Koran book pages were very valuable in their subject and décor. The ornamentation of the script emphasizes the quality of the text.
This city became Christian in the 14th century – and the palace building incorporate elements of the landscape in their architecture. Relation of Islamic architecture to nature and the areas around them. Recalls Roman architecture with a courtyard.
Areas of the porches that have dome – much more complex and abstract designs, star patterning of the architecture. Also the use of a new device called the muqarnas.
Elements that are attached to the vaulted spaces and under the domes. Prismatic and almost like a beehive – patterns determined by careful geometric measurements.
A phase that begins in the 15th century where Islamic influence expands – Spain is Christianized and no longer part of the Christian work, the areas of Southern Italy and Sicily were conquered by the Christians. Also Greece and Turkey became Islamic. The Ottoman empire is establish end transforms the capital that was once Christian to Islamic. Its name is changed from Constantinople to Istanbul.
Sinan was a famous mosque builder – his most famous was built outside of Constantinople. These were what Sinan was known for – domes with centralized space as well. Buildings here were turned into mosques.
Use of vaulted space – an octagonal room in an extremely large dome. Similarity of forms and architecture. Patterning is much more important in Sinan’s buildings. Stylized elements. Islamic space is a place for prayer and relies on the reading of the Koran.
Another type of architecture is being developed in Iran – similar to the hypostyle hall, but centered on a courtyard. Iwan represents the entrace to the mosque – the gibla wall is the one that faces the Mecca.
The 17th century is known for the production of colorful tiles – the decoration of facades, up until now was mosaics. Much more intricate of a design.
The drawbacks of tile on a curved surface are that the tiles need to be individually produced to cover the surface. There are textual elements included in the design as well. This art is seen as a reflection of the perfection of heaven. Text becomes very ornamental in its design especially around the most important and sacred areas of the mosque.
Each of the tiles had to be individually made to cover the surface.
In the second phase of Islamic art, there are several media that are important and traditionally associated with Islamic art.
A manuscript illumination – seen as elite objects, not meant for the public, extremely expensive. Used as items for luxury trade because of their value. This shows a story from the Koran, and one that is from the book of Genesis. It is a holy image with figures shown, and has very vibrant colors. Emphasis of three dimensional qualities.
Carpet production and textiles – traded throughout the world – thought as a sign of prestige if one had it in their household. The Islamic people saw them as more functional – they were used as prayer matts. They emphasize real scenes or objects with ornamental designs.
Muslim artists are producing works for Christians during this period – this is a pilgrim’s canteen. Includes scenes from the bible and depicting Christ. There is an Arabic inscription describing that it was made in dedication.
2011 survey islam_ii
Islamic art and architecture,<br />Part II<br />