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  • 1. APPLICATION OF ROOT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN SPACECRAFT PROJECT MANAGEMENT Deepti Lakshman, M.V.Kannan and H.Bhojraj Programme Planning and Evaluation Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore-560017, India Abstract Managing multiple and complex projects under one roof is a challenge within many space agencies in the world. Too often, in these space organizations, projects schedule runs on a critical path and ultimately slips from the baseline plan due to a number of reasons. In a multi project environment, a spillover in one project activity significantly affects the pace of the parallel and future projects which are directly or indirectly depend on the same resources. In the wake of this, the space agencies are actively involved in locating the factors that are negatively affecting the progress of the project, but in the present scenario, the traditional methods and techniques are proved to be less adequate. In the early 80s when the manufacturing firms were looking for a technique to identify and remove the causes of defects and errors in the manufacturing process, the concept of Six Sigma originated at Motorola. Six Sigma makes use of DMAIC Methodology to systematically Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control the manufacturing processes and eliminate defects. This paper attempts to extend the benefits of the Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Techniques from the Analytical phase of the DMAIC methodology to troubleshoot the causes of spacecraft Project Schedule slippage. It illustrates the use of three key RCA Techniques- WHY-WHY Technique, Cause & Effect Analysis and Pareto Analysis for better understanding the parameters that are responsible for schedule shift from estimated one in a space industry. The above three techniques are broadly described to ensure their application in all the area of project management. In a nutshell, this paper provides an insight into one of the challenging aspect of Project Management: Identification of all the possible causes that may result in Project Schedule Variance, using the RCA Techniques. Keywords: Six Sigma, DMAIC methodology, Root Cause Analysis Techniques, WHY- WHY Technique, Cause & Effect Analysis, Pareto Analysis, Schedule slippage 1. INTRODUCTION: continuing its pursuit towards enhancing self-reliance in the area of At the present juncture, Indian space telecommunication, broadcasting, programme is flourishing rapidly and navigation, resource survey and promoting the socio-economic management, cartography, weather development of our nation. Today, the forecasting by developing state of art Indian space programme has spread its technologies etc. wings from Aryabatta, Bhaskara,Apple As the Indian space programme is and sounding rockets to Satellite launch expanding its horizon, so are the number, vehicles- Polar Satellite Launch complexity and the size of the projects Vehicle(PSLV) and Geo-Synchronous increasing. The wide application of space Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), remote technology in the economic growth of the sensing and communication satellites – country necessitates the adaptation of Indian Remote sensing Satellite (IRS) & working in a multi project environment. Indian National Satellite System(INSAT), Managing multi –dimension projects with Space capsule Recovery experiment, the available resources, capability and Chandrayaan-1-the first mission to our infrastructure is the greatest concern of closest celestial body Moon and the future the Project Management Team (PMT) of interplanetary mission including to that of the Indian Space Organizations. To sending an Indian into space in the overcome the challenge of schedule coming years. The space programme is deviation due to mid course change in Page 1 of 14
  • 2. Configuration/ scope, Inter-Project conflict from the six sigma tool kit. The DMAIC is over resources, Communication deficit, a data-driven structured and logical tool shifting Organizational Priorities etc, the for problem defining and decision making. PMT should devise a methodology to This paper aims to spread the essence of identify the root cause of the slippage DMAIC Methodology in the multiproject from the baseline plan. The methodology environment of the Indian space will help them to carefully review the organization. However, the primary critical path of the project schedule and emphasis of this paper is on the Root take pro-active approach for the forth Cause Analysis (RCA) Techniques of coming projects in the organization. the Analytical phase of DMAIC In the eighties when Motorola, seek to Methodology. This paper demonstrates identify and remove the causes of defects the use of the three RCA Techniques – in their manufacturing processes, the WHY-WHY Technique, Cause & Effect concept of Six Sigma was invented. Six Analysis and Pareto Analysis to Sigma was originally developed as a set of uncover the factors that contributes to practices designed to improve spacecraft schedule delays. Although RCA manufacturing processes and eliminate Techniques do not provide solution to a defects, but its application was problem, but sets the foundation by subsequently extended to other types of analytically and logically defining the root business processes as well. The Six Sigma cause of a problem, to develop a concrete Methodologies offers a wide range of and structured solution. techniques and tools to improve the Project management process. Although This paper has three main streams. The every one of them may not be directly first is to highlight the challenges of applicable to a project oriented project managements; the second is organization but with some customization, introduce an overview of six sigma and the key features can be embedded in the DMAIC methodology and third is to Project management system. The DMAIC discuss the three root cause analysis methodology where the acronym stands technique with illustrations of spacecraft for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, projects. and Control, is one such methodology Lower Normal Distribution Centered Upper Specification Specification Limit Limit 68.27 % 95.45 % 0.001 PPM 0.001 PPM 99.9999998 % Fig 1.1: Six Sigma limits with centered Normal distribution Page 2 of 14
  • 3. Lower Normal Distribution shifted 1.5σ Upper Specification Specification Limit Limit Fig 1.2: Effect of 1.5 Sigma Shift in the Mean. 2. BASICS OF SIX SIGMA: 2.1SIX SIGMA- DMAIC METHODOLOGY: Six Sigma (the lower-case Greek letter σ) is used to estimate standard deviation (a Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven measure of variation) of a population. The approach for eliminating defects in any six sigma scale of measure is perfectly process right from manufacturing to correlated to such characteristics as service industries. Six Sigma improves the defects per unit, part per million process performance, decreases variation defectives. When a process is at a Six and maintains consistent quality of the Sigma level of performance, it is believed process output. Six Sigma uses that there will be practically very few methodologies for process performance items that fail to meet the specifications improvement, reduction in limits. defects/variation and help in maintaining consistent quality of the process output. A centered six-sigma process has a This is accomplished through the use of normal distribution with mean=target and Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology. DMAIC specifications placed six standard Methodology is based on W. Edwards deviations to either side of the mean. At Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle. this point, the portions of the distribution that are beyond the specifications contain 0.002 parts-per-million (ppm) of the data (0.001 on each side) as shown in fig 1.1. Practice has shown that most manufacturing processes experience a shift (due to drift over time) of 1.5 standard deviations so that the mean no longer equals target. When this happens in a six-sigma process, a larger portion of the distribution now extends beyond the specification limits: 3.4 parts-per-million (ppm) as shown in Fig 1.2. Fig 2.1: Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle Page 3 of 14
  • 4. MODIFY DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE DESIGN NO IMPROVE CONTROL NO YES REDESIGN Fig 2.2: DMAIC Methodology 2.2STAGES OF DMAIC METHODOLOGY activities involves in this phase are mission analysis, feasibility studies, The different stages of DMAIC technology needs analysis, analysis of Methodology are explained by mapping it payload and spacecraft bus configuration with the life cycle of a satellite Project. etc. Once the spacecraft configuration is Broadly speaking, a Spacecraft project finalized the prime activities during goes through four phases - Concept and planning phase are the identification of Design Phase, Subsystems the team, defining the project Fabrication Phase, Spacecraft deliverables, resources, finance & Assembly and Integration Phase and Organizational Support required to Pre and Post Launch Phases during its complete the project and estimating the life cycle as shown in fig 3. The concept expected Project completion time etc. and Design Phase begins with a feasibility Once a project is defined, one can studies for mission as per the user methodically proceeds through demand. Afterwards, payload and the Measurement, Analysis, Improvement, mainframe spacecraft configuration will be and Control phase. finalised.It is followed by the execution phase comprising of hardware fabrication, Some of the key tools offered by the testing and assembly/integration activities DMAIC methodology in this phase are etc. The final phase consists of Pre- Project Charter Launch, Launch, and Post launch activities Work/Product Breakdown Structure carried out in the launch site and the Gantt chart control centers. The phases are separated Network diagram by major reviews which include Baseline Design Reviews, Preliminary Design The spacecraft design finalization mark its Reviews, Critical Design Reviews and transition from planning Phase to Pre-shipment Review etc. execution phase. During this Phase the The stages in the DMAIC methodology primary activities are detailed will be discussed in the following text with identification and assignment of tasks respect to its application in the life cycle based on spacecraft configuration, to of a spacecraft project. respective subsystem groups/area. In this phase the prototype models and D - DEFINE: qualification testing validate the The first stage in the DMAIC methodology spacecraft configuration. As the execution focuses on concept and design phase of phase progress, groups across the the spacecraft project. The primary organization become more actively activity in this phase is to develop and involved in the fabrication of subsystem define the project requirements w.r.t the packages. The functional behaviors of the application and to design a plan for subsystem packages are tested in a realization within constraints of time, simulated space environment. Finally it resources, or cost. The pre-formulation will be delivered to Assembly and Page 4 of 14
  • 5. Integration team to complete its Some of the key tools used in this stage integration with the spacecraft bus. are The integrated spacecraft will then be Gantt chart subjected to intensive environmental and Network Diagram functional tests that include Open mode Project Milestone Summary and closed mode Spacecraft level tests, Baseline Plan Vs Actual Execution Thermovac tests, Dynamic tests, and post summary dynamic tests etc. Once the tests and Project Deliverable checklist reviews are completed the spacecraft will be shipped to the launch site. A- ANALYZE: Of the five stages in the DMAIC During the realization of a spacecraft methodology, Measure, Analyze, project, there are numerous challenges Improve, and Control is exceptionally and issues such as schedule slippage, useful during the execution phase of the Budget over run, configuration changes spacecraft project. These stages aid the that can arise to threaten the success of project Management team in digging the project. The analytical stage of the beneath the apparent causes of schedule DMAIC methodology analyzes the data slippage. These stages are explained in recorded in the measurement stage to brief in the following text. identify the root cause of the deviation from the baseline plan. The techniques M-MEASURE: available in this stage enable to explore Once the project is underway, the actual all potential or real causes that result in progress of the project needs to be the deviation of any of the Project constantly monitored against the planned Performance parameter. progress. The deliverable due dates, the major milestone events, & budget The various Root Cause Analysis expenditures, are the key project Techniques useful in this stage are elements which are normally measured to Histogram monitor the actual performance of the Pareto Chart project. This stage of DMAIC is helpful in Time Series/Run Chart collecting the relevant data to track the Regression Analysis progress of the project. It records the Cause and Effect/Fishbone variations between the actual and planned Diagram performance of the project and the Why Tree Technique estimated variance acts as an input to Process Map Review and Analysis adjust or update the plan in order to get Statistical Analysis the project back on track. LIFE CYCLE-SPACECRAFT PROJECT PRE LAUNCH ASSEMBLY & & POST TESTING LAUNCH SUBSYTEM FABRICATION & TESTING CONCEPT & DESIGN PLANNING EXECUTION COMPLETION Fig 3 Page 5 of 14
  • 6. I- IMPROVE : from other parallel projects are Once the root causes are identified, and interchanged. Additional cost can arise prioritized, corrective actions are outlined from such configuration changes, spill and implemented in the system. This over task, repetitive component stage pinpoints exactly what can be done procurements, uneconomic outsourcing in the existing system to prevent the etc. Thus to have a complete control over reoccurrence of the problem in future. the estimated plan, it is imperative to Thus it mainly addresses the area that identify the elements responsible for the contributed to the problem and variance. This can be achieved with the determines the best actions to improve help of the various root cause analytical the system. However, it is recognized that techniques available. complete prevention of recurrence by a This paper focuses primarily on the single intervention is not always possible. analytical phase of DMAIC methodology. Thus, it is often considered to be an It offers an insight in to the concept of iterative process, and is frequently viewed Root Cause Analysis. It mainly illustrates as a tool of continuous improvement. three Root Cause analytical Techniques viz WHY-WHY Technique, Cause & Some of the tools helpful in this stage are Effect analysis, Pareto Analysis to address the factors that contribute to Action Priority Matrix variation in spacecraft project execution Pareto Analysis from baseline plan. RACI(Responsible-Accountable- Consulted-Informed ) Matrix 2.2.1. A ROOT CAUSE ANALYIS (RCA): Project Dashboard. Decision Tree Root Cause Analysis is a class of problem solving methods aimed at C- CONTROL: identifying the root causes of problems or Once improvement and implementation events. The practice of RCA is predicated activity is underway, consideration must on the belief that problems are best be given to the last step in the DMAIC solved by attempting to correct or process, “Control”. To achieve excellence eliminate the root causes, as opposed to in Project Management, adherence to the merely addressing the immediately success critical factors such as schedule, obvious symptoms. The step by step Budget, quality standard, etc is utmost process of identify the problem by a RCA important. Reviewing of the project technique can helps the project performance regularly and at the management team to address all the stipulated review points will help to areas that has intervened the sustain it in future. performance of the project and shifted it Some of the key tools used in this phase from the estimated plan. RCA is are considered to be a continuous Tracking Gantt chart improvement tool in the field of quality Resource Usage Analysis management. The three RCA techniques Workload Analysis addressed in this paper are WHY-WHY Earned Value Analysis Technique, Cause & Effect Analysis, Cash Flow Analysis Pareto Analysis. None of this technique is new to the statistical community; however this paper is making an effort to 2.2.1 ANALYTICAL STAGE OF DMAIC introduce it as a strategic option and METHODOLOGY effective decision-making/root cause identification tool in the field of Project Each spacecraft project will have a Management. planned -Schedule, budget and scope. A change in any one of above factor can The prerequisite of the RCA Technique is adversely affect the other. For example to that there should be a Cross-Functional recover a spacecraft Project which is Team (CFT) with people from different running behind schedule, the project team functional expertise working toward a sometimes change the configuration of common goal of identifying the root cause the spacecraft in the middle of its life of the problem and recommending the cycle, while sometimes the deliverables best solution. Information from all level of Page 6 of 14
  • 7. management and experience in the Illustration: To Illustrate the Concept of project related area would provide a Why-WHY technique in spacecraft greater visibility in to the problem and will Schedule management, a study on the help to formulate a strategic, tactical, and realization of a high power operational decision. The following article communication satellite with a lift off discusses the three RCA techniques in mass of more a three tons was brief with illustration. conducted. 2.2.1.A(i) WHY-WHY TECHNIQUE: At the superficial level, it was observed that basic design change in battery The WHY-WHY Technique, which was configuration, Priority Conflict amongst made popular in the 1970s by the Toyota ongoing and parallel projects, non- Production System is an easy and often- availability of TTC –RF effective tool for uncovering the root of a system(communication system) and Problem. This Technique is also known, as Power Electronics package on time and WHY TREE TECHNIQUE amongst the the indigenization of systems such as heat Quality Management Professionals. It is a pipe radiator panels, TXCO (temperature simple tool where one can peel away the Controlled Crystal oscillator) for both root cause of a problem by repeatedly transmitter and receivers and Inclusion of asking the question "WHY”. Answer to the Programmable Auto temperature first “WHY” will prompt another “WHY” controller in TMTC system has and the answer to the second “WHY” will significantly influenced the schedule of the prompt another and so on. Thus the project. To have a greater insight in to the apparent reason for a problem will lead sources of schedule slippage and to you to another question and finally to the identify the root cause, each cause is root cause of the problem. thoroughly analyzed using the why tree technique. For example, the mid course HOW TO USE THE TOOL: changes in the battery configuration from 1. Write down the specific problem. 2 No of 125 Ah NiH2 batteries to 3 no of Writing the issue helps in formalize 100Ah Li-ion hold considerably the problem and describe it accountable for the slippage of the project completely. It also helps the Cross from the baseline plan. The detailed functional team to focus on the analysis reveals that the battery was same problem. reconfigured in the midst of the 2. Ask WHY the problem happens and realization due to the non availability of write the answer down below the the indigenous batteries during the problem. assembly and integration phase of the 3. If the answer just provided doesn't project. Actually the indigenously identify the root cause of the developed battery cells were subjected to problem that one has wrote down excessive voltage during its qualification in step 1, ask WHY again and write test which results into failure of battery that answer down. cells. This failure reverted back battery to 4. Loop back to step 3 until the team its design stage and delayed its realization is in agreement that the problem's cycle. The three battery configuration also root cause is identified. Again, this called for the introduction of new Power may take fewer or more times Electronic Packages, Battery Interface than five WHYs. Modules and modification of the existing power packages as well as the harness. As an alternative option, procurement Why- WHY technique is a kind of process of battery from external vendor brainstorming tool where cross-functional was also initiated in parallel. However due team will identify the events associated to internal circuit failure in the battery with a particular problem and ultimately string during load testing, even external discovers the actual cause of the event. vendor could not delivered the battery on For each event there can be sub event time. Thus this design change in battery and causes. This process should be configuration adversely affected the pace continued until the team reaches the root of the project and setback its overall cause of the event. progress by around 9 months. Similarly all the causes of the schedule drift are Page 7 of 14
  • 8. represented by Why Tree Technique in the figure 4. Spacecraft Project Schedule Slippage WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? Ongoing Parallel Non-availability of Change in Battery Indeginization Projects subsystem on time Configuration from 2 No of of system 125 Ah NiH2 batteries to 3 No of 100Ah Li-ion WHY? WHY? batteries WHY? Non-availability of TTC-RF system Non-availability of Qualification Power Electronics cycle WHY? WHY? WHY? Concept & Introduction of new design Vendor not able to finalization Zener diode core power package & TTC-RF package deliver battery on failure during battery interface diverted to time card level test module other project WHY? Waiting time to Non-availability of Battery during share common Electrical indigenously developed load Testing facility overstress battery cells WHY? Non-availability of components /Component Cell failures String internal list/fabrication details during circuit failure during Fabrication Phase qualification testing Short circuit Overcharging Fig 4: Why Tree representation of causes of spacecraft schedule slippage 2.2.1.A(ii)CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM: Chart, Flowchart And Scatter Diagram. It is also known as a fishbone diagram The second technique is the Cause & because of its shape, similar to the side Effect Diagram. view of a fish skeleton. In quality Cause & Effect diagram was originally Management, the user attempts to define developed by Professor Kaoru ishikawa multiple possible causes for a given who pioneered Quality management reason in the four areas of Manpower, processes in the Kawasaki Shipyards and Methods, Material and Machines. Similarly in the process become the one of the any delay in the execution of the satellite founding fathers of Modern management. project could be found by systematic Cause & effect diagram, which is often mapping of all the probable causes referred to as an Ishikawa Diagram is influencing the project and its effect on one of the seven basic tool of Quality the completion of the project using the Management along with Histogram, fishbone diagram. For each cause we Pareto Chart, Check Sheet, Control have to ask the question why? This will Page 8 of 14
  • 9. help to identify the sub-cause and finally design and integration etc. This was a the root cause. unique project where scientists/ Engineers Thus WHY-WHY Technique can be used as from the different sub-continents worked a part of fishbone diagram to construct together to interface the scientific the further bones of the fish. Once the instruments. Miniaturization of systems, most probable causes are identified, one underestimation of the technical can drill down to the root cause using the complexities, ad hoc task delegation to WHY-WHY Technique. team member, lack of proper communication all added up to delays in How to construct a Fishbone Diagram: project. 1. First gather materials needed like All the major causes that resulted in Flip Chart, OHP & transparencies or schedule slippage are categorized and board for writing. represented in terms of a fish-bone 2. Call together the Cross Functional diagram shown in figure 5. team. Thus, with the free flow of information 3. In the Flip chart, transparency or from the member of the team, it is on the board draw a long arrow possible to organize the causes in an horizontally across the middle orderly and logical manner as shown in fig pointing to the right, and label the 5. This is a laborious process but the arrowhead with the title of the benefit is an excellent understanding of a issue to be explained. This is the complex problem in a simple way. ‘backbone’ of the ‘fish’. 4. Draw spurs coming off the So far we have seen that how the above ‘backbone’ at about 45 degrees, two techniques helps us to explore all one for every likely cause of the potential or real causes that result in a problem that the group can think defect or failure. Despite the fact that of; and label each at its outer end. there will be multiple causes for a Add sub-spurs to represent particular problem, we need to identify subsidiary causes. Highlight any those whose removal can produce causes that appear more than once significant overall effect on the – they may be significant. performance of the project schedule. 5. Ideally, it is eventually re-drawn so There can be situation when a few causes that position along the backbone will be responsible for the overall delay of reflects the relative importance of the project. Even though the Cause & the different parts of the problem, Effect Diagram and the Why Tree with the most important at the Technique help to identify the root cause head end. of the problem, they cannot provide the information about the frequency of occurrence of a particular cause. This can Illustration: An evaluation of the be achieved by the Pareto Analysis. execution of a technology demonstrator maiden remote sensing spacecraft project was conducted and 2.2.1. A (iii) Pareto Analysis: the potential causes that had a huge impact on project schedule are identified using the cause and effect diagram. Pareto Analysis is used when there are multiple causes for a problem and priority Being a novel remote sensing mission, has to be set to attack the cause based on there was a lot of complexity involved in their frequency of occurrence. The Pareto realization of major sub-systems of the provides facts needed to prioritize the project. Therefore the configuration and causes that are responsible for design phase of the spacecraft has taken malfunctioning/problem in any system. a major portion of the total project Pareto Analysis is based on the classical lifespan attributable to the technology 80/20 rules. That is, when several factors challenges in the areas of Data handling affect a situation, few factors will account and transmission, data storage schemes, for most of the impact. Communication system, Power handling system, Bus management unit, thermal Page 9 of 14
  • 10. CAUSES Multiple Projects Non-availability of Data Handling System on time to AIT Backlog of other projects ASIC failure during Environment Testing Non-availability of components like FPGA & Improper balancing of Fabrication details during Fabrication Phase Resources Non-availability of PCBs during Fabrication Phase Single Person (Deputy Project Director) identified for Multiple PCBs failure during New payload Interface standards Projects manufacturing & data transfer protocols Each Payload with different data EFFECT Project Priority conflict rates New Design Schedule Slippage Delayed delivery of mould from Maiden Project/ New design vendor due to failure in DIE International collaboration Miniaturization of systems Fibre/matrix debonding Composite delamination Eg: Inertial Reference unit, Star sensor and observed during vibration test Underestimation of the technical communication system complexities in S/C Bus Radial crack during thermal cycling Ad hoc task delegation to team Change in Thermal Control Element Communication (from white Paint to Germanium issue coated Thermal Film & MLI blanket) Adaptation of new international space data protocols Manufacturing of high performance Configuration data transmission antenna finalization Fig 5: CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM (Fishbone Diagram) representation of causes of spacecraft schedule slippage Page 10 of 14
  • 11. Steps to plot a Pareto Diagram: PCB is the backbone of spacecraft Form a table listing the causes and electronic system.Numerous numbers of their frequency of occurrence as a PCBs are required in the assembly and percentage. wiring of onboard electronics subsystem Arrange the rows in the decreasing for all spacecraft projects. All of the PCB order of importance of the causes, used for onboard electronics packages i.e. the most important cause first. requires a high degree of quality and Add a cumulative percentage reliability. Moreover, the complexity of column to the table. PCB manufacturing has increased Plot with causes on x-axis and dramatically over the last 3 decades cumulative percentage on y-axis. progressing from straightforward double- Join the above points to form a sided PCB to highly complex multi-layer curve. PCBs with mixture of through hole, Plot (on the same graph) a bar surface mount and chip on board graph with causes on x-axis and configuration.Board layouts have percent frequency on y-axis. consequently increased in density with tighter tolerances and decreased distance Illustration: The sub-causes of the between electrical contacts. With this schedule delays are analyzed using the increase in complexity the possibility of Pareto analysis technique in the following manufacturing defects has also section. If we recall the examples consequently increased. Nevertheless, discussed in the previous sections of this defects directly affect the form, fit, paper, one of the causes of the Non- function and long-term performance of availability of Data handling Package the PCB, which is the prerequisite of the on time was Printed Circuit Board spacecraft electronic packages. Let us (PCB) failure during manufacturing. further dig out the root cause of PCB failures with the help of Pareto Analysis. Cumulative Total % Of total Type of defects Cumulative. % of total Sr.No defects defects defect a b c d=(c/116)*100 e 1 Board Delamination 40 40 34% 34% Component 2 25 65 22% 56% Misalignment 3 Cold solder Joint 16 81 14% 70% 4 Poor Die Bonding 13 94 11% 81% 5 Broken metal lines 12 106 10% 91% Surface Contamination 6 by metal & ionic 10 116 9% 100% residues Table-1 11
  • 12. PARETO CHART 50 120% TO T A L N O . O F 40 100% D EF E C T S CU MM % 80% 30 60% 20 40% 10 20% 0 0% M isalig n m en t B roken m e tal B on d in g p oor D ie D elam in a tion Cold sold er Co n tam in ation Com p on en t ion ic resid u es b y m et al & Join t S u rface B oard lin es TYPE OF DEFECTS Total No. of Defects Cumm. % Fig 6: Pareto Chart of PCB failure by reported causes As Pareto Analysis is a statistical accounts for majority of the defectives technique in problem solving, sample data PCB i.e. 40 No, followed by Component on the most common sources of defects, Misalignment, and so on. Thus Pareto the highest occurring type of defect is Diagram is an excellent tool for collected and being plotted as shown in fig identification of root causes and its 6. frequency of occurrence during the spacecraft subsystem realization phase. The typical causes of PCB failures This technique based on statistical data observed during the study were. will help the spacecraft subsystem group to focus on the vital few causes that is Board Delamination responsible for creating most of the issues Component Misalignment and difficulties. Thus Pareto Analysis is a Cold solder Joint powerful and effective tool in continuous Poor Die Bonding improvement and problem solving to Broken metal lines separate the ‘vital few’ from the ‘many Surface Contamination by metal and other’ causes. ionic residues 3. CONCLUSION& All the defects that are responsible for the RECOMMENDATION: total effect are arranged in a descending order in table 1. This gives a clarity Juggling multiple projects, all competing regarding the level of contribution of each for common resources, lack of priorities defect. We can see in the Pareto diagram setting, project delays, changing external that it is the Board Delamination that environment, growing technologies, 12
  • 13. demands a proactive project management RCA offer simple but effective tools to approach. Managing a balance between help in this effort. the different ongoing projects within an To sum up, eventhough Six Sigma is now organization and that too when they are a well established philosophy in in their different phases of their life cycle manufacturing community, this paper is indeed a great challenge to a project attempts to spread its root and help it to Management team. The Six Sigma DMAIC grow in the project management – Methodology can make some of these discipline also. challenges little bit less daunting and help to accomplish the estimated schedule, cost reduction, process enhancement milestones etc. The different stages of the ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DMAIC – Methodology can be integrated with the phases in the life cycle of the The authors would like to thank our satellite project, and together they can Director, Dr.T.K Alex, for inspiring us to strive for the improvement of the system. write this paper. The Root Cause Analysis (RCA) techniques discussed in this paper encourages a REFERENCES structured and systematic analysis of the problem instead of jumping into a hasty conclusion. The three techniques, WHY- [1] Forrest W Breyfogle,”Implementing six WHY Technique, Cause & Effect sigma: Smarter solutions using statistical analysis, Pareto Analysis can aid in methods”, John Wiley, New York,2003 conducting a rigorous analysis of the [2] Joglekar, Anand M,”Statistical problems, in a structured and methodical methods for six sigma: In R & D and way and not on Peer committees’ personal manufacturing”,John Wiley,New preferences. York,2003 [3]D H Stamatis, “Six sigma fundamentals: A complete guide to the This paper shows how the three system, methods and tools”, Productivity techniques can be used to identify the Press, New York, 2004 root causes of project schedule delays. [4] Harold Kerzner, “Project Out of the three techniques, the Why Tree management: A systems approach to technique is the simplest tools which planning, scheduling and controlling”,Van explore all potential causes of schedule Nostrand Reinhold Company slippage by repeatedly asking the [5] Robert J Latino, “Root cause analysis: question "Why”. The Cause-and-effect Improving performance for bottom line diagrams can reveal key relationships result”, CRC Press, 1999 among various factors attributing to project delays. Pareto analysis which is statistical technique is used for selection the few key causes from the trivial many that produce significant overall effect in the progress of the project. The above three techniques can be used individually or in combination to understand the root causes. There are various RCA methods available other than the above three which can be used for the analysis of the project delays. But the basis of all the techniques is systematic and structured approach to uncover the root causes. In a multi- project environment, there are numerous factors that accounts for schedule slippage, budget over run etc. In order to address these issues, a high level of understanding of factors is essential. The 13
  • 14. Deepti Lakshman joined ISRO in December 2006. She holds a bachelor degree in Industrial Engineer and pursuing her MBA in Operation Management. She is working in Projects Division, PPEG. Her current role includes Project Monitoring, Project life cycle evaluation, project planning & Scheduling, Resource Planning, critical path analysis & System Engineering. M.V. Kannan joined ISRO Satellite Centre in November 1973 in Structure after graduation in Science from Madras University and Engineering in Aeronautic from Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), Chennai. He was involved in Theoretical analysis, Experimental stress analysis and load testing of spacecraft structures holding responsible positions. He has contributed significantly for Stretched Rohini Satellite Series, INSAT-3B and GSAT-1 as Deputy Project Director, Structures. He is heading Projects Division, PPEG since 2003. He is also the Deputy Project Director-Technical Services of Astronaut Training Centre, HSP. His areas of interest are in Aerospace structural design, analysis and testing, Multi-Project Management and Systems Engineering. H. Bhojraj got his B.E. (Hons) in Mechanical Engineering from Madurai University, Tamilnadu and joined ISRO on 1972. Presently he is Group Director for Programme Planning and Evaluation Group, ISAC and also additionally holding the post of Controller, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore. He worked in the area of Satellite Thermal Control System and was responsible for fabrication and implementation of Thermal Control System for Indian Satellites from Aryabhata to Chandrayaan I. He played a key role in indigenisation of thermal control elements for Satellite application. He got NRDC award for development of Rigid Optical Solar Reflector (OSR) in 1990 and for flexible heater in 1999. He has published more than 15 papers both in National and International Journals. 14