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Karen frongoso curriculum design models

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Curriculum Design Models

Curriculum Design Models

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  • 1. CurriculumCurriculum DesignDesign ModelsModelsModule II Lesson 1Module II Lesson 1
  • 2. IntroductionIntroduction As a teacher, one has to be a curriculum designer,As a teacher, one has to be a curriculum designer, curriculum implementor, and a curriculum evaluator.curriculum implementor, and a curriculum evaluator. These threefold functions are embedded in the teachingThese threefold functions are embedded in the teaching profession. Every single day, a teacher plans,profession. Every single day, a teacher plans, implements, and evaluates the curriculum in the school.implements, and evaluates the curriculum in the school. Hence it would be of great help to know how schoolHence it would be of great help to know how school curricula are being made or crafted.curricula are being made or crafted.
  • 3. Curriculum DesignCurriculum Design ModelsModels Crafting a curriculum is like writing a lessonCrafting a curriculum is like writing a lesson plan. It is like making something with theplan. It is like making something with the different components, and putting themdifferent components, and putting them together in a creative way. It is a tasktogether in a creative way. It is a task that all teachers should know andthat all teachers should know and understand, or better still, to know howunderstand, or better still, to know how to craft one.to craft one.
  • 4. Structures ofStructures of Curriculum DesignCurriculum Design 1.1. SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGNSUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN MODELMODEL This model focuses on the content of theThis model focuses on the content of the curriculum. The subject-centered designcurriculum. The subject-centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook, writtencorresponds mostly to the textbook, written for the specific subject. Henry Morrison andfor the specific subject. Henry Morrison and William Harris are the few curricularists who wereWilliam Harris are the few curricularists who were firm believers of this design. Most of the schoolsfirm believers of this design. Most of the schools using this kind of structure aim for excellence inusing this kind of structure aim for excellence in the subject matter content.the subject matter content.
  • 5. Examples of Subject-CentereExamples of Subject-Centere CurriculumCurriculum SUBJECT DESIGNSUBJECT DESIGN This is the oldest and so far the most familiar design forThis is the oldest and so far the most familiar design for teachers, parents and other laymen. According to theteachers, parents and other laymen. According to the advocates, subject design has an advantage because it is easyadvocates, subject design has an advantage because it is easy to deliver. Complementary books are written and supportto deliver. Complementary books are written and support instructional materials are commercially available. Teachers areinstructional materials are commercially available. Teachers are familiar with the format, because they were also educated usingfamiliar with the format, because they were also educated using the design. However, the drawback of this design is thatthe design. However, the drawback of this design is that sometimes, learning is so compartmentalized. It stresses sosometimes, learning is so compartmentalized. It stresses so much the content that it forgets about students’ naturalmuch the content that it forgets about students’ natural tendencies, interests and experiences.tendencies, interests and experiences.
  • 6. Examples of Subject-CenteredExamples of Subject-Centered CurriculumCurriculum Discipline designDiscipline design This curriculum model is related to the subject design.This curriculum model is related to the subject design. However, while subject design centers only on the cluster ofHowever, while subject design centers only on the cluster of content, discipline design focuses on academic disciplines.content, discipline design focuses on academic disciplines. Disciple refers to specific knowledge learned through a methodDisciple refers to specific knowledge learned through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of theirwhich the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields. This is often used in college, but not in the elementaryfields. This is often used in college, but not in the elementary or secondary levels. So from the subject-centered curriculum,or secondary levels. So from the subject-centered curriculum, it moves higher to a discipline when the students are moreit moves higher to a discipline when the students are more mature and are already moving towards their career path ormature and are already moving towards their career path or disciplines as science, mathematics, psychology, humanities,disciplines as science, mathematics, psychology, humanities, history , and others. Disciplines becomes the degree program.history , and others. Disciplines becomes the degree program.
  • 7. Examples of Subject-CentereExamples of Subject-Centere CurriculumCurriculum Correlation designCorrelation design This cThis comes from a core, correlatedomes from a core, correlated curriculum design that links separatecurriculum design that links separate subject designs in order to reducesubject designs in order to reduce fragmentation. Subjects are related tofragmentation. Subjects are related to one another but each subject maintainsone another but each subject maintains its identity.its identity.
  • 8. Examples of Subject-CentereExamples of Subject-Centere CurriculumCurriculum Broad field design/interdisciplinaryBroad field design/interdisciplinary This is a variation of the subject-centered design.This is a variation of the subject-centered design. This design was made to prevent theThis design was made to prevent the compartmentalization of subjects and integratecompartmentalization of subjects and integrate the contents that are related to each other.the contents that are related to each other. Sometimes called holistic curriculum, broad fieldSometimes called holistic curriculum, broad field design draws around themes and integration.design draws around themes and integration.
  • 9. 2.2. Learner-centered designLearner-centered design Among the progressive educational psychologists, the learnerAmong the progressive educational psychologists, the learner is the center of the educative process. This emphasis is veryis the center of the educative process. This emphasis is very strong in the elementary level, however more concern hasstrong in the elementary level, however more concern has been placed on the secondary and even the tertiary levels.been placed on the secondary and even the tertiary levels. Although in high school, the subject or content has becomeAlthough in high school, the subject or content has become the focus and in the college level, the discipline is the center,the focus and in the college level, the discipline is the center, both levels still recognize the importance of the learner in theboth levels still recognize the importance of the learner in the curriculum.curriculum. Structures of Curriculum DesignStructures of Curriculum Design
  • 10. Examples of learner-CenteredExamples of learner-Centered CurriculumCurriculum  Child-centered designChild-centered design This design is often attributed to the influence of John Dewey,This design is often attributed to the influence of John Dewey, Rousseau, Pestallozi, and Froebel. The curriculum design is anchoredRousseau, Pestallozi, and Froebel. The curriculum design is anchored on the needs and interests of the child. The learner is noton the needs and interests of the child. The learner is not considered as a passive individual but as one who engages withconsidered as a passive individual but as one who engages with his/her environment. One learns by doing. Learners actively create,his/her environment. One learns by doing. Learners actively create, construct meanings and understanding as viewed by theconstruct meanings and understanding as viewed by the constructivists. In this design, learners interact with the teachersconstructivists. In this design, learners interact with the teachers and the environment, thus there is a collaborative effort on bothand the environment, thus there is a collaborative effort on both sides to plan lessons, select content and do activities together.sides to plan lessons, select content and do activities together. Learning is a product of the child’s interaction with theLearning is a product of the child’s interaction with the
  • 11. Examples of learner-CenteredExamples of learner-Centered CurriculumCurriculum  Experience-centered designExperience-centered design This design is similar to the child centered design. Although, theThis design is similar to the child centered design. Although, the child remains to be the focus, experience-centred design believeschild remains to be the focus, experience-centred design believes that the interests and needs of learners and needs of learnersthat the interests and needs of learners and needs of learners cannot be pre-planned. Instead, experiences of the learnerscannot be pre-planned. Instead, experiences of the learners become the starting point of the curriculum, thus the schoolbecome the starting point of the curriculum, thus the school environment is left open and free. Learners are made to chooseenvironment is left open and free. Learners are made to choose from various activities that the teacher provides. The learnersfrom various activities that the teacher provides. The learners are empowered to shape their own learning from the differentare empowered to shape their own learning from the different opportunities given by the teacher.opportunities given by the teacher.
  • 12. Examples of learner-CenteredExamples of learner-Centered CurriculumCurriculum  humanistic designhumanistic design The key lead personalities in this curriculum design were AbrahamThe key lead personalities in this curriculum design were Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Maslow’s theory of self-actualization explainsMaslow and Carl Rogers. Maslow’s theory of self-actualization explains that a person who achieves this level is accepting of self, others, andthat a person who achieves this level is accepting of self, others, and nature; is simple, spontaneous and natural; is open to differentnature; is simple, spontaneous and natural; is open to different experiences; possesses empathy and sympathy towards the lessexperiences; possesses empathy and sympathy towards the less fortunate, among many others. The person can achieve this state offortunate, among many others. The person can achieve this state of self-actualization later in life but has to start the process while still inself-actualization later in life but has to start the process while still in school. Carl Rogers, on the other hand, believed that a person canschool. Carl Rogers, on the other hand, believed that a person can enhance self-directed learning by improving self understanding andenhance self-directed learning by improving self understanding and basic attitudes to guide behaviour.basic attitudes to guide behaviour.
  • 13. Structures of CurriculumStructures of Curriculum DesignDesign 3.3. Problem-centered designProblem-centered design Generally, problem-centered design draws onGenerally, problem-centered design draws on social problems, needs, interests, and abilities ofsocial problems, needs, interests, and abilities of the learners. Various problems are given emphases.the learners. Various problems are given emphases. There are those that center life situations,There are those that center life situations, contemporary life problems, areas of living andcontemporary life problems, areas of living and many others. In this curriculum, content cutsmany others. In this curriculum, content cuts across subject boundaries and must be based onacross subject boundaries and must be based on the needs, concerns, and abilities of the students.the needs, concerns, and abilities of the students.
  • 14. Examples of Problem-CentereExamples of Problem-Centere CurriculumCurriculum  Life-situations designLife-situations design What makes the design unique is that the contents are organized inWhat makes the design unique is that the contents are organized in ways that allow students to clearly view problem areas clearly. It usesways that allow students to clearly view problem areas clearly. It uses the past and the present experiences of learners as a means tothe past and the present experiences of learners as a means to analyse the basic areas of living. As a starting point, the pressinganalyse the basic areas of living. As a starting point, the pressing immediate problems of the society and the students’ existingimmediate problems of the society and the students’ existing concerns are utilized. Based on Herbert Spencer’s curriculum writing,concerns are utilized. Based on Herbert Spencer’s curriculum writing, his emphases were activities that sustain life, enhance life, aid inhis emphases were activities that sustain life, enhance life, aid in rearing children, maintain the individual’s social and political relationsrearing children, maintain the individual’s social and political relations and enhance leisure, tasks and feelings. The connection of subjectand enhance leisure, tasks and feelings. The connection of subject matter to real situations increases the relevance of the curriculum.matter to real situations increases the relevance of the curriculum.
  • 15. Examples of Problem-CentereExamples of Problem-Centere CurriculumCurriculum  Core designCore design Another example of problem-centeredAnother example of problem-centered design. It centers on general education anddesign. It centers on general education and the problems are based on common humanthe problems are based on common human activities. The central focus of the coreactivities. The central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems,design includes common needs, problems, concerns of the learners.concerns of the learners.
  • 16. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 1. The problem is selected by either the teacher or students.
  • 17. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 2. A group consensus is made to identify the important problems and interest of the class.
  • 18. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 3. Problems are selected on the basis of developed criteria for
  • 19. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 4. The problem is clearly stated and defined.
  • 20. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 5. Areas of study are decided, including dividing the class by individual or group
  • 21. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 6. Needed information is listed and
  • 22. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 7. Resources for obtaining information are listed and
  • 23. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 8. Information is obtained and organized.
  • 24. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 9. Information is analysed and interpreted.
  • 25. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 10. Tentative conclusions are stated and tested.
  • 26. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 11.A report is presented to the class on an individual or group
  • 27. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 12.Conclusions are evaluated.
  • 28. Ways On How To Proceed Following A CoreWays On How To Proceed Following A Core Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing,Design Of A Curriculum (Faunce & Bossing, 1959)1959) 13. New avenues of exploration toward further problem solving are examined.

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