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2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
2011 survey egypt_2
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2011 survey egypt_2

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  • Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt. Painted relief in the mastaba of Ti. Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom ca. 2400Ti was a high official, not a ruler – royal imagery, shown standing on top of a barge or canoe like boatShown engaged in a hippopotamus hunt, stylized image of what papyrus looks likeHe is shown in a traditional manner – hierarchy of scale, image set up in a funerary concept to glorify him, the figures shown around him are his servants (slide 2)He is seen in his voyage to the afterlifeCombination profile, frontal image – meant to be seen in the spiritual qualities of the afterlifeHis servants are engaged in energetic movements, participants in the hunt, Ti is more of an iconic presence 
  • Old kingdom from New Kingdom – old was period of decline, with disruptions and invasions, overthrowing of a pharaoh – it takes a while for authority to be reestablishedAfter new authority, new revelations are seen in artIn the New Kingdom, there is a market different change in the types of images that are produced
  • Also changes in the burial customs: Fragmentary head of Pharaoh Senusret III, Middle Kingdom, ca. 1860 BC (slide 5)Made of a hard stone, intended to be an eternal monument of the pharaohThere is more emotion in this depiction than in the past, almost suggests deep thought, worry, or concentrationContrasts with: Detail of Pharaoh Khafre enthroned. Old Kingdom, ca. 2500 BC – contains less facial emotion detail - slide 5
  • In the middle Kingdom, there are not more Pyramids, but tombs that are cut out of existing rocks, rock cut tombsCarved to represent built types of architecture associated with domestic Egyptian architectural formsCarved to mimic palaces, etc. – slide 6Images on the walls glorified the deceasedRock-cut tombs at BeniHasan, Egypt, Middle Kingdom. Ca. 1900 BC
  • rocks seem to be trimmed down into these shapes – even into simplified or geometric forms
  • this type of architecture comes to an end in the 7th century, due to invasions of tribes in the eastHitties, Hyksos – came, did much destruction and left
  • Temples built by Ramses II at Abu Simbel, New Kingdom, ca. 1290-1224 BC – slide 10One of the oldest Temples, one of the more spectacular typesMuch of the power was in Upper Egypt at the timeThis temple was carved out of two large rocks in the desertBuilt as Ramses burial temple, one meant for him, one for his wifeThese were moved from their site in the 1960s, the area is now a dam near a river – the area was floodedIn order to preserve these temples, they were movedMuch grander forms of architecture, more of a public interest than in the Old and Middle interestEmphasis of outwardly displaying the power of the rulerBefore the images were set up in private displays or inside of Pyramids, only few could view themNow, they are visible to all in the area
  • Ramses is wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower EgyptVisual affirms his authority – return to a more standard image of the person – similar to Old Kingdom types of sculpturesHowever, unlike in the Old Kingdom, these are much larger than life size, monumental
  • Interior of temple of Ramses II, Abu SimbelFigures show the Pharaoh Ramses in the guise of the god order, Osiris – slide 12The paintings depict the battles Ramses had wonGlorifies his power – much more than seen in the past Kingdoms
  • Found down river in the site of Karnak – located on the shore of the river is a royal complex, similar to Old Kingdom construction, but much largerNot carved out of rock, or involving tombsMeant to be where the king lived together with his extended courtThe design was symbolic between the connection of god and ruler on earthExcavation of Karnak temple complex in 1914 – slide 13
  • Slide 14 – dedicated to the god Amen-ReReconstructed view and plan of temple complex of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt. New Kingdom, ca. 1250 BCThere is a sacred lake in the middle of the complex that symbolizes the concept of water - how humanity was createdThere were also areas where the priests would serve him, and where they could pay homage to the ruler
  • There is also a hallway supported by many columns – a hypostyle column, coming from a Greek word meaning columns holding up a roofHypostyle hall at temple of Amen-Re, Karnak New Kingdom, ca. 1250 BCPurpose of this hallway was to accommodate the aristocratic people that were paying homage to the rulerIn the floor plan - slide 15, individual columns are seenToday the roof no longer exists
  • Slide 16 – shows a column that depicts a flower that appears to be in bloomThe basic elements of design are seen – columns are set on a base that support a roofThe columns not only have a functional purpose, but depict artwork, so that when one walks through the hallway, they must see the art that depicts the glory of a certain ruler or god
  • The major concern with the hallways’ architecture is the illumination, the amount of light let in so that worshipers could see the artworkMethods to direct natural light into the building – depends on how much was desired or necessary – slide 20Difficult to allow light to come in due to the constructionThey made different heighted columns – larger ones could be fitted with windows – not made of glass or completely openSlats were carved in these windows made of stone to let in certain amounts of light inUsually, the hallways were left fairly dark to keep a mystic atmosphere and to let just enough light in to see the artworksThis is called clerestoryLight becomes very symbolic to show the power of the ruler or god The function of architecture is seen as a representation of the ruler-god relationshipAlso the manipulation of physical qualities, such as lightTies into the concept of god, ruler and architecture 
  • Transcript

    • 1. Egypt: <br />Transition Old Kingdom – Middle Kingdom – New Kingdom<br />and New Kingdom architecture<br />
    • 2. Papyrus<br />Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt. Painted relief in the mastaba of Ti. Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom ca. 2400<br />
    • 3. Palette of King Narmer, front. Predynastic period, ca. 3000 BCE<br />Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt. Painted relief in the mastaba of Ti. Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom ca. 2400<br />
    • 4.
    • 5. Fragmentary head of Pharaoh Senusret III, <br />Middle Kingdom, ca. 1860 BC<br />Detail of Pharaoh Khafre enthroned. Old Kingdom, ca. 2500 BC<br />
    • 6. Rock-cut tombs at BeniHasan, Egypt, Middle Kingdom. Ca. 1900 BC<br />
    • 7. Rock-cut tombs at BeniHasan, Egypt. Middle Kingdom, ca. 1900 BC<br />Imhotep (architect), engaged columns at King Djoser’s necropolis at Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom, ca. 2630 BC<br />
    • 8. Rock-cut tombs at BeniHasan, Egypt. Middle Kingdom, ca. 1900 BC<br /> - freestanding columns<br />- fluted shafts imitative of dressed timbers<br />- simple bases<br />- transition element between column shaft and ceiling beam: abacus<br />Columns at the necropolis of Djoser:<br /><ul><li>These are engagedcolumns – they are attached to the wall, not freestanding.
    • 9. The column shafts resemble papyrus stalks.
    • 10. They end in capitals at the top. The capitals resemble papyrus blossoms.</li></li></ul><li>Abu Simbel▪<br />
    • 11. Temples built by Ramses II at Abu Simbel, <br />New Kingdom, ca. 1290-1224 BC<br />
    • 12. Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel, New Kingdom, ca. 1290-1224 BC<br />
    • 13. Figures show the Pharoah Ramses in the guise of the god order, Osiris<br />Interior of temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel<br />
    • 14. ▪ Karnak<br />Excavation of Karnak temple complex in 1914<br />Abu Simbel▪<br />
    • 15. Reconstructed view and plan of temple complex of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt.<br />New Kingdom, ca. 1250 BC<br />
    • 16. Hypostyle hall at temple of Amen-Re, Karnak<br />New Kingdom, ca. 1250 BC<br />
    • 17.
    • 18. Clerestory<br />

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