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  • E N G L I S H G R A M M A R

    2. 2. NOUN <ul><li>A noun is word used as the name of a person, place or thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- Raman, Chennai, Mumbai, bus, bicycle, car, flower, Hari singh etc </li></ul>
    3. 3. NOUNS ARE DIVIDED INTO FOUR <ul><li>PROPER NOUN </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON NOUN </li></ul><ul><li>COLLECTIVE NOUN </li></ul><ul><li>ABSTRACT NOUN </li></ul>
    4. 4. PROPER NOUN <ul><li>The name of a particular person or place is called a Proper Noun </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:-Asoka, Calcutta, Ganges, Babar, Mumbai, Yamuna, Solomon, Krishna, Ram, Chennai, Volvo Bus etc </li></ul>
    5. 5. COMMON NOUN <ul><li>A common noun is the name of a person or thing of the same class </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- shop, boy, birthday, rain, tree, town, city, ship, battle, grapes, fox, elephant, cat etc </li></ul>
    6. 6. COLLECTIVE NOUN <ul><li>A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things of the same class </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- group, bunch, committee, crowd, team, assembly, army, platoon, battalion, mob, fleet etc </li></ul>
    7. 7. ABSTRACT NOUN <ul><li>An abstract noun is the name of a quality, an action or a state </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- Goodness, slavery, kindness, cleverness, darkness, truth, wisdom, cleanliness, godliness. Beauty, honesty, courage etc </li></ul>
    9. 9. MARK THE NOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES <ul><li>This is a group of workers </li></ul><ul><li>Rahim opened the door </li></ul><ul><li>Our army won </li></ul><ul><li>He is looking for truth </li></ul><ul><li>Bangalore is a big city </li></ul>
    10. 10. CLASSIFY THE NOUNS <ul><li>Love, honesty, truth, courage, bread </li></ul><ul><li>Paper, water, copper, wool, man </li></ul><ul><li>Rome,Hyderabad, Perth, Boston, Patience </li></ul><ul><li>Class, team, jury, Nehru, board </li></ul><ul><li>Bicycle, table, elephant, stove, weights </li></ul>
    11. 11. ADJECTIVES <ul><li>WORDS WHICH DESCRIBE OR QUALIFY A NOUN ARE CALLED ADJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- Good, bad, black, big etc </li></ul>
    12. 12. Use of adjectives in sentences <ul><li>Ram is a clever student </li></ul><ul><li>The sky is blue </li></ul><ul><li>Babu is a good boy </li></ul><ul><li>I saw a good film </li></ul><ul><li>I have enough books </li></ul>
    13. 13. Use of adjectives in sentences <ul><li>He had three boys </li></ul><ul><li>Mumbai is a big city </li></ul><ul><li>I have a good pen </li></ul><ul><li>Nehru was a famous leader </li></ul><ul><li>There are four chairs in this room </li></ul>
    14. 14. SOME MORE EXAMPLES OF ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Lazy, big, large, small, little, some, enough, quick, slow, sad, brave, wise, </li></ul><ul><li>Foolish, polite, each, many, golden, stormy, beautiful, clever </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy, famous, ripe, this, that, these, those, such, same </li></ul>
    15. 15. THE ARTICLE <ul><li>ARTICLES are of two types </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITE ARTICLE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The’ is the DEFINITE ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A’ and ‘An’ are INDEFINITE ARTICLES </li></ul>
    16. 16. USE OF ‘THE’ <ul><li>Before the names of well-known books, newspapers and magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible is a sacred book </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Hindu” is the name of a newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>The Kumudam is a good Tamil magazine </li></ul>
    17. 17. Use of “The” <ul><li>Before the names of rivers, seas, oceans and mountain ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>The Ganges is a sacred river of the Hindus </li></ul><ul><li>The pacific ocean is the biggest ocean </li></ul><ul><li>The Cauvery is a river passing through Tamil Nadu </li></ul>
    18. 18. Use of “The” <ul><li>Before the names of trains, ships, aero planes, famous buildings and well-known families </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>The Tamil Nadu Express is late today </li></ul><ul><li>The INS VIRAT is a ship </li></ul><ul><li>The Charminar is situated in Hyderabad </li></ul>
    19. 19. Use of “The” <ul><li>Before words showing number, weight and measure </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>Bananas are sold by the dozen </li></ul><ul><li>The distance between New Delhi and Agra is about two hundred kilo metres. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Use of “The” <ul><li>Before important historical events </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>The first Battle of Panipat was won by Babar </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement </li></ul>
    21. 21. USE OF “A” <ul><li>Before singular words beginning with a consonant or words beginning with a vowel, having a consonant sound </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>I bought a purse </li></ul><ul><li>He is a useful servant </li></ul><ul><li>He gave me a one-rupee note </li></ul>
    22. 22. USE OF “AN” <ul><li>Before singular words beginning with a vowel sound or words beginning with a silent ‘h’. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>He takes an egg daily </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever seen an elephant? </li></ul><ul><li>An honest person never steals </li></ul><ul><li>His father is an honourable man </li></ul>
    23. 23. TENSES <ul><li>TENSE is form taken by a verb to show the time of an action or a state </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main tenses </li></ul><ul><li>The present tense </li></ul><ul><li>The past tense </li></ul><ul><li>The future tense </li></ul>
    24. 24. Present Tense <ul><li>The present tense refers to the present time </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>She reads this book everyday </li></ul><ul><li>The girls are singing </li></ul><ul><li>He has gone to the post office </li></ul><ul><li>They have been working in the garden for two days </li></ul>
    25. 25. Past Tense <ul><li>The PAST TENSE refers to the past time </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>She told us a story </li></ul><ul><li>They were looking at the pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Mohan had eaten his dinner when I went to see him </li></ul><ul><li>He had been thinking of his money all the time you talked to him </li></ul>
    26. 26. FUTURE TENSE <ul><li>The FUTURE TENSE refers to the future time </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>It will get dark soon </li></ul><ul><li>I shall see you tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>He will be staying with us for a week </li></ul><ul><li>We shall have invited them before next Monday </li></ul>
    27. 27. FOUR DIFFERENT FORMS OF THE PRESENT TENSE <ul><li>PRESENT INDEFINITE – I work </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENT CONTINUOUS – I am working </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENT PERFECT – I have worked </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS – I have been working </li></ul>
    28. 28. FOUR DIFFERENT FORMS OF THE PRESENT TENSE <ul><li>I write a letter </li></ul><ul><li>I am writing a letter </li></ul><ul><li>I have written a letter </li></ul><ul><li>I have been writing a letter since morning </li></ul>
    29. 29. I write a letter <ul><li>This sentence does not show whether the action is complete or incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>So, the verb “write” is said to be in the PRESENT INDEFINITE form </li></ul>
    30. 30. Present Indefinite <ul><li>He sings well </li></ul><ul><li>It happens every Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>We usually listen to the radio in the evening </li></ul><ul><li>She teaches Hindi in class V </li></ul><ul><li>I consider him to be fortunate </li></ul><ul><li>I really enjoy travelling </li></ul><ul><li>She often goes to Church </li></ul><ul><li>The children love jeans </li></ul><ul><li>The sun sets in the west </li></ul><ul><li>The crow is black </li></ul><ul><li>Ramu generally wears trousers </li></ul>
    31. 31. I am writing a letter <ul><li>This sentence shows that the action is still going on </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the verb “am writing” is said to be in the PRESENT CONTINUOUS form </li></ul>
    32. 32. Present continuous <ul><li>The baby is still sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>They are playing football </li></ul><ul><li>He is working with great skill </li></ul><ul><li>We are not trying to convince you </li></ul><ul><li>Raju is reading a newspaper at present </li></ul><ul><li>My parents are going to the theatre </li></ul><ul><li>I am revising the portions </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you playing now? </li></ul><ul><li>She is not reading the lesson correctly </li></ul><ul><li>The boys are not wasting their time </li></ul>
    33. 33. I have written a letter <ul><li>This sentence shows that the action is complete </li></ul><ul><li>So, the verb “have written” is said to be in the PRESENT PERFECT form </li></ul>
    34. 34. Present Perfect <ul><li>I have already done my work </li></ul><ul><li>He has come from Dubai </li></ul><ul><li>They have gone to Kanpur </li></ul><ul><li>He has not yet completed his work </li></ul><ul><li>The plane has just left </li></ul><ul><li>I have not spoken to her since last Monday </li></ul><ul><li>Have you written to her? </li></ul><ul><li>I have worked here for ten days </li></ul>
    35. 35. Present perfect <ul><li>I have washed my hands just now </li></ul><ul><li>I have found the pen you are searching for </li></ul><ul><li>They have been in Nepal for the last four months </li></ul><ul><li>I have known him for the past twenty years </li></ul><ul><li>I have never had problems regarding finance </li></ul><ul><li>Have you seen Ramesh? </li></ul><ul><li>Javed Akhtar has written several lyrics and stories </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have discovered many hidden laws of nature </li></ul>
    36. 36. I have been writing a letter since morning <ul><li>This sentence shows that the action continues with reference to the time of commencement </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, the verb “have been writing” is said to be in the PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS form </li></ul>
    37. 37. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS <ul><li>The baby has been sleeping for 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>They have been living here since 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher has been waiting for you since 10 am </li></ul><ul><li>He has been reading </li></ul><ul><li>You have been reading </li></ul><ul><li>They have been reading </li></ul><ul><li>I have been reading till mid night </li></ul><ul><li>It has been raining heavily all night </li></ul><ul><li>How long have you been staying in Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>I have been waiting in the queue for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>I have been learning Arabic for 3 years </li></ul>
    38. 38. THREE TENSES - PRESENT, PAST & FUTURE <ul><li>There are four forms each to all the above-said tenses </li></ul><ul><li>The four forms are:- </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinite </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect Continuous </li></ul>
    39. 39. Four different forms of the past tense <ul><li>PAST INDEFINITE – I loved </li></ul><ul><li>PAST CONTINUOUS - I was loving </li></ul><ul><li>PAST PERFECT – I have loved </li></ul><ul><li>PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS – I had been loving </li></ul>
    40. 40. PAST INDEFINITE - used to denote a single act in the past, to denote a habitual action in the past, to denote an action going on in the past <ul><li>Babar defeated Rana Sanga at Panipat </li></ul><ul><li>Mugal kings were crowned at Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>While they danced we sang </li></ul><ul><li>She was late yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>He was angry </li></ul><ul><li>We were grateful </li></ul><ul><li>They were happy </li></ul><ul><li>Ramu came home yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>My sister wanted a pen </li></ul><ul><li>I saw him last year </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher reached here an hour ago </li></ul>
    41. 41. Past Continuous – used to represent an action as going on at some point in the past <ul><li>They were playing Tennis when he saw them </li></ul><ul><li>When he came in, we were eating our supper </li></ul><ul><li>The patient was sleeping when the doctor went to see him </li></ul><ul><li>When she came in, Ramu was reading a letter </li></ul><ul><li>When I saw him, he was playing chess </li></ul><ul><li>When I saw her, she was singing a song </li></ul><ul><li>When the headmaster came in, I was teaching Mathematics </li></ul>
    42. 42. Past Perfect – denotes an action completed at some point in past time before another action was commenced <ul><li>The rain had stopped when we came out </li></ul><ul><li>I had written the letter before he arrived </li></ul><ul><li>I had done my exercise, when Hari came to see me </li></ul><ul><li>The plane had left before we reached the aerodrome </li></ul><ul><li>She felt sorry for what she had done </li></ul><ul><li>They went away after they had finished their work </li></ul><ul><li>If you had worked hard, you would have passed the exam. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Past perfect <ul><li>I had gone to bed when the phone rang </li></ul><ul><li>I had wanted to go to the temple before his arrival. </li></ul><ul><li>After he had finished reading he switched off the light </li></ul><ul><li>She had hoped to retire at 60 but they asked her to continue for a few more years </li></ul><ul><li>The film had already started when we entered the hall. </li></ul><ul><li>She had just stepped into the car when the incident took place </li></ul>
    44. 44. Past Perfect Continuous – denotes a completed action which was going on in the past before another action was commenced <ul><li>He said that he had been learning English since 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>They said that they had been staying there for two months </li></ul><ul><li>I had been loving her since my school days </li></ul><ul><li>I had been trying hard to clear the IAS exam since my graduation </li></ul><ul><li>I had been working in Godrej company since 2005 </li></ul>
    45. 45. FUTURE INDEFINITE – used for an action that has to take place <ul><li>I shall see him tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>She will sing a song </li></ul><ul><li>I will help you (willingness, promise) </li></ul><ul><li>We shall reach there at 6 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>He will write it on the notice board </li></ul><ul><li>Will you read it? </li></ul><ul><li>I shall go to Bangalore tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>We will give donation </li></ul><ul><li>I will give you my pen (promise) </li></ul><ul><li>She shall go there tomorrow (command) </li></ul><ul><li>They shall have a holiday tomorrow </li></ul>
    46. 46. Future Continuous – represents an action as going on at some point in future time <ul><li>I shall be reading the paper, then. </li></ul><ul><li>We shall be celebrating at this time tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>They will be writing </li></ul><ul><li>She will be reading </li></ul><ul><li>They will be talking </li></ul>
    47. 47. FUTURE PERFECT – denotes an action that will be completed at some point in future time <ul><li>I shall have written my exercise, by that time </li></ul><ul><li>I shall have finished this work by the time you come back </li></ul><ul><li>He will have written the book by the end of June </li></ul><ul><li>The marriage party will have reached the temple by 8 a.m. </li></ul>
    48. 48. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS <ul><li>I shall have been sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>He will have been waiting </li></ul><ul><li>They will have been writing </li></ul><ul><li>We shall have been teaching </li></ul><ul><li>You will have been reading </li></ul><ul><li>(shall have been + ing, will have been + ing) </li></ul>
    49. 49. VERB <ul><li>A verb is a word which tells us what a person or a thing is doing </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>He reads a book </li></ul><ul><li>I went to his house </li></ul><ul><li>Leela is singing a song </li></ul>
    50. 50. TRANSITIVE VERB <ul><li>A verb which has an object is called a transitive verb </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>He writes a letter </li></ul><ul><li>He sees pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Raju writes a poem </li></ul><ul><li>We hear songs </li></ul><ul><li>She practises dance </li></ul>
    51. 51. INTRANSITIVE VERB <ul><li>A verb which has no object is called an intransitive verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>The sun rises </li></ul><ul><li>The baby sleeps </li></ul><ul><li>The bell rang loudly </li></ul><ul><li>He fought bravely </li></ul><ul><li>She plays only on holidays </li></ul>
    52. 52. ADVERB <ul><li>An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>Kishore runs quickly </li></ul><ul><li>This is a very sweet mango </li></ul><ul><li>Govind reads quite clearly </li></ul>
    53. 53. Some sentences using adverbs <ul><li>Zaheer Khan can bowl fast </li></ul><ul><li>He behaves well </li></ul><ul><li>We started early </li></ul><ul><li>He works hard all day </li></ul><ul><li>The patient is much better </li></ul>
    54. 54. Some sentences using adverbs <ul><li>I can hardly believe it </li></ul><ul><li>Do not walk so fast </li></ul><ul><li>India can ill afford to lose the match </li></ul><ul><li>Ram works hard </li></ul><ul><li>He arrived late </li></ul>
    55. 55. Some sentences using adverbs <ul><li>She is prettily dressed </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar ruled wisely for many years </li></ul><ul><li>His wife never cooks </li></ul><ul><li>Is the box big enough? </li></ul><ul><li>He has only slept three hours </li></ul>
    56. 56. Some sentences using adverbs <ul><li>We usually have breakfast at eight </li></ul><ul><li>He treated Balbir kindly </li></ul><ul><li>She behaved foolishly </li></ul><ul><li>They have completed the task nicely </li></ul><ul><li>He talked sweetly </li></ul>
    57. 57. Some sentences using adverbs <ul><li>She speaks English well </li></ul><ul><li>He does his work carefully </li></ul><ul><li>The ship is going slowly </li></ul><ul><li>It is raining heavily </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t talk so loud </li></ul>
    58. 58. Some sentences using adverbs <ul><li>They walk slowly </li></ul><ul><li>We wake early </li></ul><ul><li>A woman tells wisely </li></ul><ul><li>They take books easily </li></ul><ul><li>She writes carefully </li></ul><ul><li>He reads loudly </li></ul><ul><li>Women live happily </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs run bravely </li></ul><ul><li>I sleep well </li></ul><ul><li>Raju does not read quickly </li></ul>
    59. 59. AUXILIARY VERBS <ul><li>The verbs “ be (am, is, was etc), have and do ” , when used with ordinary verbs to make tenses, passive forms, questions and negatives, are called auxiliary verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary means “ helping” </li></ul>
    60. 60. Modal verbs <ul><li>The verbs “ can, could, may, might, will, would , shall , should, must and ought are called modal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>They are used before ordinary verbs and express meanings such as permissions, possibility, certainty and necessity. “ need and dare” are sometimes used as modal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Modal verbs are often included in the group of auxiliary verbs </li></ul>
    61. 61. THE VERB-PERSON & NUMBER <ul><li>When the subject is singular, verb will also be singular </li></ul><ul><li>Example:- </li></ul><ul><li>The child is crying </li></ul><ul><li>He is a good boy </li></ul><ul><li>When the subject is plural, verb will also be plural </li></ul><ul><li>Example:- </li></ul><ul><li>The children are smart </li></ul><ul><li>They are girls </li></ul>
    62. 62. The Verb – Person & Number <ul><li>If the subject is plural, base form of the verb should be used </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>They talk good English </li></ul><ul><li>They go to the church every Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>If the subject is singular, base form + s(es) should be used </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>She talks very loudly </li></ul><ul><li>He goes to the temple everyday </li></ul>
    63. 63. The verb – person & number <ul><li>I, you etc are used as plural subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Examples- </li></ul><ul><li>I like you </li></ul><ul><li>You look very tired </li></ul><ul><li>I try to help him </li></ul><ul><li>You are very intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>I agree with you </li></ul><ul><li>You are a smart girl </li></ul>
    64. 64. PRONOUNS <ul><li>A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>I gave him my pen </li></ul><ul><li>He is young </li></ul><ul><li>They are young </li></ul>
    65. 65. Personal Pronouns <ul><li>The pronouns which stand for the name of persons or things are said to be personal pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Pronouns are of three kinds </li></ul><ul><li>First person </li></ul><ul><li>Second person </li></ul><ul><li>Third person </li></ul>
    66. 66. Personal pronouns of the ‘FIRST PERSON’ <ul><li>The pronouns ‘I’ and ‘We’ which denote the person speaking are said to be personal pronouns of the first person </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- I, me, my, we, our, us etc </li></ul><ul><li>I have a bicycle </li></ul><ul><li>My father gave it to me </li></ul>
    67. 67. Personal pronouns of the ‘SECOND PERSON ’ <ul><li>The second person stands for the person spoken to </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- You, Your, Yours etc </li></ul><ul><li>You are a good boy </li></ul><ul><li>This book is yours </li></ul>
    68. 68. Personal pronouns of the ‘THIRD PERSON’ <ul><li>The third person stands for anyone or anything </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>He, his, him, she, her etc </li></ul><ul><li>He is my friend </li></ul><ul><li>She is a good girl </li></ul>
    69. 69. Other kinds of pronouns <ul><li>This, these, such, that, those etc (demonstrative pronouns) </li></ul><ul><li>All, some, few, many, nobody, someone, somebody, nothing, anybody etc (Indefinite pronouns) </li></ul><ul><li>Each, either, neither etc (distributive pronouns) </li></ul><ul><li>Who, whom, whose, what etc (interrogative pronouns) </li></ul>
    70. 70. PREPOSITION <ul><li>A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>The cow is in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Mother is angry with you </li></ul>
    71. 71. SOME PREPOSITIONS <ul><li>ON, IN, NEAR, WITH, TILL, UNDER </li></ul><ul><li>FROM, ALONG, OVER, THROUGH, BEYOND </li></ul><ul><li>ABOVE, BELOW, AT, AFTER, BEFORE </li></ul><ul><li>ABOUT, ACROSS, AGAINST, ALONG </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN, AMONG, BESIDE, BESIDES </li></ul>
    72. 72. SENTENCES WITH PREPOSITIONS <ul><li>He robbed me of my purse </li></ul><ul><li>He puts heavy loads on my back </li></ul><ul><li>They took the pot to the old woman </li></ul><ul><li>I have warned him of his carelessness </li></ul><ul><li>He swam across the river </li></ul><ul><li>The bus stops at Avadi </li></ul><ul><li>Raju aimed at the Tiger </li></ul><ul><li>She left school at fifteen </li></ul>
    73. 73. SENTENCES WITH PREPOSITIONS <ul><li>Meet me at ten O’ clock </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t say anything more about it </li></ul><ul><li>I will come after lunch </li></ul><ul><li>The letter A comes before C </li></ul><ul><li>Can you come before lunch? </li></ul><ul><li>He walked along the road </li></ul><ul><li>A river flows between its banks </li></ul><ul><li>Write your name above this line </li></ul><ul><li>The ball hit me below the knee </li></ul>
    74. 74. Examples for prepositions <ul><li>I often think about you </li></ul><ul><li>He is about to start </li></ul><ul><li>Meet me after five O’ clock </li></ul><ul><li>He swam across the river </li></ul><ul><li>He walked along the street </li></ul>
    75. 75. Examples for prepositions <ul><li>I have seen you before </li></ul><ul><li>The snake was killed by John </li></ul><ul><li>He brought a present for his son </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming is good for health </li></ul><ul><li>My uncle came from Indore </li></ul>
    76. 76. Examples for prepositions <ul><li>I go for a walk in the morning </li></ul><ul><li>They climbed over the wall </li></ul><ul><li>He will visit you in the evening </li></ul><ul><li>He slept for ten hours after the injection </li></ul><ul><li>He rang up at night </li></ul>
    77. 77. Examples for prepositions <ul><li>I will come to your hostel on Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>I gave the book to a poor boy </li></ul><ul><li>You may have leave till Monday </li></ul><ul><li>The rider fell off the horse </li></ul><ul><li>He went into the shop </li></ul>
    78. 78. Examples for prepositions <ul><li>Girls sat near a table </li></ul><ul><li>What is the time by your watch? </li></ul><ul><li>He reads till night </li></ul><ul><li>Whom are you waiting for ? </li></ul><ul><li>He is suffering from fever </li></ul>
    79. 79. Single word prepositions <ul><li>About, as, despite, for, on, across, before </li></ul><ul><li>Of, toward, above, at, during, off, under </li></ul><ul><li>Underneath, after, behind, from, onto, in </li></ul><ul><li>Until, against, beneath, over, up, along </li></ul><ul><li>Beside, into, through, upon, among, like </li></ul><ul><li>To, with, around, by, near, together, within </li></ul>
    80. 80. Multiword prepositions <ul><li>According to, because of, contrary to </li></ul><ul><li>Except for, in addition to, in spite of </li></ul><ul><li>On account of, with regard to </li></ul>
    81. 81. CONJUNCTION <ul><li>The words that join words or sentences are called CONJUNCTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- and, but, since, because, for, before, till, whether, so, or etc </li></ul><ul><li>Vinod and Hari came to our house </li></ul><ul><li>Uncle came, but Aunty did not come </li></ul><ul><li>I have no pen, so I did not write English </li></ul><ul><li>Gopal did not come, because he went to Jaipur </li></ul>
    82. 82. Some sentences with conjunctions <ul><li>The cat ran, but I did not see it </li></ul><ul><li>I learned Hindi and went to Kanpur </li></ul><ul><li>Leela took a bag and an umbrella </li></ul><ul><li>I have a good pen, so I shall write with it </li></ul><ul><li>Ramesh can run very quickly but Suma can’t </li></ul><ul><li>Manoj has a hen, so he eats egg. </li></ul>
    83. 83. Examples for conjunctions <ul><li>Brother and sister went to America </li></ul><ul><li>Vishnu and Sunny ran </li></ul><ul><li>Headmaster came to the class, so I did not laugh </li></ul><ul><li>He sat under the cot, so I did not see </li></ul><ul><li>He was absent because he was ill </li></ul>
    84. 84. Examples for conjunctions <ul><li>The rain had started before I reached office </li></ul><ul><li>I shall not come unless you need me </li></ul><ul><li>I have heard from many people that you are wise </li></ul><ul><li>I have never seen him since he left the place </li></ul><ul><li>The girls sang while the boys played </li></ul>
    85. 85. Examples for conjunctions <ul><li>I shall not go without you </li></ul><ul><li>Since he was lazy he failed </li></ul><ul><li>Raju is intelligent as well as hardworking </li></ul><ul><li>I would rather suffer than beg him for mercy </li></ul><ul><li>As the helicopter was landing, it caught fire </li></ul>
    86. 86. Examples for conjunctions <ul><li>Praveen went to school and learnt his lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Get a pen or a pencil </li></ul><ul><li>She is intelligent but lazy </li></ul><ul><li>He was ill yet he walked all the way </li></ul><ul><li>Ranjan could not win because he was weak </li></ul><ul><li>The boy was caught while he was stealing a watch </li></ul><ul><li>If it rains today, he will not go </li></ul>
    87. 87. Point out the conjunctions <ul><li>We shall play whether you play or not </li></ul><ul><li>Two and two make four </li></ul><ul><li>Look before you leap </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them that I will not come </li></ul><ul><li>We know not why they left us </li></ul><ul><li>The father as well as the son is to blame </li></ul><ul><li>Mohan is both rich and generous </li></ul><ul><li>Hurry up otherwise you will miss the train </li></ul><ul><li>Walk carefully lest you should fall </li></ul><ul><li>He is not only a writer but also an actor </li></ul><ul><li>Balu is neither wise nor brave </li></ul>
    88. 88. Some conjunctions are used in pairs <ul><li>Either-or </li></ul><ul><li>Either take it or leave it </li></ul><ul><li>Either you come to the movie or watch cricket alone in the housej </li></ul><ul><li>Neither-nor </li></ul><ul><li>It is neither useful nor ornamental </li></ul><ul><li>Neither Raman nor Sudhir broke the bat </li></ul><ul><li>Not only-but also </li></ul><ul><li>Nehru was not only a statesman but also a man of letters </li></ul><ul><li>Sita was not only a dancer but also a singer </li></ul><ul><li>Both-and </li></ul><ul><li>We both love him and honour him </li></ul><ul><li>Ramesh and Suresh both like her and respect her </li></ul><ul><li>Whether-or </li></ul><ul><li>I do not care whether you go or stay </li></ul><ul><li>The boys must do this whether they like it or not </li></ul>
    89. 89. INTERJECTION <ul><li>An ‘ Interjection ’ is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion </li></ul><ul><li>E.g:- </li></ul><ul><li>Oh! It was horrible </li></ul><ul><li>Alas! He is dead </li></ul><ul><li>Hurrah! We have won the game </li></ul><ul><li>Well, you can always try again </li></ul><ul><li>Well done! Keep it up </li></ul>
    90. 90. Common errors <ul><li>The sceneries here are not good </li></ul><ul><li>The scenery here is not good – correct </li></ul><ul><li>He is my cousin brother </li></ul><ul><li>He is my cousin – correct </li></ul><ul><li>I am learning a new poetry </li></ul><ul><li>I am learning a new poem – correct </li></ul><ul><li>One of my uncle is a Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>One of my uncles is a Ph.D. </li></ul>
    91. 91. Common errors <ul><li>He wrote me </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote to me – correct </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should pray God </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should pray to God – Correct </li></ul><ul><li>This is different to that </li></ul><ul><li>This is different from that - correct </li></ul><ul><li>We prefer English from Hindi </li></ul><ul><li>We prefer English to Hindi - correct </li></ul>
    92. 92. Common errors <ul><li>Raju lacks in confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Raju lacks confidence – correct </li></ul><ul><li>We all desire for happiness </li></ul><ul><li>We all desire happiness – correct </li></ul><ul><li>He ordered for a pair of shoes </li></ul><ul><li>He ordered a pair of shoes – correct </li></ul><ul><li>I married with Githa </li></ul><ul><li>I married Githa - correct </li></ul>
    93. 93. Common errors <ul><li>He resembles with his father </li></ul><ul><li>He resembles his father-correct </li></ul><ul><li>He met me in the way </li></ul><ul><li>He met me on the way-correct </li></ul><ul><li>He rides in a cycle </li></ul><ul><li>He rides on a cycle-correct </li></ul><ul><li>He threw the stick in the river </li></ul><ul><li>He threw the stick into the river-correct </li></ul>
    94. 94. QUESTION TAGS <ul><li>Brief questions attached at the end of a sentence are called Question Tags. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>He is reading, isn’t he? </li></ul><ul><li>She has passed, hasn’t she? </li></ul><ul><li>They are not coming, are they? </li></ul><ul><li>The boy can jump, can’t he? </li></ul><ul><li>The books were good, weren’t they? </li></ul><ul><li>Your father is a teacher, isn’t he? </li></ul><ul><li>The book was good, wasn’t it? </li></ul><ul><li>The boys will sing, won’t they ? </li></ul>
    95. 95. More examples of Question Tags <ul><li>The ladies needn’t come, need they? </li></ul><ul><li>The boy can swim, can’t he? </li></ul><ul><li>Mandakini has come, hasn’t she? </li></ul><ul><li>You know English, don’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>They live in the town, don’t they? </li></ul><ul><li>Let me do it now, shall I? </li></ul><ul><li>I am a little late today, aren’t I? </li></ul><ul><li>You came late, didn’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>She called me, didn’t she? </li></ul><ul><li>He speaks Hindi, doesn’t he? </li></ul>
    96. 96. FORMS OF VERBS brought brought bring burnt burnt burn become became become awakened awoke awake chosen chose choose begun began begin arisen arose arise fallen fell fall bought bought Buy PAST PARTICIPLE PAST TENSE PRESENT TENSE
    97. 97. FORMS OF VERBS fed fed feed eaten ate eat driven drove drive drunk drank drink dreamt dreamt dream caught caught catch done did do cost Cost cost dealt dealt deal PAST PARTICIPLE PAST TENSE PRESENT TENSE
    98. 98. FORMS OF VERBS drawn drew draw found found find fought fought fight fed fed feed crept crept creep bent bent bend bitten bit bite broken broke break felt felt feel Past participle Past tense Present tense
    99. 99. FORMS OF VERBS sat sat sit sold sold sell quit quit quit ridden rode ride rung rang ring read read read put put put paid paid pay shown showed show Past participle Past tense Present tense
    100. 100. FORMS OF VERBS spoken Spoke speak shaken shook shake told told tell written wrote write won won win worn wore wear stolen stole steal stood stood stand spent spent Spend Past participle Past tense Present tense
    101. 101. WORDS COMMONLY MISSPELT character competent complexion bulletin brilliance believe balloon beautiful boundary business bachelor bicycle achievement audience annual acquaintance Aero plane anniversary accomplish abundance abandon accommodate autobiography awkward acknowledge argument ancient accumulate advice Accept
    102. 102. ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE <ul><li>ACTIVE VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>Rama killed Ravana </li></ul><ul><li>He makes a cot </li></ul><ul><li>They drink alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>They wrote two poems </li></ul><ul><li>PASSIVE VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>Ravana was killed by Rama </li></ul><ul><li>A cot is made by him </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol is drunk by them </li></ul><ul><li>Two poems were written by them </li></ul>
    103. 103. ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE <ul><li>ACTIVE VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>I teach him Sanskrit </li></ul><ul><li>They see a lotus </li></ul><ul><li>We see a portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Gopu kills a snake </li></ul><ul><li>PASSIVE VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>He is taught Sanskrit by me </li></ul><ul><li>A lotus is seen by them </li></ul><ul><li>A portrait is seen by us </li></ul><ul><li>A snake is killed by Gopu </li></ul>
    104. 104. Active voice and passive voice <ul><li>Active voice </li></ul><ul><li>I learned Tamil </li></ul><ul><li>My sister saw a picture </li></ul><ul><li>They saw a monkey </li></ul><ul><li>I took chairs </li></ul><ul><li>Passive voice </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil was learned by me </li></ul><ul><li>A picture was seen by my sister </li></ul><ul><li>A monkey was seen by them </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs were taken by me </li></ul>
    105. 105. THE PHRASE <ul><li>A group of words, which makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a Phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the following group of words:- </li></ul><ul><li>‘ in a corner’ - It makes sense, but not complete sense </li></ul><ul><li>‘ in the east’ - It makes sense, but not complete sense </li></ul>
    106. 106. Examples for Phrases <ul><li>The sun rises in the east </li></ul><ul><li>There came a giant to my door </li></ul><ul><li>It was a sunset of great beauty </li></ul><ul><li>The tops of the mountains were covered with snow </li></ul><ul><li>Show me how to do it </li></ul><ul><li>He has a chain of gold </li></ul><ul><li>She has a sari of silk </li></ul>
    107. 107. Examples for Phrases <ul><li>Ramesh was a man of great wealth </li></ul><ul><li>The chief lived in a house built of stone </li></ul><ul><li>The magistrate was a man with a kindly nature </li></ul><ul><li>I like to see a face with a smile on it </li></ul><ul><li>The coolies belonged to a tribe dwelling in the hills </li></ul><ul><li>Rahul is a boy of great courage </li></ul><ul><li>Jawaharlal Nehru was a leader of great statesmanship. </li></ul>
    108. 108. The Clause <ul><li>A sentence which is part of a larger sentence is called a Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Example:- </li></ul><ul><li>He died / before he was tried </li></ul><ul><li>The first part has a Subject (He) and a Predicate (died). </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, the second part has a Subject (he) and a Predicate (was tried) </li></ul><ul><li>Each part is therefore a sentence, which is part of a larger sentence </li></ul>
    109. 109. Examples for Clauses <ul><li>He did as he was told </li></ul><ul><li>People who pay their debts are trusted </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot start while it is raining </li></ul><ul><li>I think that you have made a mistake </li></ul><ul><li>He has a chain which is made of gold </li></ul><ul><li>He worked so hard that he succeeded </li></ul><ul><li>I am glad that he has recovered from his illness </li></ul><ul><li>I did not pay him, as I had no money with me </li></ul>
    110. 110. EXAMPLES FOR CLAUSES <ul><li>When the sun set he returned home </li></ul><ul><li>We have come so that we may help you </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as I saw the cobra I ran away </li></ul><ul><li>This exercise if so difficult that I cannot do it </li></ul><ul><li>He may go home after his work is finished </li></ul><ul><li>As he was sick, he remained at home </li></ul><ul><li>I took him because you recommended him </li></ul>
    111. 111. NOUNS : GENDER <ul><li>There are four classes of Genders in English </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine Gender -for males </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine Gender -for females </li></ul><ul><li>Common Gender -for males & females </li></ul><ul><li>Neuter Gender - for things which do not have life </li></ul>
    112. 112. MASCULINE GENDER <ul><li>All names of male animals or persons are of the Masculine Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- boy, king, hero, father, lion, bull, man, tiger etc </li></ul>
    113. 113. FEMININE GENDER <ul><li>All names of the female animals or persons are of the feminine Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- girl, Queen, heroine, mother, lioness, tigress, cow etc </li></ul>
    114. 114. COMMON GENDER <ul><li>Nouns that can be applied to both male and female are of the common gender </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- Child, pupil, friend, neighbour, servant, teacher, professor, lecturer etc </li></ul>
    115. 115. NEUTER GENDER <ul><li>All things which do not have life, like animals and human beings, are said to be of the Neuter Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>tree, chair, room, stone, iron, meadow etc </li></ul><ul><li>all abstract nouns </li></ul><ul><li>all collective nouns </li></ul>
    116. 116. GENDER woman man widow widower madam sir girl boy bride Groom daughter son Bitch Dog Hen Cock Queen King FEMININE MASCULINE
    117. 117. GENDER She-bear He-bear She-goat He-goat Grand mother Grand father Landlady Landlord Niece Nephew Cow Bull Spinster Bachelor Mare Horse Lady Lord FEMININE MASCULINE
    118. 118. GENDER Hostess Host Waitress Waiter Goddess God Duchess Duke Governess Governor Tigress Tiger Priestess Priest Lioness Lion Mistress Master Actress Actor FEMININE MASCULINE
    119. 119. GENDER Authoress Author sultana sultan Josephine Joseph Julia Julius empress emperor washerwoman washerman Cow Calf Bull Calf Peahen Peacock Milkmaid Milkman FEMININE MASCULINE
    120. 120. NOUNS:- NUMBER <ul><li>There are two numbers in English </li></ul><ul><li>singular number & plural number </li></ul><ul><li>Singular number denotes one person or thing. E.g:- boy, girl, chair, table etc </li></ul><ul><li>Plural number denotes more than one person or thing. E.g:- boys, girls, chairs, tables etc </li></ul>
    121. 121. NOUNS-NUMBERS skies sky cities city whiskies whisky fancies fancy bodies body quantities quantity tragedies tragedy duties duty stories story PLURAL NUMBER SINGULAR NUMBER
    122. 122. NOUNS-NUMBERS speeches speech boxes box gases gas benches bench classes class brushes brush comedies comedy mercies mercy Qualities Quality PLURAL SINGULAR
    123. 123. NOUNS-NUMBERS photos photo valleys valley journeys journey keys Key follies folly lilies lily dishes dish foxes fox glasses glass PLURAL SINGULAR
    124. 124. USE OF ‘WHAT’ <ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your name? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the matter? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the trouble? </li></ul><ul><li>What can I do for you? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the menu for dinner? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the news? </li></ul>
    125. 125. Use of ‘What’ <ul><li>What are you looking for? </li></ul><ul><li>What should I wear in the party tonight? </li></ul><ul><li>What movie is on today? </li></ul><ul><li>What should I do now? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you say? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you say? </li></ul><ul><li>What is this? </li></ul><ul><li>What was that? </li></ul>
    126. 126. Use of ‘What’ <ul><li>What do you want? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you writing? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want to say? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s your father? (father’s job) </li></ul><ul><li>What’s your mother? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you doing these days? </li></ul><ul><li>What was she doing in Mumbai? </li></ul><ul><li>What have you seen in Agra? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you write to your father? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you intend doing after passing High School? </li></ul>
    127. 127. USE OF ‘WHICH’ <ul><li>Which is your favourite movie? </li></ul><ul><li>Which book are you reading? </li></ul><ul><li>Which song did you prefer-Lata’s or Asha’s </li></ul><ul><li>Which pen are you using? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is your house? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is your room? </li></ul><ul><li>Which magazine are you reading? </li></ul><ul><li>Which music did you like- Hindustani or Carnatic? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is your favourite dish? </li></ul>
    128. 128. Use of ‘Which’ <ul><li>Which of these two dresses will suit me better? </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal gives us wool? (The Sheep) </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal has a long neck? </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal barks? </li></ul><ul><li>Which animals give us milk? </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal has a trunk? </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal has a hump on its back? </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal has horns? (The cow) </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal pulls wagons? (The cart-horse) </li></ul>
    129. 129. Use of ‘Which’ <ul><li>Which insect weaves webs? (The spider) </li></ul><ul><li>Which bird hoots at night? (The owl) </li></ul><ul><li>Which are the beasts of prey? (lion, tiger, wolf, fox etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal resembles human beings? (The ape resembles human beings) </li></ul><ul><li>Which is India’s national animal? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is India’s national bird? </li></ul><ul><li>Which city is the capital of Rajasthan? </li></ul>
    130. 130. USE OF ‘WHO’ <ul><li>Who are you? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Who sang the song? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will go to the market? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can do this work? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the owner of this house? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can come with me? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the prime minister of India? </li></ul><ul><li>Who did this? </li></ul><ul><li>Who paid the fees? </li></ul>
    131. 131. Use of ‘WHO’ <ul><li>Who finished first in the competition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the president of the congress party? </li></ul><ul><li>Who gave the book to Suresh? </li></ul><ul><li>Who purchased this T-shirt? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the captain of the Indian Cricket team? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is he? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is she? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is that person? </li></ul><ul><li>Who called me? </li></ul>
    132. 132. Use of ‘WHY’ <ul><li>Why do you worry? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you drink milk daily? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is her teacher so strict? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you standing here? </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t you apply for the exam? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you speaking so loudly? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you sitting in the balcony? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did you pay for that? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think too much? </li></ul>
    133. 133. Use of ‘WHY’ <ul><li>Why don’t you listen to me? </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t you study well? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you so serious? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you so gloomy? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you so careless? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you so strict? </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t you sing now? </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t you tell a story now? </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t you go to the class in time? </li></ul>
    134. 134. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>