Begins around the 8th century BC (slide 2)Generally two peoples: the Dorians and the IoniansDorians – mainland GreeksIonians – western coastThese have distinct cultures and traditions, but come together through specific events of the 8th centuryOne of the events was the Olympic games – first held in the city of Olympia in 776 BCDelegations of athletes were sent to competeSet up trade and communication between the city-statesIndividual cities that controlled the areas around themA common language unifies the city-states: ancient GreekBegins a unification of Greek culture
Some of the earliest evidence comes from funerary sitesPottery from ceramics found at tomb sitesVery large, decorated vases, the smallest: about a foot tallSome as tall as 6 or 7 feetWhy were they made? Why were they found in cemeteries?Served as grave markers, a tombstone of antiquityShows on the vases decoration of funerary scenesSome of the earliest vases concentrate specifically on decoration, for example:Vase with decorative meander motif and funeral ceremony from the Dipylon cemetery in Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BC (slide 3)
The earliest phase has been termed geometric, because the designs have a geometric quality to themThe later vases incorporate more figural images; peopleThe general depiction is the funerary scene, depicting the deceasedStylized human figures, not naturalistic, reduced to geometric shapesDécor also includes event from the person’s life, if they were a warrior: shows battle scenesKrater, from the Dipylon cemetery in Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCServes to celebrate the deceased : slide 4Early Greek literature focuses on Greek heroes and legends – very popular, told as oral stories, more than literatureThese events are depicted in the art of this period to show people’s lives
The individual states became very powerful economically due to common language – able to tradeParticularly MesopotamiaLeads into the orientalizing period – meaning from the eastBlack-figure amphora with animal friezes, made at Corinth ca. 625 BC (slide 5)Emphasis on animal imagery, and ornamental designForms of these vases still used today, the amphora – a vase with a narrow neck and handles – refers to the form of the vase itselfAnother form is the krater – with a large opening at the topVases were used in antiquity as storage, for drinking, eatingAmphora used as storage – mass produced, also used for tradeAll trade that took place was place within amphoraNot highly decorated, more simplisticKrater – more for daily used, for drinking and at special events – in celebration of the deceased passing on to the afterlifeMonument versions were created to set on top of tombs, to show the celebration that took placed after the passing of the deceasedDepict the events that are important in their lives
Shortly thereafter, vases are abandoned to created representations of human beingsUsed in tomb architecture or in tombsShow abstract, non naturalistic forms – originally paintedStatue known as the “Lady of Auxerre”, probably from Crete, ca. 650 BC – slide 7
Technique used: encaustic – involved using wax as the base mediumPaints mixed with hot wax – forms a illustrious surfacePlaced on building or architecturePainting technique remains the primary technique, up until the Christian periodThe style of the sculpture shows references to Mesopotamian artLarge eyes, types of stylized braiding of the hair (this is also influence of Egyptian art)Progression of style begins as very abstract in the early period, but moving into the 6th and 7th century – the period termed Archaic artSlide 7 – progressionFemale figures set up in temples, male figures placed on tombsDepicts the ideal human form : sometimes a naturalistic depiction of the human body, sometimes references abstract concepts of the human formShow a rigid quality of the human body – not representing specific features of a certain personStatues set up on a person’s grave always showed a young person – showing the deceased at the height of his youth
Slide 8: Kouros, ca. 600 BCNot a realistic depictionHas to do with concepts of Greek society reflecting the perfection of the human body to reference the perfection of the soul
Over the sixth century, statues become much more naturalisticSlide 9 – comparison: Kouros from the grave of Kroisos, found at Anavysos near Athens, ca. 530 BCShows musculatures male statues are always nude, females are always clothed
slide 10: PeplosKore, Athens, ca. 530 BCpeplos reference the type of dress she was wearingset up in temples to the godsthese statues serve as votive offering to the gods, stand as symbolic servants to their gods in the temples
female statues as well become much more naturalistic: slide 11Kore, Athens, ca. 510 BC – drapery of the figure is much more realisticAll of the statues that were placed in the temple were destroyed or broken when the city of Athens was sacked by the Persians, around 480 BCAfterward, the Athenians took the sculptures and buried them underground as if they were burying the deadSculptures have a spiritual function
Characteristic of all male or female statues was the standardized faceAlmost unnatural expressionDepicts a smile, pleasant looking, almost too pleasantTermed the archaic smile (slide 12)Primary material used for these sculptures was limestone or marble
Early Greek ArchitectureUnited states turned to Greek models for their architecture, also models of government – democracy (slide 14)U.S. Supreme Court, Washington, D.C.
Column architecture was used – refers to the Dorians and IoniansProduced similar columns (slide 16)A basic column contains a vase, a capital, and shaftTablature is on top of the column, usually divided into two parts; top part is the frieze, usually decoratedBottom, called the lintelThe pediment contains art formsThe capital of a Doric temple contains the Echinus The Ionic contains a scroll at the top of the columnGreeks pay close attention to the proportion of the temple and column architecture The layout of the plan of the temple follows the same patternAt the center is a sacred area, surrounded by walls called the celiaWhere the statue of the particular god is kept, only priest as access to this pointSurrounding is rows of columns, called a peristyleThere is also an entrance porch, pronaos, flanked by two columns – placing columns in antis (columns between two walls)
The sculpture was always found in the pedimentAlways references the god the temple is dedicate to, and the events of the gods existenceFigural art forms - slide 18Medusa and two panthers from the west pediment of the Temple of Artemis. Corfu, Greece, ca. 600-580 BC.