2011 survey byzantine_architecture

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  • Constantine laid out his city very elaborately – he built the city to reflect his Christian views, building churches, etc. A very large riot ensued and ended up destroying many buildings that Constantine build – his senate building and the main church included.
  • This church was tranformed into a Mosque – this was the first building that was transformed when the Ottoman turks took over the city and renamed it Istanbul.
  • The central structure appears the same as it did in Justinian’s time. Not with a longitudinal plan, but almost like a pyramid – with a central dome that is flanked by lower structures. This was the largest building that had ever been built at this time period. We know the names of the architects – Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus.
  • The interior reflects the central nature of the outer structure. The dome contains gold mosaic tile, high quality material used. In concept it differs greatly from basilicas thus far.
  • Contains a concept of centralized space – the idea of commemorative space. There is a revolution of understanding building form – a new implementation of building techniques. A structure such as this – a large open space without internal support was never attempted before this time. Two professors were chosen to be the architect – one was a professor of Geometry, he was able to create principles that would be applied to the building of this structure.
  • Large piers were constructed on the corners to balance the weight. The design was based on geometric concepts.
  • All the parts of the building are in direct relationship to the basic circular concept.
  • Begun in the 2nd century by emperor Hadrian – revolutionary centralized space for the main part of the building itself.
  • Represents the celestial concept of perfection through geometry – this was a temple to all the gods.
  • The Hagia Sofia is not a simple singular dome – but much more complex. It has a square plan, and it was transformed to the circle of the dome. This is a completely new concept of building. Supporting the weight of the structure are four giant piers located in the four corners of the squares. No longer is the dome cast concrete, but built with brick using ribs that function as support from the rib of the dome.
  • The process of lighting is used to illuminate the church.
  • Chandeliers with candlelight were also used for lighting the large dome.
  • Not longitudinal, not a mausoleum, but a church, has a centralized plan. Period of moving away from longitudinal to circular. The exterior is very plain – no interest in impressing from the outside, but want to impress through the interior design and its meaning.
  • Series of smaller arches supporting a centrally domed space. At one end of the plan there is an area that protrudes outward for the altar space. Filled with decorative, colorful and vibrant mosaics.
  • Central image of Christ. Emphasis on natural landscape, with greenery and flowers. But, behind him is a heavenly realm characterized by a gold background. Shows Christ as the ruler of the world, and he wears purple garments.
  • Panels that show the donors themselves. The Emperor Justinian, wearing the same kind of clothes that Christ is depicted as wearing, shown presenting a liturgical vessel to the bishop of the church. He is flanked by the imperial troops that contain the chi ro symbol – first developed through Constantine. The second panel shows Justinian’s wife wearing purple garments, standing outside the church, showing a fountain. She is with her entourage of elaborately dressed women. The walls are shown with jewel encrusted stone. These images are placed in the apse area of the dome. This will become a major political conditioning of architecture and art. There is an extremly close connection between the purpose of the emperor and his role as leader of the church himself – connection between church and state.
  • 2011 survey byzantine_architecture

    1. 1. Byzantium: Architecture in the 6th century<br />
    2. 2. Byzantine Empire - Early Period Timeline:<br />330: Emperor Constantine founds a new capital of the Roman Empire at the Greek town of Byzantium, renaming the city Constantinople after himself<br />395: Death of Emperor Theodosius – Empire permanently split in two halves. Constantinople is capital of the Eastern Roman Empire<br />
    3. 3. Byzantine Empire in the 6th century<br />Byzantine Empire - Early Period Timeline:<br />330: Emperor Constantine founds a new capital of the Roman Empire at the Greek town of Byzantium, renaming the city Constantinople after himself<br />395: Death of Emperor Theodosius – Empire permanently split in two halves. Constantinople is capital of the Eastern Roman Empire<br />527-565: reign of Emperor Justinian I. Greatest expansion of Byzantine Empire<br />1453: Fall of Byzantine Empire<br />
    4. 4. Constantinople (Istanbul)<br />
    5. 5. Constantinople (Istanbul), Hagia Sophia 532-537. Architects: Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus<br />
    6. 6. Constantinople (Istanbul), Hagia Sophia 532-537. Architects: Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus<br />
    7. 7. Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, 532-537<br />
    8. 8. Rome, Santa Maria Maggiore, 432<br />Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, 532-537<br />
    9. 9.
    10. 10.
    11. 11. Hagia Sophia: Interior<br />
    12. 12. Rome, Pantheon, 118-125 CE<br />
    13. 13. Rome, Pantheon, 118-125 CE<br />
    14. 14. Rome, Pantheon, 118-125 CE<br />
    15. 15. Rome, Pantheon, 118<br />Constantinople (Istanbul), Hagia Sophia 532-537. Architects: Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus<br />Note: Dome on pendentives<br />
    16. 16. Hagia Sophia: Interior<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Byzantine Empire in the 6th century<br />Byzantine Empire - Early Period Timeline:<br />330: Emperor Constantine founds a new capital of the Roman Empire at the Greek town of Byzantium, renaming the city Constantinople after himself<br />395: Death of Emperor Theodosius – Empire permanently split in two halves. Constantinople is capital of the Eastern Roman Empire<br />527-565: reign of Emperor Justinian I. Greatest expansion of Byzantine Empire<br />1453: Fall of Byzantine Empire<br />
    19. 19. Church of San Vitale, <br />Ravenna, Italy, 526-547<br />
    20. 20. Church of San Vitale, interior: central dome<br />Ravenna, Italy, 526-547<br />
    21. 21. San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-547<br />apse and altar<br />
    22. 22. Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547. View into apse<br />
    23. 23. Ravenna, Church of San Vitale, mosaic panels showing Emperor Justinian (left) and his wife, Empress Theodora (below)<br />

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