Greek art can be called eclectic, the use of classical Greek column capitals with lintels – some of the columns are constructed as arches – in a manner that would have never been used in ancient Greek – willingness in Rome to enhance Greek models.
Treasury – rock cut tomb – Indiana Jones: the last crusade! Contains curved elements, grand examples of the use of architecture in a domestic or tomb context.
Traditional type of Roman house – almost like an apartment, several stories – called Insula. Built in the period around the time of Christ – when Rome’s population increased greatly. Wealthy people would have lived on the second floor – had the least amount of stairs to climb, poorer people lived on the higher floors, and shops were reserved for the first floor.
Pompeii – a settlement of Roman villas –south of Naples – far south of Rome. A resort area, many wealthy people set up houses here. Many of the houses were destroyed in a massive volcanic eruption. Largely laid out in a grid plan. Characteristic of a large Roman city. They had an amphitheater and a public city space called the Forum.
Everything is covered in ash.
The cite of Herculaneum – a few miles away from Pompeii
Clear depiction of how the roads were constructed – higher sidewalks and stones so people could cross the streets. Wheel marks have dug grooves into the streets
A wealthy suburb for the rich to go in the summer.
Domestic architecture of the houses. Houses at pompeii were more of a villa architecture – more emphasis on the interior of the building. The exterior was kept plain and sometimes without windows. To keep out the dirt and noise from outside. Atrium included – the center was where the water was collected for practical purposes. Water directed into the house through routes from outside.
Open spaces were larger and more important – public display of the owner’s wealth. A Peristyle of columns was set up – gardens, and outdoor dining set up. There is a rising merchant middle class that starts to be able to afford these large garden villas.
Shows how styles change in the Roman Empire. Styles associated with wall painting in Pompeii – First style: plain, imitation of natural stone, as painted fresco, not elaborate
Much more elaborate – showed illusionistic types of landscapes. Large, covered the whole wall, architectural landscapes. Many of the buildings had no windows, so there was more wall space for these paintings. Utilizes linear perspective.
Rooms that had access to the gardens
Realistic, naturalistic depictions of nature and animals in this garden landscape.
Return to the use of architectural elements. Very elegant type of presentation – usually for representative types of spaces - away from the garden areas.
Most eclectic style – painting to imitate marble, return to illusionistic – to make it appear as though you are looking out of a window. Also shows scenes of a theatrical production. Images takes from classical mythology, positioned as if they were paintings hanging on the wall. Vignette scenes also shown.
Architectural elements combined with scenes of classical antiquity
The owners of the houses also showed themselves in the wall paintings. Shows them in a manner which shows off their class, wealth, and education. The man holds a scroll, and the woman holds a writing tablet.
Painting in a domestic environment – images of daily life.
Shows shops – in the daily life of Romans, what takes place within, what is made, etc. Images of a board game – potentially a bar atmosphere.
Furniture built from marble and stone – a modern day fast food shop – basins where food would have been served from.
The hot ash destroyed the wooden frames of the buildings – so the ash fell into the buildings themselves. The ash was able to cover foods – such as loaves of bread.
People too were preserved by the ash – shows their last moments before death.
2011 survey rome_-_pompeii
Rome: domestic architecture, design and painting <br />in and around Rome, Pompeii, and Herculaneum<br />
Timeline:<br />April 21, 753 BC: legendary foundation of Rome<br />753-509 BC: Monarchy (Etruscan kings)<br />509-27 BC: Republic<br />(up to Julius Caesar)<br />27 BC-96 CE: Early Empire<br />(Augustus and Flavian dynasty)<br />96-192 CE: High Empire<br />(Trajan, Hadrian & Antonine dynasty)<br />193-337 CE: Late Empire<br />(Severan dynasty and soldier emperors up to Constantine I)<br />Model of ancient Rome<br />
Roman Republic 509-27 BC<br />Athens, Parthenon, 5th cent. BC<br />Rome, Temple of Portunus, ca. 75 BC<br />Pseudo-peripteral<br />Model of a typical 6th-century BC Etruscan house<br />
Pont-du-Gard, Nimes, France, ca. 16 BC<br />Aquaduct<br />
Early Empire 27 BC-96 CE<br />Rome, Colosseum amphitheater<br /> ca. 70-80 CE<br />
High Empire 96-192 CE<br />Apollodorus of Damascus, Markets of Trajan, Rome, ca. 100 CE<br />
High Empire 96-192 CE<br />Rome, Pantheon, 118-125 CE<br />
Late Empire 193-337 CE<br />Baths of Caracalla, 212-216 CE<br />Baths of Diocletian, 298-306 CE<br />
Colonnades featuring arcuated lintels at Emperor Hadrian’s villa at Tivoli near Rome, 125 CE<br />
Colonnades featuring arcuated lintels at Emperor Hadrian’s villa at Tivoli near Rome, 125 CE<br />Al-Khazneh rock-cut tomb at Petra, Jordan, 2nd cent. CE<br />