. 12. Benefits of Preservation Metadata enables a digital object to become self- documenting over time (Lavoie and Gartner, 2005, p.6). supports to maintain: Viability Renderability Understandability Authenticity Identity (Woodyard-Robinson, 2006) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosetta_Stone
  13. 13. Types of Information for Preservation Metadata provenance information/custodial history authenticity information preservation activity technical environment rights management Source: (Lavoie and Gartner, 2005; Caplan, 2009)
  14. 14. Metadata for Authenticity Authenticity refers to “the quality of being what it purports to be” (OCLC/RLG, 2005, p.4-6) Digital objects that lack fixity, integrity and authenticity “are of little value to repositories” (OCLC/RLG, 2005, p.4-5) Fixity can be ensured if only the object is unchanged throughout its archival life cycle
  15. 15. Open Archival Information System (OAIS) OAIS is an organization of people and systems Preservation & access for a designated community CCSDS Blue Book 650.0-B-1:2002; ISO 14721: 2003; Pink Book: 2009
  16. 16. OAIS Information Model
  17. 17. What does it take to be OAIS Compliant? Use common concepts and terminologies Fulfil six mandatory responsibilities negotiating and accepting information from producers having enough mandate on the information determine designated community ensure understandability and usability of the content using appropriate policies and procedures ensuring availability of the preserved information
  18. 18. The RLG WG on Preservation Metadata An earlier effort (1997/98) A set of 16 metadata elements for digital images Aimed at access and preservation Not widely adopted But contributed to the development of PREMIS
  19. 19. The NLA PANDORA Logical Data Model The PANDORA project was initiated by NLA in 1996 Ensuring long-term access to significant Australian on-line publications. High level entities Identification Persistent identifier Selection and negotiation Capture Preservation Rights management and access control
  20. 20. Preservation Metadata Standards Framework (National Library of New Zealand)
  21. 21. Networked European Deposit Library (NEDLIB) Funded by the European Commission's Telematics Applications Programme (1998-2000) Led by the National Library of the Netherlands Developed the Deposit System for Electronic Publications (DSEP) DSEP adopted the OAIS functions Defined NEDLIB Metadata Elements
  22. 22. NEDLIB Metadata Elements
  23. 23. Networked European Deposit Library (NEDLIB) Metadata Elements
  24. 24. CURL Exemplars in Digital Archives(Cedars) Cedars was a JISC funded project in the UK from 2001-2002 (Universities of Cambridge, Leeds & Oxford) Cedars developed a metadata specification for long-term preservation of digital objects Cedars based its metadata schema on OAIS information model Cedars was invited by OCLC/RLG PREMIS WG
  25. 25. Cedars Metadata Elements CEDARS Metadata Elements (Based on: Stone & Day, 1999, p. 2)
  26. 26. PReservation Metadata Implementation Strategies From theory to practice OCLC/RLG working group (>30 international experts) in 2003 PREMIS Data Dictionary(2005; 2008) Core & implementable Neutrality 2005 DPC award winner
  27. 27. Can’t Environment be an entity in its own right? Environment
  28. 28. PREMIS Data Dictionary
  29. 29. PREMIS Data Dictionary
  30. 30. LMER (Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources) LMER metadata elements (Based on: Steinke, 2005)
  31. 31. LMER (Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources) LMER metadata elements (Based on: Steinke, 2005)
  32. 32. Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard
  33. 33. MODS in METS Source: http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/louis.xml
  34. 34. PREMIS in METS Source: http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/louis.xml
  35. 35. PREMIS in METS Source: http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/louis.xml
  36. 36. Format Registries
  37. 37. Metadata for Emulation Framework Analyse state-of-the-art Avoid duplication Interoperability Metadata management
  38. 38. Thank you for listening! For comments email: Getaneh.Alemu@port.ac.uk University of Portsmouth, UK
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