2011 survey romanesque_ii

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  • Large churches could hold large amounts of people and relics - attracting traveling pilgrims.
  • Church interiors are largely void of imageries – hardly any sculpture. Most of the sculpture was found on the exterior of the buildings. The most important sculptures are found at the entrance.
  • The most important area to attract attention – used for decoration. The portal had a symbolic function
  • Earthly beasts symbolizing protection. On the sides are figural images – closely attached to the doctrines of the church.
  • On the left is Saint Paul, and one is the prophet Jeremiah. Old Testament and New Testament characters. OT figures would normally hold scrolls, NTs would hold books.
  • Shows images of the damned at the bottom
  • The souls that will be saved are shown as nude, and grasping onto the angels in hopes of gaining salvation. Originally, these were painted in brightly colors
  • The angel is trying to save the soul of the baby in the basket. On the other side shows Satan and other demons pulling those lost souls into hell.
  • Pictures meant to frighten those saying that these images of horror will come true if one does not live properly.
  • The person entering the building was confronted with an image of what had happened to Christ.
  • These images are set up in the area of the monastery called the cloister – meant to be more private.
  • All of the columns are decorated – the capitals contain animals or human figures, called historiated, also containing scenes. This was very popular at the time. Set up at eye level so as to be easily read.
  • Show images associated with biblical scenes. Jesus refuses a temptation by the devil, and is greeted by an angel with food.
  • Shows a fantastical beast – to symbolize the chaos and deformity of the world as it would exist outside of God’s order.
  • He was opposed to the use of the fantastical images in churches – he found a competing order of monks from another town.
  • Associated with the Cistercian monastic order – began by Clairvaux. Completely absent of images, with an emphasis on prayer and piety.
  • None of the capitals are decorated, more emphasis is on the architecture itself. Can be directed to the forms of architecture that will later be seen in Gothic art.
  • 2011 survey romanesque_ii

    1. 1. Romanesque Art: Sculpture<br />1050-1200<br />
    2. 2. Romanesque Europe:<br />11th-12th centuries<br />Issues:<br /> Cult of Relics<br /> Pilgrimage<br /> Crusades<br />Europe ca. 1100<br />
    3. 3. Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France 1070-1120<br />
    4. 4. Romanesque Portal,<br />Abbey Church of Saint-Pierre at Moissac, France, 1100<br />
    5. 5. Detail of trumeau, Romanesque Portal,<br />Abbey Church of Saint-Pierre at Moissac, France, 1100<br />
    6. 6. Detail of trumeauat Moissac, ca. 1100. Left: St. Paul. Right: Prophet Jeremiah.<br />
    7. 7. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. Tympanum.<br />
    8. 8. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. Tympanum.<br />
    9. 9. Christ in Majesty, Tympanum of the Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. <br />
    10. 10. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. Tympanum, detail.<br />
    11. 11. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. Tympanum, detail.<br />
    12. 12. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. Tympanum, detail.<br />
    13. 13. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. Tympanum, detail.<br />
    14. 14. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. Tympanum, detail.<br />
    15. 15. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France 12th cent. Tympanum, detail of artist inscription: “Gislebertus hoc fecit”<br />
    16. 16. Cloister<br />Plan and general view of the cloister of the abbey church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1100-1115<br />Abbey church<br />
    17. 17. Detail of historiated capitals in the cloister of the abbey church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1100-1115<br />
    18. 18. Historiated capitals at Moissac, ca. 1100<br />Left: the Temptation of Christ. <br />
    19. 19. Historiated capitals at Moissac, ca. 1100<br />Left: the Temptation of Christ. <br /> Right: Fantastic monsters<br />
    20. 20. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): Monk and abbot of Cistercian Monastery at Clairvaux<br />Bernard of Clairvaux, Apologia , XII. 29:<br /> <br />“But . . . in the cloisters, before the eyes of the brothers while they read -- what is that ridiculous monstrosity doing, an amazing kind of deformed beauty and yet a beautiful deformity? What are the filthy apes doing there? The fierce lions? The monstrous centaurs? The creatures, part man and part beast? The striped tigers? The fighting soldiers? The hunters blowing horns? You may see many bodies under one head, and conversely many heads on one body. On one side the tail of a serpent is seen on a quadruped, on the other side the head of a quadruped is on the body of a fish. Over there an animal has a horse for the front half and a goat for the back; here a creature which is horned in front is a horse from behind. In short, everywhere so plentiful and astonishing a variety of contradictory forms is seen that one would rather read in the marble than in books, and spend the whole day wondering at every single one of them than in meditating on the law of God. Good God! If one is not ashamed of the absurdity, why is one not at least troubled at the expense?”<br />Moissac capitals, ca. 1100<br />
    21. 21. Abbey church at Fontenay, France. <br />Church begun in 1139. Cistercian monastic order.<br />
    22. 22. Nave of abbey church at Fontenay, France. <br />Church begun in 1139<br />

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