California: An Overview<br />Kristina Underwood<br />History 141<br />
Chapter 1. Queen Calafia’s Island: Place and First People<br />Esplandiá- Son of Amadias of Gaul, siege of Constantinople<br />Some of Esplandiá’s allies were Califronians- black Amazons<br />Californians authority figure- Queen Calafia<br />California thought to be an island west of the Indies<br />Calafia sailed to Constantinople to help with the siege of Constantinople<br />Edward Everett Hale- a Boston antiquarian (1863) who figured “Califia” was the name behind “California”<br />1533- Hernán Cortés landed on what thought to be an island in the Pacific<br />1539- realized their mistake, and called Antigua (Old California)<br />
Chapter 1. Queen Calafia’s Island: Place and First People<br />California is to be said the result to action between the North American and Pacific tectonic plates<br />The land piece was detached from southern Baja California and floated up north<br />Four intervals: Bay of San Diego, Monterey bay, San Francisco bay, Humboldt Bay formed 30,000 years ago from the collapse of mountains<br />41 mountains- Mount Whitney at the highest<br />California has dramatic landscape because of how it formed and the plates involved<br />Fault lines- San Andreas, Hayward, Garlock, San Jacinto, Nacimiento keeps California active<br />California ranges from cold weather (mountains) to unbearably hot weather (valleys)<br />Seasons: wet and dry<br />
Chapter 1. Queen Calafia’s Island: Place and First People<br />Humans were able to settle where the current from the northwestern Pacific comes along with areas of high-pressure<br />Known as “island on the land” because of its borders consisting of mountains, deserts, and canyons<br />One third of all native Americans in the United States lived in California<br />California was very diverse with tribes and languages and no hierarchies<br />Diversity created myths, totems, taboos, rituals<br />Faced extinction with the new colonists <br />
Chapter 8. Making it Happen: Labor Through the Great Depression and Beyond<br />Diverse California economy: agriculture, industrial, entertainment, tourist, service<br />The Depression came early 1930s<br />Jobs requiring the use of ones hands was popular and paid well<br />1859- first two labor Unions: Union Iron Works of San Francisco, Trade Union Council<br />1860s in San Francisco- demand for organized labor and 8-hour days<br />1870s- nationwide depression, hurt San Francisco<br />Chinese came in June 1867 and became a threat for unemployed in the 1870s depression<br />Labor started up North with wheat ranches during harvest time<br />Hugh James Glenn- Wheat king, 55 thousand acres in Colusa County, harvesting half a million bushels of wheat<br />California agriculture- boomed with the help of irrigation and refrigerated railroad cars<br />
Chapter 8. Making it Happen: Labor Through the Great Depression and Beyond<br />1881- San Francisco Trades Assembly<br />June 1884- Brunette Haskell, Internation Workingmen’s Association<br />Bombing in Haymarket Square, Chicago, May 4, 1886 during an 8-hour workday rally, eight anarchist leaders were convicted with no evidence<br />Andrew Furuseth- joined the Coast Seamen’s Union June 1885- combined it with the Steamship Sailors Union to created the Sailors Union of the Pacific<br />President Woodrow Wilson signed the Seamen’s Act in 1915<br />Alfred Fuhrman- created the Brewers and Malsters Union of the Pacific Coast members could then receive $17 for a six day week and allowed to live away from their place of work 1887 (didn’t receive it until 1900)<br />1893- depression struck the nation<br />Strikes led by the Teamsters Union in 1901- “General Strike”<br />Union Labor Party of San Francisco put out the next two mayors: Eugene Schmitz and Patrick Henry McCarthy, and then led to James Rolph Jr. as mayor<br />October 1, 1910- Los Angeles Times office was bombed by OrtieMcManigal, James McNamara, and John McNamara<br />
Chapter 8. Making it Happen: Labor Through the Great Depression and Beyond<br />1912- dock strike in San Diego by Industrial Workers of the Worldwobblies<br />Many protests, strikes, and bombing followed Criminal Syndicalism Act 1919- organization advocating was seen as a felony<br />During the Great Depression, agricultural workers came from the mid-west to seek employment, dropping wages significantly CAWIU strikes in 1933 (largest was cotton pickers of San Joaquin Valley, became violent and known as the Sacramento Conspiracy Trial)<br />July 5, 1934- “Bloody Thursday”: San Francisco waterfront strike<br />Culbert Olson was elected for governor (1937) and freed Tom Mooney who was wrongly accused for the 1916 Preparedness Day bombing<br />Union Farm Workers led the huelga strike by César Chávez- boycott of table grapes grown in California<br />
Chapter 11. An Imagined Place: Art and Life on the Coast of Dreams<br />20th century brought film (mostly Southern California), radio, television<br />Painting became a form of expression and had many styles at the end of the century<br />Photography and architecture also improved<br />West Coast jazz emerged through California composers<br />In the Sultan’s Power (1908) was first complete film filmed in LA<br />Directors started to come to California because of the good weather and cultural areas<br />Cecil Blount DeMille became the “it” director of Hollywood after filming The Squaw Man<br />Hollywood was soon recognized as where the film industry was<br />United Artists studio (1919) was founded by David Wark Griffith (director), Mary Pickford (actress), Douglas Fairbanks (Mary’s husband), and Charlie Chaplin (comedian)<br />Film Studios 1920-1930s: Universal (1915), Fine Arts, Fox, Famous Players, Metro, Columbia (1922), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (1924), RKO (1928), Warner Bros. (1929), Twentieth Century-Fox (1935), Paramount (1935)<br />
Chapter 11. An Imagined Place: Art and Life on the Coast of Dreams<br />Sound was introduced in 1929<br />1930s- émigrés internationalized the film industry<br />Great writers emerged in 1930s, including: Robinson Jeffers, John Steinbeck, William Saroyan, F. Scott Fitzgerald James M. Cain, Horace McCoy, William Faulkner<br />Some people were disappointed with Los Angeles such as writer Raymond Chandler, William Saroyan, and Joan Didion<br />1950s- The Beats movement: started with post-WWII writers, brought on sex, rebellion, and drugs<br />Poetic manifesto of the Beats- Allen Ginsberg’s Howl<br />Famous poets of California- William Everson and Gary Snyder<br />Painters were occupied with painting landscapes until “Society of Six” 1920s postimpressionism, bursts of vivid color<br />The Depression brought Social Realism<br />Mexican muralists: José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Alfredo Ramos Martínez, and Diego Rivera<br />WWII brought abstract modernism, painters included: Clyfford Still, Ronald Bladen, DewardCobett, and Richard Diebenkorn<br />
Chapter 11. An Imagined Place: Art and Life on the Coast of Dreams<br />“Group f/64” led by Edward Weston and Ansel Adams, campaign to reinstate photography<br />Dorothea Lange- shot the photograph Migrant Mother<br />Architecture- inspired by Arts and Crafts, shingle style<br />Architects included: Bernard Maybeck, Charles Sumner Greene, Henry Mather Greene<br />Modernism emerged pre-WWI<br />Theater and music also surfaced<br />1923- GaetanoMerola established the opera company in San Francisco<br />Music in movies created employment especially for Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg<br />Musicians tried to blend pop and modernism together<br />Outdoor activities also characterized California: boxing, swimming, tennis, baseball, football, track and field<br />1860- Olympic club founded by German immigrants<br />1907- surfing brought to California by George Freeth, became the icon of California lifestyle<br />1859- baseball introduced<br />
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