He promised the pope in Rome that would protect Christianity – religious authority in the form of a Pope in Rome. He was crowned the Roman emperor by the Pope himself – there is a symbolic unity between church and state.
Manuscript – Charlemane’s sons – books of the gospel.
The manuscript on the right shows a much more linear style – pencil drawing. Shows hints of a naturalistic landscape.
He built a palace chapel. The model shows how it originally appeared.
The interior reflects the centralized architecture. The Palatine Chapel was model after San Vitale in Ravenna built by Justinian.
The interior was filled with mosaics.
The apses were originally filled with mosaics, but were later replaced with painted decorations. Charlemagne ensured that churches and monasteries would be build around Europe as a way to promote Christianity and at the same him the emperor himself. He could do so by associating himself with Christianity.
He established models for the type of buildings we wanted to create. One of the plans that was produced
At the center is the outline of the building itself – shows where various shrines to different saints would have been set up. Each shrine is associated with a relic of the saint. The more relics it had, the wealthier the monastery was. Shows an apse in the east – traditional. But added is an apse in the west with two towers attached to it – one to Michael the Archangel. There was an area in the Western apse where the thrown for the emperor was set up and nearby were places where the emperor could stay when traveling.
Called the Westwork – meaning the addition to the front of the building in the west. Shows the difference in appearance – the two massive towers. Very raw stone used – rough masonry, similar to fortified structures. This is a traditional type of church design. He divided the emperor in three parts.
People looked to Charlemagne as the founder of the modern Holy Roman Empire including the spread of the westwork. He created more of a balance between the eastern and western parts of the building – shows the connection of church and state.
The left door shows scenes from the Old Testament – right side, New Testament. Shows the contrast and the prefiguration of the Old ideas to the New.
Dramatic intense moment that shows the style of Ottonian art – basic landscape, almost nonexistent.
Narration of scenes from the life of Christ.
Similar to the tallest monument in Rome at the time – The column of Trajan. Bishop Bernward is coping this design in representing imperial art but tying in religion by using scenes from the life of Christ. Shows how Roman traditions were adapted into Christian ways.
Shows his depiction of protecting Christians – hold an orb – ruler of the earth. Similar to art of Constantine – being shown flanked by his court. Combination between secular and relgious authority in the embodiment of the empire.
Carolingian and Ottonian art 800-1050
RenovatioImperii Romani (Renewal of the Roman Empire) Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne (Charles the Great). France, 9th cent.
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, Rome ca. 175. Height ca. 12 feet Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne (Charles the Great) France, 9th cent. Height ca. 9 inches
St. Matthew, Book of Durrow. Scotland, ca. 660 Saint Matthew, Lindisfarne Gospels. England, ca. 700
Saint Matthew, Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne Aachen, Germany, ca. 800. Saint Matthew, Lindisfarne Gospels. England, ca. 700
Saint Matthew, Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne Aachen, Germany, ca. 800. Saint Matthew, Ebbo Gospels (Gospel book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims), France, ca. 830.
Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne. View today, and model as originally constructed. Aachen, Germany, 792-805
Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne. Aachen, Germany, 792-805
San Vitale, Ravenna, 6th cent. Palatine Chapel, Aachen, 792-805