Technology evolves so fast


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Legislation reacts so slowly

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Technology evolves so fast

  1. 1. 2.11.2010 Technology evolves so fast Legislation reacts so slow Jyrki J.J. Kasvi Parliament of Finland, Committee for the Future
  2. 2. Challenges <ul><li>Politicians’ ICT literacy and enthusiasm varies greatly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information society policies are not found politically important nor interesting by all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the more experienced and influential politicians still live in the typewriter age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legislative process is way too slow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. the new Finnish modem hijacking prevention law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As ICT becomes ubiquitous, the digital divide evolves into an activity divide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT gives active people more opportunities to be active members of the society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT gives passive people more opportunities to be passive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Net culture has been overlooked by press and politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A whole Finnish generation was in Habbo and IRC Gallery before politicians or mainstream media noticed social media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100.000 Finns played poker in Internet before... </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Some acute issues... <ul><li>Internet and television </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IpTV , YLE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet and (snail) mail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A withering public service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband, frequencies , IPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net neutrality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amateur journalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limits to freedom of expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source confidentiality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User generated content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Data protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity theft crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opening public data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who pays the bills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet defence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stuxnet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet and the elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright and DRM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumer protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” free” services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfair EULAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital civil rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. IpTV – a searing hot media potato <ul><li>IpTV turns broadcast television into an on-demand cloud service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tvkaista and voddler are just a humble beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finnish legislation very carefully does not mention ipTV at all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redistributes money and power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New players replace old ones not agile enough </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing IPR contracts do not recognise ipTV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pirates are the most popular service providers with best selection and service </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Social media is as revolutionary as the printing press </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creates new media and new culture and changes societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But how? </li></ul></ul>Wikimedia Commons
  6. 6. 19.5.2010 (Epä)sosiaalinen media Unsocial Media
  7. 7. Unsocial Media <ul><li>Social media brings out the worst in some people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The flame wars of the 1980's usenet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many politicians have been forced to disable comments in their blogs and other social media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social capital hasn't developed as fast as social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric faceless communication is psychologically challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger generations have already developed better manners in the web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anonymity is essential for democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But the same laws apply as in any public speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resist the demands for tighter control of social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations to anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host's responsibility of discussion content </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Wikimedia Commons Memetic civil movements
  9. 9. Go 2 EDSA. Wear Blck <ul><li>Spontaneus self coordinated memetic civic movements can come and go within days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral messaging: An SMS ”Go 2 EDSA. Wear Blck” in 2001 was essential for the resignation of Estrada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red shirts in support of Myanmar monks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright law demonstrations in Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Politicians have trouble to address a leaderless self coordinating ”mob” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>” Who the f*** is machinating this?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No wonder many governments fear social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran, China, Myanmar, Saudi Arabia etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Iran, twitter, YouTube and blogs have been essential </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Wikimedia Commons No leaders to arrest
  11. 11. Open information society = Open API <ul><li>In an open information society all public data and metadata are available to all through an open API for free. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>API (Application Programming Interface) provides access to data in a machine readable format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companies and citizens utilise the data to create their own services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From usage fees to tax income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mashups of different data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People know best what they want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open API facilitates also multidiciplinary public services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A new relationship between public information and privacy </li></ul>Wikimedia Commons
  12. 13. Wikimedia Commons Lost IPR business models
  13. 14. Anne’s act 1709 <ul><li>In 1709 the first actual copyright law was enacted in United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined the three interest groups whose relationships copyright laws still governs: content provider, publisher and consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers had no right to limit the way consumers use the content they purchase, DRM would have been illegal in 1709. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It took 300 years from Gutenberg’s invention to get a law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The principles of Anne’s act worked for almost 300 years! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires small copying costs and centralised control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In digital world the copying costs are zero and each and every computer is a potential printing press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now the change happens much faster than 300-400 years ago. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Media industry is facing a productivity leap corresponding to the revolution of the banking industry in the 1980/90's </li></ul><ul><li>Is Spotify going to be the ATM of media industry? </li></ul>Productivity leap for media: Only those who jump farther than the others survive. Is Spotify media's ATM? Wikimedia Commons
  15. 16. Challenge and opportunity <ul><li>Printing press created the basis for copyright system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making of new copies of content is cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible to centrally supervise and control copying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and popular culture were born as a result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But the profession of scribes was wiped out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital technology requires new rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It costs nothing to copy, edit and distribute content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is impossible to centrally supervise or control copying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What new cultural phenomena digital technology makes possible? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media, crowdsourcing, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rip-n-mix & mash-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Goals for a new copyright system <ul><li>Of these we probably have a wide consensus </li></ul><ul><li>To maximise production and use of content – the expansion of culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the original goal of the patent system was to maximise the distribution and use of new innovations – expansion of economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To secure livelihood of content makers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What about benefits of media industry shareholders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production and marketing services used by content makers are also under threat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To facilitate new forms of content, expression and culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing, mash-ups etc. vs. copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of means to achieve these goals we still need to discuss </li></ul>
  17. 18. Cloud computing politics <ul><li>Content, applications and computing are becoming on-demand cloud services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimises the use of computing resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. The U.K. G-Cloud is estimated to save £3.2 billion a year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Kindle, iPad etc. are doing the same to books and newspapers as Spotify did to music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV channels may die but IP television services grow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The cloud does not respect national borders, but borders do matter! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the client, the service provider and the server farm are on different countries, whose laws apply in whose court? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data havens are already spawning </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Me myself and I <ul><li>Identity theft is not a crime in Finland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal data of millions of people are missing around the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In U.S., identity theft caused estimated €34 billion worth of damages in 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identification technology used has to be solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1:1.000.000 reliability is not enough if you identify millions of people every day. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biometric identification data has to be kept safe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With biometric data you can pretend to be anybody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is impossible to get a new fingerprint or DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric passports spread our biometrics to every border station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identity protection should become a new civil right! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need a global agreement on data security </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. U.S. Air Force photo New asymmetric warfare A U.S. Air Force drone providing intel for Taleban insurgents in Aftanistan.
  20. 21. Asymmetric warfare <ul><li>Asymmetric values, crises and conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global network cultures vs. Nation states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WWF Rainbow Warrior vs. French secret service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Qaida vs. Western world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local conflicts spread around the world in the web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric costs of cyber warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack is cheap, defense is expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A limitless number of targets to defend while a single security lapse is enough for the attacker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even identification of the attacker may be impossible </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. New targets <ul><li>Military information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. 1997: The Eligible Receiver military exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irak 2003: ”If we run out of batteries, we are screwed” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afganistan 2008: Taleban tapping on Predator video feeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estonia 2007: Web War One </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What if they had had an Internet election at the time? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial infrastucture and defence industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran 2010: Stuxnet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data and information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation and destruction of public and corporate databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakening the capability to make decisions and to act on them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values and attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influencing people’s motivation and attitude </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. New enemies <ul><li>Originally teenage hackers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For fun and prestige (pranks, “accidents”)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy due to good-for-nothing security of the systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now it is well paid professional crackers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orgnised crime (extortion, fraud, phishing, ...)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activist movements (sabotage, information manipulation)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nation states (development of Stuxnet cost millions of euros)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrorist organisations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al Qaida has its own Internet forces creating and distributing tools for propaganda and recruitment, intelligence gathering, encryption and steganography and Internet attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global corporations (industrial espionage)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Espcially defence industry has ties to national intelligence organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Military forces and national intelligence organisations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PLA of China (and Finnish army) have their reasons to use Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing hacktivists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A major role in the 2007 attack on Estonia </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. 19.8.2010 Sukupuolten välinen digikuilu? Discussion U.S. Army Photo