Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards
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Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards



Presentation of Getaneh Alemu (UPHEC) at the seminar "The Digital Media Collection +100 Years" in Bristol (16/09/2009) organised by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)

Presentation of Getaneh Alemu (UPHEC) at the seminar "The Digital Media Collection +100 Years" in Bristol (16/09/2009) organised by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)



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Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards JISC Seminar on "Digital Media +100 years“ 16th September 2009, University of Bristol David Anderson Janet Delve Dan Pinchbeck Getaneh Agegn Alemu Antonio Ciuffreda
  • 2. KEEP Team and Partner Institutions
  • 3. KEEP Vision: preserving & facilitating access to digital objects Strategy: developing an Emulation Access Platform Work packages
  • 4. KEEP Rationale Only emulation can preserve all characteristics of a digital object Content, structure, context, appearance and behaviour (Rothenberg & Bikson, 1999) Digital objects have become very complex Certain types of objects can not be migrated Lack of knowledge about obsolete data carriers
  • 5. Digital Preservation Why digital preservation? to ensure protection of information of enduring value for access by present and future generations (Conway, 1990, p. 206). How long digital objects need to be preserved? Several hundred years (Exon, 1995) Digital Media +100 years (JISC, 2009) A century (Janée, G., Mathena, J., &Frew, J., 2008 ) Five years and more! (Verheul, 2006)
  • 6. The challenges of digital preservation It was ‘possible’ to preserve written material over millennia But we struggle to preserve digital information even for few decades The speed of technological change Exponential increase in digital data(born digital) Obsolescence Withdrawal of institutional support Legal issues
  • 7. Digital Preservation Strategies Emulation Migration Refreshing Software (File Format) migration Bitstream Copying (Replication) Digital archeology Analogue backup
  • 8. The Paradox of Migration Migration compels us to stipulate on behalf of future generations Loosing look-and-feel dynamic websites, games, databases, executable programs Listing significant properties is complex Reliance on standards and formats
  • 9. Migration vs Emulation Jeff Rothenberg David Bearman Michael Day Bearman, D. (1999). Reality and Chimeras in the Preservation of Electronic Records. D-Lib Magazine, 5(4). Rothenberg, J. (1999). Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation. Council on Library and Information Resources.
  • 10. Metadata is crucial for any preservation strategy Digital information is plagued by: Short media life Obsolete hardware & software Defunct websites (Chen, 2001) Technology mediated access with a vengeance We can not control change but we can have good metadata So we need metadata for digital preservation
  • 11. Preservation metadata Metadata is a “structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use or manage an information resource.” (NISO, 2004) Focus has been on descriptive/bibliographic metadata Information that supports and documents the long- term preservation of digital objects (Lavoie and Gartner, 2005, p.2; OCLC/RLG, 2005).
  • 12. Benefits of Preservation Metadata enables a digital object to become self- documenting over time (Lavoie and Gartner, 2005, p.6). supports to maintain: Viability Renderability Understandability Authenticity Identity (Woodyard-Robinson, 2006) Source:
  • 13. Types of Information for Preservation Metadata provenance information/custodial history authenticity information preservation activity technical environment rights management Source: (Lavoie and Gartner, 2005; Caplan, 2009)
  • 14. Metadata for Authenticity Authenticity refers to “the quality of being what it purports to be” (OCLC/RLG, 2005, p.4-6) Digital objects that lack fixity, integrity and authenticity “are of little value to repositories” (OCLC/RLG, 2005, p.4-5) Fixity can be ensured if only the object is unchanged throughout its archival life cycle
  • 15. Open Archival Information System (OAIS) OAIS is an organization of people and systems Preservation & access for a designated community CCSDS Blue Book 650.0-B-1:2002; ISO 14721: 2003; Pink Book: 2009
  • 16. OAIS Information Model
  • 17. What does it take to be OAIS Compliant? Use common concepts and terminologies Fulfil six mandatory responsibilities negotiating and accepting information from producers having enough mandate on the information determine designated community ensure understandability and usability of the content using appropriate policies and procedures ensuring availability of the preserved information
  • 18. The RLG WG on Preservation Metadata An earlier effort (1997/98) A set of 16 metadata elements for digital images Aimed at access and preservation Not widely adopted But contributed to the development of PREMIS
  • 19. The NLA PANDORA Logical Data Model The PANDORA project was initiated by NLA in 1996 Ensuring long-term access to significant Australian on-line publications. High level entities Identification Persistent identifier Selection and negotiation Capture Preservation Rights management and access control
  • 20. Preservation Metadata Standards Framework (National Library of New Zealand)
  • 21. Networked European Deposit Library (NEDLIB) Funded by the European Commission's Telematics Applications Programme (1998-2000) Led by the National Library of the Netherlands Developed the Deposit System for Electronic Publications (DSEP) DSEP adopted the OAIS functions Defined NEDLIB Metadata Elements
  • 22. NEDLIB Metadata Elements
  • 23. Networked European Deposit Library (NEDLIB) Metadata Elements
  • 24. CURL Exemplars in Digital Archives(Cedars) Cedars was a JISC funded project in the UK from 2001-2002 (Universities of Cambridge, Leeds & Oxford) Cedars developed a metadata specification for long-term preservation of digital objects Cedars based its metadata schema on OAIS information model Cedars was invited by OCLC/RLG PREMIS WG
  • 25. Cedars Metadata Elements CEDARS Metadata Elements (Based on: Stone & Day, 1999, p. 2)
  • 26. PReservation Metadata Implementation Strategies From theory to practice OCLC/RLG working group (>30 international experts) in 2003 PREMIS Data Dictionary(2005; 2008) Core & implementable Neutrality 2005 DPC award winner
  • 27. Can’t Environment be an entity in its own right? Environment
  • 28. PREMIS Data Dictionary
  • 29. PREMIS Data Dictionary
  • 30. LMER (Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources) LMER metadata elements (Based on: Steinke, 2005)
  • 31. LMER (Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources) LMER metadata elements (Based on: Steinke, 2005)
  • 32. Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard
  • 33. MODS in METS Source:
  • 34. PREMIS in METS Source:
  • 35. PREMIS in METS Source:
  • 36. Format Registries
  • 37. Metadata for Emulation Framework Analyse state-of-the-art Avoid duplication Interoperability Metadata management
  • 38. Thank you for listening! For comments email: University of Portsmouth, UK