Example For Quality
Enter Text
here:
abc
ok
Please enter valid
data
Enter Text
here:
abc123
OK
Please enter valid
data
Summary for above two Examples
The Application should be prepared accor...
Project taken by the Organization
in a procedural way...
BOA
Requirements
TCS
Infosys
IBM
Tech
Mahindra
DSS
RFP
Client
Contents of RFP
Full form of RFP : Request for Proposal Document
Contents :
1) Introduction
2) Cost
3) Experience
4) Resou...
BOA DSS
Selected
The Official People of both the companies will meet to
finalize the agreement. For finalizing they will s...
SDLC Phases
1) Initial or Requirement phase
2) Analysis Phase
3) Design Phase
4) Coding Phase
5) Testing Phase
6) Release ...
Where exactly Testing will be started
1) UnConventional Testing
2) Conventional Testing
Unconventional Testing : The perso...
Testing Methodologies : There are two types of testing methodologies.
1) Black Box Testing
2) White Box Testing
There is o...
White Box Testing : The people who test the structural part of the
application i.e Coding part is known as White Box Testi...
Levels of Testing
Different Levels of Testing are :
1) Unit Level Testing
2) Module level Testing
3) Integration level Tes...
 These will be performed by developers where they will test each
and every unit of an application(i.e coding) and combina...
Module Level Testing :
 Combining more than one functionality to perform a major
task of related feature to test is known...
Example 2
City
GOA
HYD
Others
Select
Location here
: OK
Enter Location name : PUNE
OK
Select
Location here
:
City
GOA
HYD
PUNE
Others
OK
3) Integration Level Testing :
Combining all the modules of a project by using
different approaches. The approaches are :
...
A
B C
D E F G
From top to
Bottom
Parent
Module
Stub
Stub : In Top-Down approach if any original module is replaced
With du...
Bottom-Up Approach : Combining the modules from child level to
parent level is known as Bottom-up approach.
A
B C
D E F G
...
Hybrid Approach : Combination of both the approaches is known as
Hybrid approach.
Big Bang Integration : Combining all the...
Software Development Models
Water Fall Model or Linear Sequential Model
Initial
Analysis
Design
Coding
Testing
R & M
Phase...
Initial
Analysis
Design
Coding
Testing
R & M
When ever Requirements are added
In the middle again the process
Should start...
ENVIRONMENT
Present
Layer
Database
Layer
Applicati-
on Layer
Request Request
ResponseResponse
Validations Appropriate data...
Environment in the Organization for a project
D1 D2
D3
T1 T2
T3
P1
Dev Environment Test Environment Production Environment...
D1 D2
D3
T1 T2
T3
P1
Dev Environment Test Environment Production Environment
Build 1000 released
Build 1000 (No Bugs found...
Types of Testing
1) Build Verification Testing
or
Build Acceptance Testing
or
Sanity Testing
Conditions for accepting the ...
Sanity Testing : After releasing the build the testing will be performed on
some major functionalities to accept the build...
Example for Regression Testing
Calculator
V1 1
V2 2
Res 3
ADD
SUB
MUL
V1 1
V2 2
Res 30
ADD
SUB
MUL
Clicking on SUB
V1 1
V2 2
Res 300
ADD
SUB
MUL
Clicking on MUL
Retesting :
Username : abc
Password : abc
OK Cancel
Username : abcd
Password : abcd
OK Cancel
Definition : Testing the application again and again with different
set of values is known as Retesting.
Alpha Testing : I...
Static Testing :
Usernane :
Passward :
Cancel
Login
Definition : Without performing any actions on the application while
t...
Dynamic Testing : Here we will perform some actions on the application
to test the functionality whether it is according t...
There are two types of Compatibility Testing :
> Forward Compatibility.
> Backward Compatibility.
MS 2000 MS 2003 MS 2007
...
MS 2000 MS 2003
Backward Compatibility
MS 2007
Backward Compatibility : whether the latest version files are
opening in th...
Monkey Testing :-
It is a type of testing in which one will perform abnormal actions on the
application intentionally in-o...
End to End Testing:-
It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the end- to – end
scenarios of the appli...
Security Testing :-
It is a type of testing in which one will check whether the application is
properly protected or not.
...
Ex:- Here the tester will navigate to all the pages of the project, while
navigating from one page to the other he will co...
Adhoc Testing:-
It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the application in
their own style after unde...
b. Stress Testing :-
Verifying where exactly the application is going to crash after Increasing
the users more than the lo...
Memory Testing :-
After opening/Closing an application verifying for the Allocation/
De-allocation of an application is kn...
Cookies Testing :-
Cookie is small information stored in text file on user’s hard drive.
This information is later used by...
Conditions for sessions Testing :-
 Keeping webpage Ideal for some time.
 Removing the network connection of the system ...
SOFTWARE TESTING LIFE CYCLE
1. Test Planning
2. Test Development
3. Test Execution
4. Result Analysis
5. Defect Tracking &...
Contents of the Test Plan:-
1) INTRODUCTION :-
a) Objective :- The purpose of the document will be clearly described
in th...
Features not to be Tested :-
The list of all the features that are not planned for testing will be mentioned
here in this ...
Types of Testing:-
The list of all the types of testing that are performed in that company will be
mentioned here in this ...
We have a formula to measure a software test engineer work of how
effectively he has done testing on the application.
The ...
Automation Plan:-
The list of all the areas that are planned for automation will be mentioned
here in this section
List of...
Test Environment:-
The details of the Environment that is about to be used for testing will be
clearly described here in t...
Risks & contingencies:-
The list of all the possible risks that may occur and the corresponding
solution plans(contingenci...
Approval Information:-
Who has approved that document and when it is approved will be clearly
mentioned here in this secti...
For Example : Bank application
Client
Teller
With drawl
Deposit
Accounts
Actors Actions
Contents in UseCase Document :-
 Screenshot of the application
 Name of the usecase
 Brief Description of the usecase.
...
Username :
Password :
Clear OK Cancel
Login
Connect To :
Two people can login i.e Admin, User.
2) Name of the usecase :- L...
4) Actors Involved :- Admin and User
5) Preconditions :-
a) Build should get installed.
b) Valid credentials should be the...
Explicit requirements :-The requirements which are given by the client are
known as Explicit requirements.
The requirement...
Implicit Requirements :-
The Requirements which are given by the Organization is known
as Implicit requirements.
The Organ...
Implicit Requirements :- These are continuation of explicit requirements.
6) After invoking login page clear and submit bu...
For example :-
Deletion of mails in yahoo page:-
Selecting one mail and deleting.
Selecting more than one mail and deletin...
Types of Test Cases :- There are three types of test cases
1) GUI Test Case
2) Functional Test Case.
a) Positive test case...
Test Designed Techniques :- Test Designed Techniques are used for
making the Test Engineers feel comfortable while writing...
The values are :-
LB-1 LB LB+1 MV UB-1 UB UB+1
LB Min Value MV Middle value UB Max Value
Equivalence Class Partition :- Wh...
Requirements :-
Ex:- Write the Test Cases to test an email test box, whose
requirements are as follows:
 Accept minimum 4...
Test Closure Activity :-This is the final activity done during the testing
process where the Test Lead will prepare the te...
Manual Testing Draw backs :-
 Time consuming
 More number of human resources is required.
 Less accuracy
 Tiredness
 ...
Automation Testing Drawbacks :-
 Automated tools are costly.
 Cannot test some of features of the application.
 Lack of...
Sample Example for Basic Programming for Web Application :-
Name
Salary :
OK
Title : Emp Details
Title : Gmail
Slides1 - testing
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Slides1 - testing

  1. 1. Example For Quality Enter Text here: abc ok Please enter valid data
  2. 2. Enter Text here: abc123 OK Please enter valid data Summary for above two Examples The Application should be prepared according to client’s requirements and it should be User-Friendliness.
  3. 3. Project taken by the Organization in a procedural way... BOA Requirements TCS Infosys IBM Tech Mahindra DSS RFP Client
  4. 4. Contents of RFP Full form of RFP : Request for Proposal Document Contents : 1) Introduction 2) Cost 3) Experience 4) Resources 5) Approach 6) Methodologies ....etc
  5. 5. BOA DSS Selected The Official People of both the companies will meet to finalize the agreement. For finalizing they will sign on Documents. SLA Service level Agreement SOW Statement of work
  6. 6. SDLC Phases 1) Initial or Requirement phase 2) Analysis Phase 3) Design Phase 4) Coding Phase 5) Testing Phase 6) Release & Maintenance
  7. 7. Where exactly Testing will be started 1) UnConventional Testing 2) Conventional Testing Unconventional Testing : The person will test the application whether this application is going according to company standards are not. Here the person is QA(Quality Analyst) Conventional Testing : The person will test the application whether this application is according to clients requirements or not. Here the person is Software Test Engineer.
  8. 8. Testing Methodologies : There are two types of testing methodologies. 1) Black Box Testing 2) White Box Testing There is one more which is derived from above two methodologies. i.e Gray Box Testing. Black Box Testing : The people who performs testing only on the functional part of the application is called as Black Box test Engineers.
  9. 9. White Box Testing : The people who test the structural part of the application i.e Coding part is known as White Box Testing. > Usually developers are White Box Test Engineers. Gray Box testing : The people who test the Functional and Structural part of the application is known as Gray Box Testing.
  10. 10. Levels of Testing Different Levels of Testing are : 1) Unit Level Testing 2) Module level Testing 3) Integration level Testing 4) System level Testing 5) User acceptance Testing Unit Level Testing :  Unit is defined as a Smallest part of the program in an application.
  11. 11.  These will be performed by developers where they will test each and every unit of an application(i.e coding) and combination of units. Different ways of unit testing are : 1) Structural Testing 2) Conditional Testing 3) Branch Testing
  12. 12. Module Level Testing :  Combining more than one functionality to perform a major task of related feature to test is known as Module Level Testing  These will be performed by Software Test Engineers. City GOA HYD Others Select Location here : OK
  13. 13. Example 2 City GOA HYD Others Select Location here : OK Enter Location name : PUNE OK
  14. 14. Select Location here : City GOA HYD PUNE Others OK
  15. 15. 3) Integration Level Testing : Combining all the modules of a project by using different approaches. The approaches are : 1) Top-Down Approach 2) Bottom- Up Approach 3) Hybrid Approach 4) Big bang Integration 1) Top-Down Approach : Combining the modules from top(i.e parent) level to bottom(i.e Child) level is known as Top-down Approach.
  16. 16. A B C D E F G From top to Bottom Parent Module Stub Stub : In Top-Down approach if any original module is replaced With dummy module that module we will call it as Stub.
  17. 17. Bottom-Up Approach : Combining the modules from child level to parent level is known as Bottom-up approach. A B C D E F G Parent Module Driver Child Module From Bottom to Top
  18. 18. Hybrid Approach : Combination of both the approaches is known as Hybrid approach. Big Bang Integration : Combining all the modules at a time after Preparing the modules is known as Big bang Integration. System Level Testing : Testing each and every functionality of the application where we will perform all the types of testing is known as system level testing.
  19. 19. Software Development Models Water Fall Model or Linear Sequential Model Initial Analysis Design Coding Testing R & M Phases Cost Cost of a bug phase by phase
  20. 20. Initial Analysis Design Coding Testing R & M When ever Requirements are added In the middle again the process Should start from first.
  21. 21. ENVIRONMENT Present Layer Database Layer Applicati- on Layer Request Request ResponseResponse Validations Appropriate data Displaying data There are 4 types of architectures : 1) 1-Tier Architecture 2) 2-Tier Architecture 3) 3-Tier Architecture 4) n-Tier Architecture
  22. 22. Environment in the Organization for a project D1 D2 D3 T1 T2 T3 P1 Dev Environment Test Environment Production Environment Build 1 released Build 1(Defects)
  23. 23. D1 D2 D3 T1 T2 T3 P1 Dev Environment Test Environment Production Environment Build 1000 released Build 1000 (No Bugs found) Deploying Build 1000
  24. 24. Types of Testing 1) Build Verification Testing or Build Acceptance Testing or Sanity Testing Conditions for accepting the Build : 1) Build Installation. 2) Navigating through pages. 3) Features Availability. 4) Required connections are properly established or not. If all these conditions are satisfied then we will continue with Normal testing.
  25. 25. Sanity Testing : After releasing the build the testing will be performed on some major functionalities to accept the build is known as Sanity Testing. Smoke Testing : Before releasing the build the developers will test the application that is known as Smoke testing. 2) Regression Testing : It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the already tested functionality again with there dependencies. Usually we do it in two scenarios.  Whenever we raise the defects to the development department, once the next build is released we will test the defect functionality as well as the related functionality again and again.  Whenever some new features added (incorporated) to application, When next build is released to the testing department then all the related features of the new features will be tested once again.
  26. 26. Example for Regression Testing Calculator V1 1 V2 2 Res 3 ADD SUB MUL
  27. 27. V1 1 V2 2 Res 30 ADD SUB MUL Clicking on SUB V1 1 V2 2 Res 300 ADD SUB MUL Clicking on MUL
  28. 28. Retesting : Username : abc Password : abc OK Cancel Username : abcd Password : abcd OK Cancel
  29. 29. Definition : Testing the application again and again with different set of values is known as Retesting. Alpha Testing : It is a type of user acceptance testing conducted in the software company by our test engineers in front of client to make him accept. Example : Project or Product Beta Testing : It is a type of testing conducted by the End users or third party experts or clients before releasing to Client is known as beta Testing. Example : Product
  30. 30. Static Testing : Usernane : Passward : Cancel Login Definition : Without performing any actions on the application while testing is known as Static Testing
  31. 31. Dynamic Testing : Here we will perform some actions on the application to test the functionality whether it is according to client requirement. Example : Functionality Testing Installation Testing :-It is a type of testing in which one will install the application into the environment by following the guidelines provided in the deployment document. In-order to come to a conclusion whether those guidelines are perfectly suitable for installing the application or not. Compatibility Testing:- It is a type of testing in which one will install the application into the number of environments prepared with different combinations in-order to confirm whether the application is suitable with all those environments or not. Usually the type of testing is compulsory for products rather than projects. EX:- Testing the application with different browsers(Netscape Navigator, Mozilla Firefox, Internet explorer).
  32. 32. There are two types of Compatibility Testing : > Forward Compatibility. > Backward Compatibility. MS 2000 MS 2003 MS 2007 Forward Compatibility : Verifying whether previous Version files are opening in latest version files. Forward Compatibility
  33. 33. MS 2000 MS 2003 Backward Compatibility MS 2007 Backward Compatibility : whether the latest version files are opening in the previous version files is known as Backward Compatibility.
  34. 34. Monkey Testing :- It is a type of testing in which one will perform abnormal actions on the application intentionally in-order to check the stability of the application. Ex: - (i) Clicking on "submit" button of the login page repeatedly. (ii) Pressing F5 button continuously. Usability Testing:- It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the user- friendliness of the application. EX:- In "Login Page" of an application, if cursor is placed in "Password Textbox" instead of "Username Textbox".
  35. 35. End to End Testing:- It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the end- to – end scenarios of the application. Exploratory Testing :- Exploratory testing is particularly suitable if requirements and specifications are incomplete, or if there is lack of time It is a type of testing in which the domain experts will perform testing on the application without having the knowledge of the requirements, just by parallel exploring the functionality. Exploring:- Having the basic knowledge of any concept, doing something a knowing more about it, is known as exploring.
  36. 36. Security Testing :- It is a type of testing in which one will check whether the application is properly protected or not. To do the same the Black Box Test Engineers will perform the following types of testing. a. Authentication Testing:- In this type of testing one will enter different combinations of usernames and passwords and check whether only the authorized people are accessing the application or not. Ex:- In login application of a project, tester will try enter different combination of usernames and passwords. b. Direct URL Testing :- In this type of testing one will enter the direct URL's of secured pages and check whether they are able to access or not.
  37. 37. Ex:- Here the tester will navigate to all the pages of the project, while navigating from one page to the other he will copy all the URL's and try to navigate through that pages after singing out of the project. C. Firewall Leakage Testing (OR) User Privileged Testing:- In this type of testing one will enter into the application as one level of users and will try to access the pages beyond his limits, in-order to confirm whether they can be accessible or not. Port Testing:- It is a type of testing in which one will install the application, into the original customer environment and check whether it is compatible with that environment or not Soak Testing (or) Reliability Testing It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the application continuously for long period of time. In-order to check the stability of the application.
  38. 38. Adhoc Testing:- It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the application in their own style after understanding the requirements clearly. Performance Testing :- Verifying for the speed of the application by gradually increasing with number of users. We can do performance testing by 3 ways.. a. Load Testing :- Increasing gradually the users to access the application to analyze the critical point i.e where exactly the speed of the application getting degraded.
  39. 39. b. Stress Testing :- Verifying where exactly the application is going to crash after Increasing the users more than the load. c. Endurance Testing : Keeping the application under test for 24X7 to check the stability of the application. Ex : Call center Applications Volumes Testing :- Huge amount of data is processed through the application (which is being tested) in order to check the extreme limitations of the system
  40. 40. Memory Testing :- After opening/Closing an application verifying for the Allocation/ De-allocation of an application is known as memory testing. I18N Testing :- Testing is conducted on other than Local languages for an application. Ex :- Working on Spanish Language application. Localization Testing :- Testing is conducted on the Local languages application.
  41. 41. Cookies Testing :- Cookie is small information stored in text file on user’s hard drive. This information is later used by web browser to retrieve information from that machine. Generally cookie contains personalized user data or information that is used to communicate between different web page. Conditions for conducting cookies testing :-  After sign in copy the URLs of web pages and After sign out paste the URLs and verify for page navigations. Sessions Testing :- The User’s information which is stored in the server side is called a session.  After sign out click “Back” button in the browser.
  42. 42. Conditions for sessions Testing :-  Keeping webpage Ideal for some time.  Removing the network connection of the system when processing is going on.  Click Refresh or Back button while your request is processing.
  43. 43. SOFTWARE TESTING LIFE CYCLE 1. Test Planning 2. Test Development 3. Test Execution 4. Result Analysis 5. Defect Tracking & Reporting 6. Test Closure Activity Test Planning:- Test Plan:- It is a strategic document which contains some information that describes how to perform testing on an application in an effective, efficient and optimized way. Test lead prepares the test plan document.
  44. 44. Contents of the Test Plan:- 1) INTRODUCTION :- a) Objective :- The purpose of the document will be clearly described in this section. b ) Reference documents :- The list of all the documents that are referred while preparing the test plan will be mentioned here in this section. Ex: - Project Plan, SRS Document. Basically Project Plan is developed by Project Manager. 2) Coverage of Testing :- a) Features to be tested :- The list of all the features that are within the scope and planned for testing will be mentioned here in this section.
  45. 45. Features not to be Tested :- The list of all the features that are not planned for testing will be mentioned here in this section Usually based on the following scenarios it happens. • Out of Scope Features. • Low Risk Features. • Features that are planned to be incorporated in future. • Features that are skipped based on the time Constraints. 3) Test Strategy :- Making a strategy of how to test the application. Levels of Testing:- The list of all the types of testing that are performed in that company will be mentioned here in this section.
  46. 46. Types of Testing:- The list of all the types of testing that are performed in that company will be mentioned here in this section. Test Designed Techniques:- The list of all the techniques that are used in that company while designing the test cases will be mentioned here in this section Test Metric :-  The list of all the metrics that are maintained in that company will be listed out here in this section.  A test metric is a way to measure the size of a project to estimate the quantity of effort needed to perform of testing.  A Test metric is just like any other tool used to measure the quality of software product to serve best to the customer
  47. 47. We have a formula to measure a software test engineer work of how effectively he has done testing on the application. The formula is: A ----- X 100 A+B A = The defects identified by Software test engineer. B = The defects identified by Client For Example : No of defects identified by Test engineer is 90 No of defects identified by Client is 10 So, 90% Efficiently the test engineers has done the work.
  48. 48. Automation Plan:- The list of all the areas that are planned for automation will be mentioned here in this section List of Automated Tools:- The list of automated tools that are used in that company will be mentioned here in this section. BASE CRITERIA:- Acceptance Criteria:- When to stop testing will be clearly described in this section. Suspension Criteria:- When to suspend the build will be clearly described here in this section
  49. 49. Test Environment:- The details of the Environment that is about to be used for testing will be clearly described here in this section. Resource Planning:- "Who has to do what" will be clearly mentioned or described here in this section. Scheduling:- The starting dates and the ending dates of each and every task will be clearly planned here in this section. Staffing and Training:- The list of all the additional resources required and any training need to be provided to accomplish that project successfully will be analyzed and mentioned here in this section.
  50. 50. Risks & contingencies:- The list of all the possible risks that may occur and the corresponding solution plans(contingencies) will be listed out here in this section. Risks:-  Employees may leave the organization in the middle of the project.  Customer may impose the deadlines.  Unable to deliver the project within deadlines.  Unable to test all the features within the given time.  Lack of experts. Contingencies:-  Employees need to be maintained on bench.  What not to be tested should be planned incase of customer imposing deadlines.  Proper plan assurance.  Priority based execution.  Proper Training needs to be provided.
  51. 51. Approval Information:- Who has approved that document and when it is approved will be clearly mentioned here in this section. Test Development Phase :- Use Case:- It describes the functionality of certain feature of an application, in terms of actors, actions and responses. How a use case Document represented?
  52. 52. For Example : Bank application Client Teller With drawl Deposit Accounts Actors Actions
  53. 53. Contents in UseCase Document :-  Screenshot of the application  Name of the usecase  Brief Description of the usecase.  Actors Involved.  Special Requirements.  Pre Condition.  Post Condition.  Flow of Events. 1) Screenshot of the application :- In this section the design of the application will be provided, So that a user will write test cases based upon the requirements Understood by seeing the application.
  54. 54. Username : Password : Clear OK Cancel Login Connect To : Two people can login i.e Admin, User. 2) Name of the usecase :- Login 3) Brief Description of the usecase : What will be the functionality of the Login Module.
  55. 55. 4) Actors Involved :- Admin and User 5) Preconditions :- a) Build should get installed. b) Valid credentials should be there. 6) Post condition :- After entering valid credentials the page should be navigated to respective page or validation messages should be provided. 7) Flow of events :- The application flow will be mentioned here for every requirement. 8) Special Requirements :- There are two types of requirements that are : a) Explicit Requirements b) Implicit Requirements
  56. 56. Explicit requirements :-The requirements which are given by the client are known as Explicit requirements. The requirements are :- 1) After Invoking login page the fields Username, Password, Connect To, Clear, Ok, Cancel should exist. 2) After entering valid credentials and after selecting Connect To field the page should be navigated to respective page. 3) After entering valid credentials and clicking OK button the page should be navigated to respective page. 4) After entering any of the fields clicking clear button, the fields should be cleared. 5) After invoking Login page click cancel button the page should be closed.
  57. 57. Implicit Requirements :- The Requirements which are given by the Organization is known as Implicit requirements. The Organization should follow some conditions to give Requirements are :  They should not add any new requirements.  They should not remove any requirements of clients.  They should not degrade the clients requirements. Summary :- So, the company can only enhance the requirements.
  58. 58. Implicit Requirements :- These are continuation of explicit requirements. 6) After invoking login page clear and submit button should be disabled. 7) After entering any of the fields clear button should be enabled. 8) After entering any credentials the submit button should be enabled. 9) After entering Invalid credentials the validation messages should be provided. 10) Checking for the Tabbing order.
  59. 59. For example :- Deletion of mails in yahoo page:- Selecting one mail and deleting. Selecting more than one mail and deleting. Selecting All mails and deleting. Going to respective mail and click delete. Without selecting any mail click delete. Requirement Test case :- It’s a simple English statement of how to execute a test.
  60. 60. Types of Test Cases :- There are three types of test cases 1) GUI Test Case 2) Functional Test Case. a) Positive test case b) Negative Test Case 3) Non Functional Test Case Guidelines for writing GUI test cases:- Any idea we get with which we can test some thing, without performing any actions then that idea can be considered as GUI test case. Example:- Check for Spellings. Grammar checking. Check whether the text is aligned properly. Check consistency of font, size and color in entire application. Check for the availability of the objects.
  61. 61. Test Designed Techniques :- Test Designed Techniques are used for making the Test Engineers feel comfortable while writing the Test Cases even in the complex areas. Two such type of techniques famously used in most of the companies are :- 1. Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) 2. Equivalence class Participation (ECP) Boundary Value Analysis:-  Whenever there is a range kind of inputs to be tested then this technique is suggested. BVA says that concentrate on the boundaries only, if boundaries work fine then the complete range will automatically work fine. During BVA we usually test with following values.
  62. 62. The values are :- LB-1 LB LB+1 MV UB-1 UB UB+1 LB Min Value MV Middle value UB Max Value Equivalence Class Partition :- Whenever more number of requirements are given for one feature or we need to test some features with different types of data, then it is suggested to first divide the inputs into different partitions equally and then write the Test Cases.
  63. 63. Requirements :- Ex:- Write the Test Cases to test an email test box, whose requirements are as follows:  Accept minimum 4 characters and maximum of 20 characters.  Accept only small alphabets.  Accept only @,_ special characters Valid Invalid 4 ch 3 ch 5 ch 21 ch 12 ch A-Z 19 ch 0-9 20 ch Alphanumeric a-z Decimal number(1.7) @ & _ Except @ & _
  64. 64. Test Closure Activity :-This is the final activity done during the testing process where the Test Lead will prepare the test summary report. Test Summary Report contains the following information.  Number of cycle of execution.  Number of Test Cases executed in each cycle.  Duration of each cycle.  Number of defects found in each cycle and etc.
  65. 65. Manual Testing Draw backs :-  Time consuming  More number of human resources is required.  Less accuracy  Tiredness  Cannot repeat the same task again and again with same interest.
  66. 66. Automation Testing Drawbacks :-  Automated tools are costly.  Cannot test some of features of the application.  Lack of automation testing experts. Sample Example for Basic Programming :- Name Salary : OK Emp Details
  67. 67. Sample Example for Basic Programming for Web Application :- Name Salary : OK Title : Emp Details Title : Gmail

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