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  • 1. Are the scientists on to something with altmetrics? Exploring the best way to assess and track the scholarly impact of an author
  • 2. “As the scholarly workflow is increasingly migrating to the web, formerly hidden uses like reading, bookmarking, sharing, discussing and rating are leaving traces online and offer a new ground to measure…” Benedikt Fecher and Sascha Friesike Open Science: One Term, Five Schools of Thought RatSWD Working Paper Series May 2013
  • 3. Teaser: Scholarly Impact Story Steve Pettifer  citation count for article 80  viewed or downloaded more than 53,000 times PLOS
  • 4. Experts Demonstrating Scholarly Impact When Who/Gain Favor Why historically- science royalty power and money historically - legal experts letters respect from colleagues, funds and power present - science UK – “impact assessment” key “research governance” prove the impact of your research beyond the academia to get public funds present –science and legal tenure Committees- citation counts tenure present- science refereed/ peer reviewed journals tenure and funding present- legal Publishers and student law review editors published - citations and funds
  • 5. Abridged History of Science Scholarship 1665 – Henry Oldenburg creates the first scientific journal After WWII peer and editorial reviews 1950s ISI impact standards developed Web- dissemination of scholarship as it happens research or data can now be cited Scholarship leaving digital footprint 1992 ISI bought by a vendor Letter writing is used to disseminate scholarly knowledge
  • 6. Abridged History of Legal Scholarship1808- 1870 non-student legal periodicals 1875 Albany Law School published the Albany Law School Journal, only one year. 1886, a group of eight third-year students formed a new law club, known as the Langdell Society, and out of this club 1887 Harvard Law Review was founded 2008 push for empirical research in legal scholarship Institutional repositories/scholarship for faculty became the norm 2006-2008 SSRN Legal Scholarship Network gains popularity After WWII rise of the specialty law reviews or journals August 2013- Six of Duke’s law journals are online only 1920s “Instructions for Editorial Work” was prepared by student editors and put in the hands of the new members of the Review (Bluebook)
  • 7. Currently How Is Scholarly Impact Assessed? Impact Spectrum  Journal level impact  Article Level impact  Individual research impact Analytics Citation analysis •Standard decades Bibliometrics •Quantitative study of the scholarly info Webometrics •Quantitative study of the web
  • 8. Why do we Care? Timeliness and Accuracy Citations “Invisible college” (discussion, data, blogs, tweets) “sleeping beauty” Gaming of the System (pay to publish, cite us or else, Journal Impact Factor, ranking Trading up)
  • 9. Eugene Garfield Likened impact factor to nuclear energy describing it as a force that can help society but can unleash mayhem when it is misused
  • 10. Not just the scientists
  • 11. Traditional Assessment Not a Level Playing Field Complaints from scientists and researchers Complaints from legal scholars Skewing the course of research All student editing boards are not the same add citations to previous articles from the same journal EXpresso and Scholastica - too many submissions, Flipping up, CV submission Higher ranked journals are cited more – “will it be cited?” Timely and hot get published Tenure requires publication journals with if above 5 Publish or perish Cash bonuses for publishing in high impact journals Publish for stipend System is short term and affecting the research being conducted Solicitation of articles Flipping up – leveraging lower commitments to work up the ranks SSRN or other open source options are easier Nature rejects ½ submissions before evaluation because unfashionable Richard Delgado: much of the civil rights scholarships was being authored by 26 male white authors who exclusively cited to each other. Publish review articles – overview topic Exact details of the JIF are a trade secret
  • 12. Altmetrics “invisible metric” “ the creation and study of new metrics based on the Social Web for analyzing and informing scholarship”” http://blogs.plos.org/everyone/2011/11/08/altmetrics- tracking-scholarly-impact-on-the-social-web-plos-one- collection/ Not just quantitative metric as current tools qualitative assessment Allows for the impact metric tool to change Pinned retweets Term coined in a Tweet Tweets – over 58K scholarly citation in one month
  • 13. altmetrics: a manifesto “No one can read everything. We rely on filters to make sense of the scholarly literature, but the narrow, traditional filters are being swamped. However, the growth of new, online scholarly tools allows us to make new filters; these altmetrics reflect the broad, rapid impact of scholarship in this burgeoning ecosystem. We call for more tools and research based on altmetrics.” http://altmetrics.org/manifesto/ http://jasonpriem.org/2012/05/toward-a-second-revolution-altmetrics-total- impact-and-the-decoupled-journal-video/ (12:00)
  • 14. Altmetrics the “invisible metric”
  • 15. Advantages to Altmetrics  Tangible  Timely - impact in days  Impact audience  scholars  practitioners  clinicians  educators  general public  Openness - data coverage is completely transparent to the users  Altmetrics are diverse  Product: articles, datasets, software, blogs, videos  Platform: beyond journals, institutional repositories, online communities  Audience: beyond the academy, practitioners, clinicians and the general public
  • 16. Why do we care?  Steve Pettifer - wrote article in 2008 “it hit the right note at the right time” altmetrics = the whole story
  • 17. Librarian hat Altmetric Gathering  (create profiles, data routing, stat collection)  SSRN pages  Twitter – push your work your views have us “Follow” experts in the field http://kevin.lexblog.com/2013/12/19/lawyers-are-a-bigger-deal-on- twitter-than-they-think/  Teach to “flip up”
  • 18. Great for science but we are law…  Susskind: crowd sourcing legal information as a new way for providing legal knowledge.  Justice Kennedy: there are quality academic (and professional) legal blogs that offer case or issues analysis sometimes within days or hours of a major decision being handed down.  Sunstein: bloggers often exchange ideas and frequently debate and share their perspectives.
  • 19. Great for science but we are law… Again why do we care? Jim Milles, Law Professor at Buffalo Law School On Dec. 20, 2013 uploaded a draft of an article on SSRN Legal Education in Crisis, and Why Law Libraries are Doomed http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2370567 February 2014 Law review Journal citation count of 0
  • 20. http://www.scribd.com/doc/19253028/Twitter-in-Higher-Education-Usage- Habits-and-Trends-of-Todays-College-Faculty
  • 21. New Timeline for Assessing Scholarly Impact  Pre-published draft to SSRN  Post link to article = Twitter, friendfeed, Facebook, LinkedIn, the law library blog so picked up by our RSS feed readers  After a month start checking the blogs  Submissions eXpresso and Scholastica (flip if you want) http://law.bepress.com/expresso/ https://scholasticahq.com/  Accepted add it to SSRN  Published - repost the link  Blogs, trades, media mentions  A year out formal citations UK “impact assessment”
  • 22. Tools for Altmetric Gathering  Altmetrics http://www.altmetric.com/  Tweets, blogs, and news and more  Zotero http://www.zotero.org/blog/zoteros-next-big-step/  Mendeley http://www.mendeley.com/  Delicious https://delicious.com/  Impact Story http://impactstory.org/  Tweets, Blogs, delicious, news and more  CiteUlike http://www.citeulike.org/  DataCite http://www.datacite.org/  Figshare http://figshare.com/  SlideShare http://www.slideshare.net/?ss  Prezi https://prezi.com/  Publish or Perish http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm  Google Scholar and (since release 4.1) Microsoft Academic Search  Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, Google scholar
  • 23. Questions? Comments? Feedback?