Late Antiquity: 5th century<br />
Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constant...
Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constant...
Missorium (commemorative dish) of Theodosius, 388<br />showing Theodosius holding court. Below: putti (putto) and personif...
Missorium (commemorative dish) of Theodosius, 388<br />showing Theodosius holding court. Below: putti (putto) and personif...
Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constant...
Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constant...
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Great), Rome<br />built in 432 after the Council of Ephesus (which ruled ...
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Great), Rome<br />built in 432 after the Council of Ephesus<br />Decorati...
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, 432<br />Apse vault and triumphal arch<br />
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, 432<br />Detail of triumphal arch,with images of the Virgin and Christ enthroned<b...
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Great), Rome<br />built in 432 after the Council of Ephesus<br />Decorati...
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore Rome, 432<br />Detail of nave mosaic showing<br />The Parting of Lot and Abraham<br />
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Great), Rome<br />The church is one of four papal basilicas in Rome. Here...
Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constant...
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 425<br />
Ravenna, Mausoleum of<br />Galla Placidia, 425<br />           Rome, Mausoleum of<br />	            S. Costanza, 351<br />
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 425<br />
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, detail of ceiling vault mosaic<br />
Mausoleum of GallaPlacidia: Martyrium of Saint Lawrence<br />
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, detail of Gospel books in mosaic of Saint Lawrence<br />
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia: Christ the Good Shepherd<br />
Ravenna, Mausoleum of GallaPlacidia, 425<br />
Ravenna, Mausoleum of GallaPlacidia, 425<br />Detail of alabaster windows<br />
Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constant...
Ravenna, church of Sant’ApollinareNuovo, 504<br />
Ravenna, church of Sant’ApollinareNuovo, 504<br />Detail of mosaic showing King Theodoric’s palace<br />
Ravenna, church of Sant’ApollinareNuovo, 504<br />Detail of mosaic showing King Theodoric’s palace<br />Below left: Missor...
Ravenna, church of Sant’ApollinareNuovo, 504<br />Detail of mosaic showing King Theodoric’s palace and later erasure of im...
Miracle of the loaves and fishes, nave wall of Sant’ApollinareNuovo. Ravenna, ca. 504<br />
Miracle of the loaves and fishes, nave wall of Sant’ApollinareNuovo. Ravenna, ca. 504<br />Detail of nave mosaic showing<b...
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2011 survey 5th_century

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  • The great harvest shown – symbolizing paradise. Shows winged cupids, babies. They are used to announce people of importance. Closely with the Roman emperor as the leader of the church.
  • The permanent division takes place in 395 BC – never again with the east and west be joined. There is pressure from the invading gothic tribes. Nomadic populations coming from as far as Asia. They are very warrior like, presenting a threat to the Roman empire.
  • Disintegrated the Roman Empire. Means that these Gothic tribes become Roman themselves. Adopt political and artistic influences. Visigoths are western goths. Visigoths place pressure on the city of Rome itself, making the emperor move the city to a smaller location Ravenna. In 410BC, the gothic tribes sack Rome. In 476BC, Ravenna itself falls.
  • The pope remains in Rome throughout this period. There is lots of church construction at this time. This is a basilica dedicated to the Virgin Mary – the first of its kind in dedication. AT a church council – Mary was decided as the mother of God. After this there was debate over her artistic depiction due to the idea of Christ. Hard to decide if he should be depicted as man or divine. The council of Ephesus decided that the divine and human coexisted in Christ, and that Mary was the mother of God. This was called Theotokos – the role of Mary as the mother of god, and references her role in art in this period.
  • Altered in the 17th century. Two parts of the decoration that is important: there are arched frames over the apps –becomes a major place for church imagery – located above the altar – served to frame the Christian contexts of the church.
  • Images that display the life of the Virgin Mary.
  • The virgin Mary is seated on a throne flanked by angels, and is dressed in imperial garments. Represented as the queen of heaven. This same type of imperial imagery is used for Christ – Christ is shown as a type of imperial emperor.
  • Other important images are those on the panels in the nave. Images reserved for New Testament ideas because they are closer to the altar – the holiest part of the building. Images suggest that the Old Testament prefigures the ideas of the New Testament
  • Detail of a scene of the book of Genesis – the parting of Lot and Abraham – his cousin, they separate, and Abraham leaves for Canaan. There is a clear division of the groups. Suggests that Abraham’s is the right choice – he is heading towards a basilica. They are shown in a three dimensional quality, also wearing Roman togas.
  • One of the churches in Rome that regularly have services. They regularly celebrate the assumption of Mary as a major church feast.
  • Ravenna becomes an imperial center itself. The pope resides here when the capital of Rome is moved.
  • A tomb, built by the Roman emperor during this period, built by this half sister, GallaPlacidia – built as her tomb. Follows in the tradition of representative buildings to the imperial.
  • Based on a cross plan, still a centrally planned building. Vibrant on the interior, plain and simplistic on the exterior – characteristic of Christian art at this time.
  • Through the use of much color and extensive mosaics, it is decorated.
  • The stars reference that we are dealing with the Christian afterlife. Distinguishes it from pagan designs.
  • There are a series of nets that contain spectacular images. Includes extremely vibrant colors. Shows an image of St. Lawrence, a martyr who died for his faith. Usually the art references how they died. St. Lawrence was tied to a grate and burned alive. This image shows him striding towards the gate, as if he is ready to die for his faith. Shows the emphasis on the sacrifice for faith, also shows in Christ images.
  • Book case – depiction of the liturgical use of books in the period. The bible was not bound together as one book, but each of the books of the bible were found separately.
  • Image of Christ as the good shepherd. A parable from the bible, depicted as an imperial figure, wearing golden dress draped with a purple colored tunic. The color purple was reserved only for the emperor himself. Shown in a other worldly landscape, the image is also very naturalistic, showing techniques of foreshortening and atmospheric perspective.
  • Spirtual atmosphere that is enhanced by use of light. The openings are filled with alabaster stone, a type of stone that when cut is extremely thin and translucent.
  • Alabaster allows light inside. Creates a spiritual realm. There is a new development of the affect of light on architecture.
  • At the end of the 5th century, Ravenna II is taken over – marking the end of the Roman Empire, in the year 476. After this, Gothic kings rule over the area of the Western Roman empire. The first great and powerful of the gothic king was Theodoric, who overthrew the Roman king. He makes Ravenna his capital and begins large scale construction. He adopts Roman traditions in the way he depicts his art. He depicts how he is the successor of the Roman emperor, and he ends up getting the recognition as the successor.
  • 2011 survey 5th_century

    1. 1. Late Antiquity: 5th century<br />
    2. 2. Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constantinople as new capital of Roman Empire<br />337: Death of Constantine<br />Map of Roman Empire under Emperors Diocletian and Constantine(284 - 337)<br />
    3. 3. Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constantinople as new capital of Roman Empire<br />337: Death of Constantine<br />379-395: reign of Emperor Theodosius I<br />391/394: Theodosius bans pagan worship and abolishes the Olympic Games<br />Missorium (commemorative dish) of Theodosius, 388<br />showing Theodosius holding court. Below: putti (putto) and <br />personification of Earth. Ca 30” diameter<br />
    4. 4. Missorium (commemorative dish) of Theodosius, 388<br />showing Theodosius holding court. Below: putti (putto) and personification of Earth. Ca. 30” diameter<br />Main courtyard at the <br />Palace of Emperor Diocletian, Split, ca. 300<br />
    5. 5. Missorium (commemorative dish) of Theodosius, 388<br />showing Theodosius holding court. Below: putti (putto) and personification of Earth. Ca. 30” diameter<br />Mosaic ceiling in the ambulatory at <br />Mausoleum of Santa Costanza, Rome, 351<br />
    6. 6. Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constantinople as new capital of Roman Empire<br />337: Death of Constantine<br />379-395: reign of Emperor Theodosius I<br />391/394: Theodosius bans pagan worship and abolishes the Olympic Games<br />395: Death of Theodosius; permanent division of Empire between East and West<br />
    7. 7. Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constantinople as new capital of Roman Empire<br />337: Death of Constantine<br />379-395: reign of Emperor Theodosius I<br />391/394: Theodosius bans pagan worship and abolishes the Olympic Games<br />395: Death of Theodosius; permanent division of Empire between East and West<br />404: Visigoths invade Italy; Emperor Honorius moves capital to Ravenna<br />410: Sack of Rome by Alaric, King of the Visigoths<br />476: Ravenna falls to Odoacer; End of the Roman Empire (in the West); Odoacer becomes the first Germanic king of Italy<br />493: Odoacer overthrown by Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths<br />
    8. 8. Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Great), Rome<br />built in 432 after the Council of Ephesus (which ruled that Mary was the Theotokos, the Mother of God)<br />Front of building (shown here) redesigned in 17th century<br />
    9. 9. Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Great), Rome<br />built in 432 after the Council of Ephesus<br />Decoration on interior of building (shown here) dates to 432<br />
    10. 10. Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, 432<br />Apse vault and triumphal arch<br />
    11. 11. Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, 432<br />Detail of triumphal arch,with images of the Virgin and Christ enthroned<br />
    12. 12. Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Great), Rome<br />built in 432 after the Council of Ephesus<br />Decoration on interior of building (shown here) dates to 432<br />
    13. 13. Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore Rome, 432<br />Detail of nave mosaic showing<br />The Parting of Lot and Abraham<br />
    14. 14. Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary the Great), Rome<br />The church is one of four papal basilicas in Rome. Here, the pope presides over the annual Feast of the Assumption of Mary, celebrated on 15 August each year at the basilica<br />
    15. 15. Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constantinople as new capital of Roman Empire<br />337: Death of Constantine<br />379-395: reign of Emperor Theodosius I<br />391/394: Theodosius bans pagan worship and abolishes the Olympic Games<br />395: Death of Theodosius; permanent division of Empire between East and West<br />404: Visigoths invade Italy; Emperor Honorius moves capital to Ravenna<br />410: Sack of Rome by Alaric, King of the Visigoths<br />476: Ravenna falls to Odoacer; End of the Roman Empire (in the West); Odoacer becomes the first Germanic king of Italy<br />493: Odoacer overthrown by Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths<br />
    16. 16. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 425<br />
    17. 17. Ravenna, Mausoleum of<br />Galla Placidia, 425<br /> Rome, Mausoleum of<br /> S. Costanza, 351<br />
    18. 18. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 425<br />
    19. 19. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, detail of ceiling vault mosaic<br />
    20. 20. Mausoleum of GallaPlacidia: Martyrium of Saint Lawrence<br />
    21. 21. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, detail of Gospel books in mosaic of Saint Lawrence<br />
    22. 22. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia: Christ the Good Shepherd<br />
    23. 23. Ravenna, Mausoleum of GallaPlacidia, 425<br />
    24. 24. Ravenna, Mausoleum of GallaPlacidia, 425<br />Detail of alabaster windows<br />
    25. 25. Timeline and Events:<br />315: Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan<br />324: Emperor Constantine founds Constantinople as new capital of Roman Empire<br />337: Death of Constantine<br />379-395: reign of Emperor Theodosius I<br />391/394: Theodosius bans pagan worship and abolishes the Olympic Games<br />395: Death of Theodosius; permanent division of Empire between East and West<br />404: Visigoths invade Italy; Emperor Honorius moves capital to Ravenna<br />410: Sack of Rome by Alaric, King of the Visigoths<br />476: Ravenna falls to Odoacer; End of the Roman Empire (in the West); Odoacer becomes the first Germanic king of Italy<br />493: Odoacer overthrown by Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths<br />
    26. 26. Ravenna, church of Sant’ApollinareNuovo, 504<br />
    27. 27. Ravenna, church of Sant’ApollinareNuovo, 504<br />Detail of mosaic showing King Theodoric’s palace<br />
    28. 28. Ravenna, church of Sant’ApollinareNuovo, 504<br />Detail of mosaic showing King Theodoric’s palace<br />Below left: Missorium of Theodosius, 388<br /> Below right: Palace of <br /> Diocletian, ca. 300<br />
    29. 29. Ravenna, church of Sant’ApollinareNuovo, 504<br />Detail of mosaic showing King Theodoric’s palace and later erasure of images of King Theodoric’s court standing in the arcades<br />
    30. 30. Miracle of the loaves and fishes, nave wall of Sant’ApollinareNuovo. Ravenna, ca. 504<br />
    31. 31. Miracle of the loaves and fishes, nave wall of Sant’ApollinareNuovo. Ravenna, ca. 504<br />Detail of nave mosaic showing<br />The Parting of Lot and Abraham<br />Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore Rome, 432<br />
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