Library Catalogues: from Traditional to Next-Generation

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Presented at Lecture on 13 Sep 2007 for CS3255 Information Organization for 3rd Year IS students of the School of Computing, National University of Singapore

Presented at Lecture on 13 Sep 2007 for CS3255 Information Organization for 3rd Year IS students of the School of Computing, National University of Singapore

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  • 1. CS3255 Information Organization Lecture 5: Library Catalogues: From Traditional to Next-Generation
  • 2. References
    • Breeding, Marshall, “Next-Generation Library Catalogs,” Library Technology Reports , v.43, n.4 (Jul/Aug 2007), available online at http://www.techsource.ala.org/ltr/ (accessed 11 Sep 2007)
    • Taylor, Arlene G., Introduction to Cataloging and Classification , 10 th ed. Westport, Conn. : Libraries Unlimited, 2006.
    • Furrie, Betty, Understanding MARC Bibliographic: Machine-Readable Catalogs , 7 th ed. Washington, D.C. : Cataloging Distribution Services, Library of Congress, in conjunction with The Follett Software Co., c2003, available online at http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/ (accessed 11 Sep 2007)
  • 3. Today’s Agenda
    • Traditional Library Catalogue
      • Scope of the Library Catalogue
      • Purpose of the Library Catalogue
      • Underlying Standards
      • Problems with TLC
    • Next-Generation Library Catalogue
      • Federated Search or Metasearch
      • Delivering Content to the User
      • Enriched Content
      • Faceted Navigation
      • Web 2.0: Enabling User Contributions
      • Other Features
      • Putting Them All Together
    • Q&A
  • 4. Traditional Library Catalogue
  • 5. Scope of the Library Catalogue
    • Books – includes print and electronic books
    • Multimedia materials – CDs, DVDs, etc.
    • Newspapers, magazines, and professional & scholarly journals – described at title level, not individual issues/articles
    • Others – such as musical scores, microfilms, etc.
  • 6. Purpose of the Library Catalogue
    • 4 user tasks:
      • To find entities that correspond to the user’s stated search criteria …
      • To identify an entity …
      • To select an entity that is appropriate to the user’s needs …
      • To acquire or obtain access to the entity described …
    • Extracted from: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, Final Report , IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (Munchen: K.G. Saur, 1998); also available: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.htm (accessed 6 Sep 2007).
  • 7. Underlying Standards
    • Descriptive Cataloguing:
      • AACR2 (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, version 2)
    • Subject Cataloguing:
      • Library of Congress Subject Headings
      • Library of Congress Classification Scheme
    • Encoding:
      • MARC21 (MAchine Readable Cataloging) – Bibliographic, Authority, Holdings, Classification & Community
  • 8. Underlying Standards: Descriptive Cataloguing
    • AACR2
      • Part I – Description
        • Chapter 1 – covers description in general and is applicable to all types of materials
        • Chapters 2-12 – cover in detail various types of materials
        • Chapter 13 – covers a special topic: analysis
      • Part II – Headings, Uniform Titles, and References
        • Chapter 21 – covers how access points are selected
        • Chapters 22-25 – cover how headings & uniform titles are formed
        • Chapter 26 – covers how and when references are to be created to link headings
  • 9. Underlying Standards: Subject Cataloguing
    • Subject Headings
      • Controlled list of subject concept term or phrase used in catalogue records to:
        • Identify pertinent material on a given subject
        • Enable user to find material on related subjects
      • E.g., Library of Congress Subject Headings
    • Classification
      • Provides orderly access to the shelves by bringing related items together in a helpful sequence from the general to the specific
      • E.g., Library of Congress Classification Scheme
  • 10. Underlying Standards: Encoding (1) Extracted from MARC21 Formats - http://www.loc.gov/marc/marcdocz.html (accessed 6 Sep 2007) MARC = MAchine Readable Catalog
  • 11. Underlying Standards: Encoding (2)
    • Understanding MARC Bibliographic
      • http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/ (accessed 6 Sep 2007)
      • Part III: MARC Terms and Their Definitions ( http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/um01to06.html#part3 )
      • Part VII: A Summary of Commonly Used MARC21 Fields ( http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/um07to10.html#part7 )
      • Part XI: A Sample Record in Various Formats ( http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/um11to12.html#part11 )
  • 12. Problems with TLC
    • Complex search interface
      • Not consistent with user interface conventions
      • Unable to rank results by relevancy
    • Limited in scope
      • Tied more to print materials
      • Unable to deliver online content
    • Lack social network features
  • 13. Next-Generation Library Catalogue
  • 14. Federated Search (1) or Metasearch
    • Before – search individual information resources separately
    • Now – one interface to search multiple information resources simultaneously
    Taken from NISO’s website. Presentation by Andrew Pace: http://www.niso.org/news/events_workshops/OpenURL-05-ppts/2-1-pace.ppt (date: 21 Mar 2007)
  • 15. Federated Search (2)
    • How it works?
      • Back-end communication through search protocols to send query and receive results
        • ANSI/NISO Z39.50 ( http://www.loc.gov/z3950/agency/ )
        • XML
        • Others
      • Front-end processing and presentation of result sets
        • Presenting results in a standard format and structure
        • De-duplication – i.e. consolidation of identical entries from multiple targets
        • Sorting and display
    • Sample Site
  • 16. Federated Search (3)
    • Issues
      • Speed of performance limited by slowest responding target
        • Time-outs
        • Minimal no. of targets
        • Limiting no. of items requested
      • Sorting & ranking
        • Based on initial set of records retrieved
      • Separate from the Library Catalogue
  • 17. Delivering Content to the User
    • Using a link resolver based on the OpenURL standard (ANSI/NISO Z39.88) ( http://openurl.info/registry )
    • Provide users with contents that they can actually access
    • Sample Site
    Taken from Serials Solutions’ website: http://www.serialssolutions.com/alOURL04.asp (date: 21 Mar 2007)
  • 18. Enriched Content
    • Contents include:
      • Cover art images, such as book jackets, movie cases, etc.
      • Table of contents
        • MARC or Non-MARC
        • Searchable or Not
      • Summaries
      • Reviews
    • Sources:
      • Syndetic Solutions ( http://www.syndetics.com )
  • 19. Faceted Navigation
    • Using facets to narrow down results
    • Facets derived from bibliographic information in the Library Catalogue
    • Visual appeal
    • Sample Sites
  • 20. Web 2.0: Enabling User Contributions
    • User ratings & reviews
      • Expressing opinions regarding works in the catalogue
    • User tagging
      • Assigning informal terms to items of interest
      • “ Folksonomy” as a supplement to traditional subject headings provided by libraries
    • Blogs & RSS
      • Means to deliver information to users
        • Lists of new items
        • Lists of relevant items
    • Sample Sites
  • 21. Other Features
    • Keyword Searching
      • Google-like simple search box
    • Relevancy
      • Most important items appear first followed by those of diminishing relevancy
    • “Did you mean …?”
      • Detect common spelling errors
      • Suggest a term that will work
    • Recommendations
      • “Users that borrowed X also borrowed Y”
  • 22. Putting Them All Together
    • New discovery & delivery interface providing access to all of the content and services offered by a Library
      • Through harvesting additional contents into local index
      • Through incorporating federated-search into interface
    • Interface characteristics
      • Simple search box
      • AJAX technology to dynamically request and present additional information without having to redisplay the entire page
    • Incorporate features such as Relevancy ranking, Popular choices, Faceted navigation, Tag cloud, “Did you mean …?”, User-contributed content, Enriched content, etc.
    • Sample Site
  • 23. Q & A Thank you! Tan Kah Ching Senior Librarian Automation & Asset Organisation NUS Libraries [email_address]