Decision making


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Decision making

  1. 2. <ul><li>“ Decision making is a process that begins with the </li></ul><ul><li>identification of the problem and ends with the evaluation of </li></ul><ul><li>the choices and taking a course of action” (Bernard & Walsh, </li></ul><ul><li>1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are a means rather than ends. </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to achieve a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>When decisions are made, the goal is usually related to both </li></ul><ul><li>tasks and relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who make decisions must learn to cope with being right </li></ul><ul><li>some of the time and also learn to live with imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>solutions. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>To make sound decisions, which is what people desire to do, </li></ul><ul><li>the most important consideration is the criteria that are used </li></ul><ul><li>to make the decision. Some examples of the criteria that might </li></ul><ul><li>be used are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimally impacts current operations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps achieve important priorities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is consistent with values, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is acceptable to those involved in the decision, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be implemented with the constraints (time, resources, other priorities), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers pros, cons, and risks. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>“ A problem is a discrepancy between a desirable and an actual </li></ul><ul><li>situation”. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are required to resolve this discrepancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, decision making and problem solving are used </li></ul><ul><li>interchangeably though decisions do not always focus on </li></ul><ul><li>problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions, however, are made when problems are solved. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Decision styles </li></ul><ul><li>Why is creativity important in the decision – making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Styles of decision making are affected by creativity or </li></ul><ul><li>innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>The common types of styles are unilateral, individual, and </li></ul><ul><li>authoritarian decision making, all of which focus on one </li></ul><ul><li>person making a decision with limited or no input from others. </li></ul><ul><li>The opposite of this style is participative and consensus </li></ul><ul><li>decision making. Here the emphasis is on including others in </li></ul><ul><li>the decision making, even if an individual must make the final </li></ul><ul><li>decision. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Other decision – making styles that have been described are: </li></ul><ul><li>decisive, integrative, hierarchic, and flexible (Milgram, </li></ul><ul><li>Spector, & Treger, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>These styles apply to managers and to staff. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference in these four styles is in the amount of data that </li></ul><ul><li>is used to make a decision and the options that are considered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The decisive style depends on less data to arrive at one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The integrative style uses all available data and identifies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple alternatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hierarchic style focuses on a large amount of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information but arrives at one alternative or solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The flexible style uses a small amount of data while </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generating multiple alternatives and may change as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information is reinterpreted. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Systematic versus intuitive decision styles are two other </li></ul><ul><li>approaches to decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic decision makers form their decisions more logically </li></ul><ul><li>and use a structured approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive decision makers are at the other end of the spectrum; </li></ul><ul><li>here the focus is on a trial and error approach. </li></ul><ul><li>They may ignore information and change their alternatives if it </li></ul><ul><li>does not feel right. This is the “gut” approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Group decision making is another style that is used more today. </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses more on synergy, which is the combination of </li></ul><ul><li>people’s effort that results in an output which is greater than </li></ul><ul><li>the sum of the parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple ideas and experiences come together to form a </li></ul><ul><li>decision. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>The decision - making process </li></ul><ul><li>The decision making process is a dynamic process. </li></ul><ul><li>The most effective decisions are made in collaboration with </li></ul><ul><li>others in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration between nurses and physicians also affects </li></ul><ul><li>nurse’s participation as it provides greater opportunities for </li></ul><ul><li>nurses to participate. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Nursing and Critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse has become very complex with change occurring almost </li></ul><ul><li>daily in nursing management and clinical practice. </li></ul><ul><li>This complex, changing environment often leads to stress for all </li></ul><ul><li>levels of staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and team leaders need to be particularly skilled in </li></ul><ul><li>coping with stress and embrace opportunities to make change a </li></ul><ul><li>positive experience for themselves, all staff, and the </li></ul><ul><li>organization and to actively use critical thinking. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>A more progressive, holistic way to define critical thinking is a </li></ul><ul><li>commitment to look for the best way, based on the most </li></ul><ul><li>current research and practice findings; </li></ul><ul><li>for example, the best strategy to manage pain in a specific </li></ul><ul><li>person or situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking is reasoning in a manner that generates and </li></ul><ul><li>examines questions and problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition and feelings are considered as an individual weighs, </li></ul><ul><li>clarifies and evaluates evidence, arguments and conclusions. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Those who use critical thinking incorporate the following in their thinking process: </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Generates and examines questions and problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs, clarifies, and evaluates evidence. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Some strategies that can prevent dichotomous thinking and improve critical thinking include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Replace “I don’t know” and “I’m not sure” with “I’ll find out.” </li></ul><ul><li>Turn errors into opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate questions other might ask. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask, “What if?” </li></ul><ul><li>Look for flaws in one’s own thinking, and ask others to identify </li></ul><ul><li>flaws (Alfaro – LeFevre, 2001). </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Critical thinking should be part of problem solving and decision making in response to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking skills: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge, experience, judgment and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Affective listening </li></ul><ul><li>Application of moral reasoning and values </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension, application, analysis and synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of self </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes happen and we learn from them </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>How does one describe a critical thinker? </li></ul><ul><li>Some authorities have identified key traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul (1995) identifies the following four traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual humility . The person is willing to admit what is not known. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual integrity . The person continually evaluates his or her own thinking and is willing to admit when wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual courage . The person is aware of the need to confront ideas fairly, even when negative reactions toward the ideas may be present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual empathy . The person makes a conscious effort to understand others. </li></ul></ul>