Mesopotamia: Assyria, Neo-Babylonia, and Persia<br />
ELAM<br />     ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
Lion Gate at Hattusa (in modern-day Turkey), ca. 1400 BC. Built as an entrance to a Hittite citadel<br />Stele with law co...
ELAM<br />     ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
Reconstruction drawing of DurSharrukin, the citadel of Sargon II. 8th century BC<br />Lamassu from DurSharrukin. 8th c. BC...
Lamassu from DurSharrukin. 8th c. BC<br />Lion Gate at Hattusa (in modern-day Turkey), ca. 1400 BC. Built as an entrance t...
Ashurbanipal palace in Nineveh. Reliefs date to the 7th c. BC<br />
Ashurbanipal palace in Nineveh. Reliefs date to the 7th c. BC<br />
ELAM<br />     ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
Neo-Babylonian Ishtar Gate of Babylon. 6th c. BC. Now in Museum in Berlin.<br />
ELAM<br />     ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
Aerial view of Persepolis, Persia (today Iran), ca. 520 BC<br />
Persepolis, Terrace of the royal audience hall (apadana), processional frieze, ca. 520 BC<br />
ELAM<br />     ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
Palace of Shapur I, Ctesiphon, Iraq, ca. 250 AD<br />
Triumpf of Shapur I, life-size rock carving at Bishapur, Iran, ca. 260 AD<br />
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2011 survey mesopotamia_3

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  • Lion Gate at Hattusa (in modern-day Turkey), ca. 1400 BC. Built as an entrance to a Hittite citadel (slide 3)Shows that they adopted surrounding cultural, the continuation of incorporating animal elements into their system of worshipThey were not versed in the building technologiesThey are not able to adapt in terms of the new technological systems, but they adopt the ideology and mythology that is associated with mythical beastsThey also adopted the ruler ideology: Stele with law code of Hammurabi, found at Susa. 1780 BC. (slide 3(Sacred connection between the image of a god handing a measuring stick to the rulerSymbol that it is the rulers responsibility to lead construction of sacred templesRuler = the keeper of the law
  • The Assyrians adopted the writing, ruling, and religious systems from the Sumerians and expanded upon them
  • The Assyrians adopted the writing, ruling, and religious systems from the Sumerians and expanded upon themReconstruction drawing of DurSharrukin, the citadel of Sargon II. 8th century BC (slide 5)Much larger, growing in population – many civilizationsSargon the II draws on existing traditions, royal palace combined with religious sitesShows how the Assyrians were able to quickly reproduce concepts – that are embodied by images that the ruler has control over practices of worshipThis palace is not open to everyone – highly fortified and controlledEntrance is regulated by the royal authorityRegulation of ritualistic acts by authority Assyrians were great artists – developed upon concepts of ruler imagery, and animals being associated with religious ritualLamassu from DurSharrukin. 8thc. BC (slide 5)Pure animal imagery combined with the face of a rulerStylized images, not portraits, but clearly identifiable as rulers (attention to headdress and beard)Beast symbolizes the religionThe image was meant to be seen from two sides, the front and side – while one is entering the templeBeast has five legs – due to the intention for it to be seen from two sidesRelief sculpture – integrated into a wall system
  • Slide 6 – monumental in size – more than twice the size of life sizeRequired much organization for constructionSymbolizes the ruler’s power and his role as keeper of the religion 
  • Also preserved in palaces – images of the ruler during a lion hunt – he is identifiable by his headdress and beard – slide 7Ashurbanipal palace in Nineveh. Reliefs date to the 7thc. BCThese images were set up throughout the palace, these hunts depicted took place in a controlled environment so that the ruler could go out and have a successful huntKind of a staged battle due to the significance seen in a ruler participating in a huntIntended to show the strength and glory of a ruler in battle, and his ability to kill ferocious beastsConcept of controlling the natural world through animalsThe hunt is a symbol of royal authority – continues into modern times 
  • Assyrian society did not last very long – came to an end very quickly due to an uprising of nearby BabylonNeo-Babylonian period – the new Babylonian period where they were able to reestablish themselves, begins in the 6th centuryThe city of Babylon becomes a dominant powerPeriod that is mentioned in the bibleFamous for the hanging gardens – one of the seven great wonders of the worldAlso, the tower of Babel – a ziggurat with a temple built on topIn the bible, a symbol of the chaos that goes along with many types of civilizations coming togetherDifferent civilizations are connected by many things – including building traditions: temple complexes
  • Babylon was heavily fortified (excavated in the early 20th century by the Germans)Neo-Babylonian Ishtar Gate of Babylon. 6thc. BC. Now in Museum in Berlin. (slide 10)Used with a fired, baked clay with a form of powder on it, that fires into a glass, which creates a vibrant colorColor is significant because it is what is shown on the outside of the city walls – this is how they wanted to present themselves to outsidersThey wanted to put on display their high degree of artistic capabilitiesEach brick was painted with a glaze and fired separately then used to build the gateEach brick had to be planned for placementEach animal depicted is made in relief, yet not carved, but made of premade bricks that were firedTheir design had to be preconceived in order to create the image 
  • Babylonian Civilization comes to an end due to the developments in the Near EastPersian Empire emerges – one of the largest Civilizations Modern day IranThey adopted Mesopotamian traditions – how religions were to be practiced, as well as building techniques
  • Aerial view of Persepolis, Persia (today Iran), ca. 520 BC (slide 12)Walls of the city were preserved – all the buildings within the city walls contain relief sculptures, some were painted
  • Persepolis, Terrace of the royal audience hall (apadana), processional frieze, ca. 520 BC (slide 13)Figures containing profiles in a horizontal patternThis is an older practice that the Persians adoptedRuler is shown as larger than his subjects around himPersians wanted to depict that they were the new rulers of the societyThey adopted pictorial techniquesMost images show captured slaves or dignitaries of other cities paying homage to the new Persian king at Persepolis Each person is distinguished by their city’s headdressesNot completely flat sculptures, more roundLots of Greek art was introduced to this area
  • After Alexander the Great, the Mesopotamians began to regroup againThey became quite powerful with new civilizations
  • Technical developments in architecture occurred at the time – sculptural decorations of the front and facades of buildings
  • Triumpf of Shapur I, life-size rock carving at Bishapur, Iran, ca. 260 AD (slide 16)Image shows the new king after the defeat of the RomansShows a captive kneeling before the new kingThis image is common in Roman imperial artThis is adopted by the new IraniansDealing with a society with developments in art and writing from other regions
  • 2011 survey mesopotamia_3

    1. 1. Mesopotamia: Assyria, Neo-Babylonia, and Persia<br />
    2. 2. ELAM<br /> ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
    3. 3. Lion Gate at Hattusa (in modern-day Turkey), ca. 1400 BC. Built as an entrance to a Hittite citadel<br />Stele with law code of Hammurabi, found at Susa. 1780 BC.<br />
    4. 4. ELAM<br /> ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
    5. 5. Reconstruction drawing of DurSharrukin, the citadel of Sargon II. 8th century BC<br />Lamassu from DurSharrukin. 8th c. BC<br />
    6. 6. Lamassu from DurSharrukin. 8th c. BC<br />Lion Gate at Hattusa (in modern-day Turkey), ca. 1400 BC. Built as an entrance to a Hittite citadel<br />
    7. 7. Ashurbanipal palace in Nineveh. Reliefs date to the 7th c. BC<br />
    8. 8. Ashurbanipal palace in Nineveh. Reliefs date to the 7th c. BC<br />
    9. 9. ELAM<br /> ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
    10. 10. Neo-Babylonian Ishtar Gate of Babylon. 6th c. BC. Now in Museum in Berlin.<br />
    11. 11. ELAM<br /> ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
    12. 12. Aerial view of Persepolis, Persia (today Iran), ca. 520 BC<br />
    13. 13. Persepolis, Terrace of the royal audience hall (apadana), processional frieze, ca. 520 BC<br />
    14. 14. ELAM<br /> ▪Susa<br />Persepolis▪<br />The ancient Near East<br />
    15. 15. Palace of Shapur I, Ctesiphon, Iraq, ca. 250 AD<br />
    16. 16. Triumpf of Shapur I, life-size rock carving at Bishapur, Iran, ca. 260 AD<br />

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