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Visons chapter 18

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  • 1. CREATING A DEMOCRATIC PARADISE Chapter 18 Visions
  • 2. CREATING A DEMOCRATIC PARADISE: THE PROGRESSIVE ERA, 1895-1915
    • The Progressive Impulse
    • Reigning in Big Business
    • Competing Views on Transforming the Workplace
    • Protecting Woman and Children
    • Reforming the Government
  • 3. The Progressive Impulse
      • The Angst of the Middle Class
      • The Progressive Vision
      • (Refer to pages 532 to 534)
  • 4. The Progressive Vision
    • Social Gospel - The religious belief that Christians had a responsibility to create an ethically sound and morally upright society.
  • 5. Roosevelt’s Trust-busting
    • Trust-Busting - Governmental action to dissolve monopolies.
    President Theodore Roosevelt
  • 6. Taft and Wilson: Competing Progressive Visions
    • Sixteenth Amendment - Sixteenth Amendment (1913) The constitutional amendment authorizing federal income taxes.
  • 7. Taft and Wilson: Competing Progressive Visions
    • Federal Reserve Act - The act creating a federally run Federal Reserve to serve as a “banker’s bank” that held a portion of bank funds in reserve to help member banks in time of crisis, set rates for business loans, and issued a new national paper currency.
  • 8. Taft and Wilson: Competing Progressive Visions
    • Clayton Anti-Trust Act - The act prohibited interlocking company directories—the practice of setting up shadow companies that appeared to compete but were actually run by the same board of directors—and exempted trade unions from prosecution under the 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
  • 9. Taft and Wilson: Competing Progressive Visions
    • Federal Trade Commission - A federal agency with the power to order companies to cease unfair trading practices whose decisions were subject to court review.
  • 10. Preservation versus Conservation
    • Preservationist - An environmentalist who championed preserving nature in its unspoiled state.
    • Conservationist - An environmentalist who wanted to meet present economic needs and conserve natural resources for future generations.
  • 11. Capitalist Visions of Industrial Harmony
    • Welfare Capitalism - The notion of using benefits to gain workers’ loyalty, improve worker morale, and weaken interest in unions. scientific management The effort to use scientific knowledge to secure maximum output and profit.
    • Scientific Management – The effort to use scientific knowledge to secure maximum output and profit.
  • 12. Working-Class Views on Capitalism
    • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) - This group envisioned “one big union” that welcomed all workers regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, or skill, which would one day take over all means of production in the United States.
  • 13. The Progressives’ Limited Progress
    • Lochner v. New York - A Supreme Court ruling that unless long work hours directly jeopardized workers’ health, the government could not abridge an employee’s freedom to negotiate his own work schedule with his employer.
  • 14. The Progressives’ Limited Progress
    • Ludlow Massacre - Colorado state troops set a striking miners’ camp ablaze, killing thirteen women and children, an act that outraged laborers throughout the nation.
  • 15. Women at Work
    • Muller v. Oregon - The Supreme Court upheld maximum hour laws for female workers because protecting women’s reproductive health served the public good.
  • 16. Containing Socialism
    • Meat Inspection Act (1906) - Law gave federal inspectors the authority to condemn meat unfit for consumption and established federal sanitary standards for meatpacking plants.
    • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) - Law levied federal fines for mislabeling food or medicine.
  • 17. Ending Government Corruption
    • Initiative - Provided a way, usually by gathering signatures on petitions, for the electorate to introduce legislation before state legislatures.
    • Referendum - Put legislative proposals on the ballot, letting the voting public decide whether a measure became law.
  • 18. Ending Government Corruption
    • Recall - Used special elections to remove unpopular officials from office before their term expired
    • “ muckrakers” - Progressive Era term for investigative journalists who wrote exposés on government and business corruption.
  • 19. Ending Government Corruption
    • Seventeenth Amendment (1913) - A constitutional amendment that allowed voters, rather than state legislatures, elect federal senators.
  • 20. DuBois vs. Washington Talented 10 th or Bootstraps?
    • Refer to page 556
    W.E.B. DuBois Booker T. Washington