Presumed to be a cavalryman who had dismounted his horse and is holding onto the reins of his horse to strike down the enemy below him. He is characterized as nude, which – in this setting, suggest patheticness rather than perfection. His emotion is shown by having his mouth open. How is this political art? It puts the enemy in the subject, so it makes Athens look victorious. Any details are removed so as to not be able to identify particularly a specific figure. Athens, being together is a democracy wants to make the subject look generic.
Shows that the Athenians conquered a worthy foe, that was not just an easy defeat.
This is a large family monument, and at the top, a private monument was placed on the base.
There is an inscription on this base that tells us the name of the man who died – Deixileos, who, at 20, died in battle against Corinth.
The idea of placing an image on a funerary relief to look like a temple is very typical of Athenian art. Very common is scenes of parting, goodbyes, or contemplation. This is not on a public monument, but a private monument. His family is commemorating his heroism in battle. Even though is body is buried with all the other soldiers, this cenotaph is the image without the funerary coffin. Once again, shows a solider defeating an enemy. His horse shows that he is a cavalryman and that he was rich, part of the aristocracy before the war. His individual success is emphasized to give glory to the family.
The connection between Greeks and near eastern countries – especially Persia. This shows a man from the near east, shown as a vassal king of Persia named Mausolus. His tomb was so grand that it was called one of the seven wonders of the world – named after him, named the Mausoleum – a grand funerary site. It was located in his capital city of Halikarnassos. This is the sculpture of him in the chariot – he is dressed in heavy drapery.
The sharp line over his brown is a near eastern technique – also is is more characterized to look like Mausolus.
As there is a move from the Classical to the Hellenistic period – there is more emphasis on individualism in portrayal. Also political, he is not interested in portraying himself to look like everyone else, he wanted to look different, and not like everyone else.
Reconstruction drawing. At the tops shows Mausolus and his wife on a chariot. The sculptures were some of the finest Greek sculptures at the time.
Alexander was born in the 350s – his father Phillip was successful in obtaining Macedonian control. But Phillip dies, and the young Alexander takes over, and decides that he wants to take over the Persian empire. Due to his ability to mobilize all the troops of Greece, and the Macedonian fighting techniques, he is able to take control of Persia. His accomplishments were on a completely new scale. He was careful about maintaining his image – and had one sculpture to create his image, Lysippos. He is always identifiable by his hair, the cowlick, called anastole.
Shows wrinkles in the forehead to show intensity.
Attention to the wildness of his hair – an expression of his internal energy.
What Alexander does that he takes from the east is to create coinage that contains his image. Previously it would just be a city symbol. In this image, he is representing himself as a god. There was a story told that Alexander went to a temple and was told that he was the son of Zeus Ammon – an Egyptian god, and this is represented by the placement of the ram horn.
There are no lifesize bronzes of Alexander, although we know that Lysippos made them. This is a small copy of one of them, which may represent Alexander in a full scale sculpture. He was shown just as other heroes: nude, idealized musculature, looking as though he can take on the world.
These were Roman copies – the original would have been in bronze. This is the sarcophagus of a local ruler in the city of Sidon – a Phonecian city on the coast of Modern Lebanon. Scene of battle between Greeks and Perisans.
Figure all the way on the left with a horse and spear has been identified as Alexander – Cavalry feature identifies him as elite. He is wearing a lion skin helmet, associates him with Herucles. This is very close to an image that was in the lifetime of Alexander.
Roman sculpture is influenced by the ideas of the Hellenistic period – an interest in hyper naturalism. Realism where we see every wrinkle and line in the figure. The romans believed the way that you looked reflected your internal character – lots of wrinkles means you are old and have experience – having wisdom. Bronze sculpture from the Republican period, showing a Roman wearing a toga – reserved for only citizens, an emblem of his identity. Brutus, because it was originally thought to be much older, from the 5 th century, the one that expulsed the monarchy. Represented as older with a beard. Inlaid eyes that have an intense expression.
The style of hyper realism is called the Veristic – true to life.
This life-size and full length bronze shows a full-length figure shows a specific action, making a speech. With is arm out, is a gesture called the ad locutio – a speech gesture for public address. He is wearing a toga which had a broad hem, with military style boots. Shown aged with wrinkles. The hem has an inscription on it, giving us his name in Etruscan. Shows someone who is involved in political affairs that is bridging the divide between Roman and Etruscan affairs.
Head of the general of Pompey the Great, one of the rivals of Julius Caesar. One of the members of the first Triumvirate with Julius. He married Julius’ daughter, who died a few years later. This is a portrait, a representation of a real person.
His hair has a cowlick at the front – making reference to Alexander.