MEANING “A state of incompatibility of ideas between two or more parties or individuals.”
DEFINITION Conflict can be defined as an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties, who perceive that incompatible goals, scarce resources, or interference from others are preventing them from achieving their goals Wimot and hocker,2001
We see things: Not as they are But as weare Presented by: Dr.Samar
GENERAL CAUSES OF CONFLICTS
Scarcity of resources
Different attitudes, values or perceptions.
disagreements about needs, goals, priorities and interests
poor or inadequate organizational structure
lack of teamwork
lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities
TYPES OF CONFLICTS Intrapersonal Interpersonal Intragroup organisational
Intrapersonal An intrapersonal conflict occurs within an individual in situations in which he or she must choose between two alternatives
Interpersonal conflict conflict between two or more individuals. INTERGROUP CONFLICTrefers to disagreements or differences between the members of two or more groups.
Organizational conflicts conflict also occurs in organization because of differing perceptions or goals.
THE CONFLICT PROCESS LATENT CONFLICT PERCEIVED CONFLICT FELT CONFLICT MANIFEST CONFLICT CONFLICT RESOLUTION CONFLICT AFTERMATH
EFFECTS OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS DESTRACTIVE EFFECTS
Improves decision quality
SIGNS OF CONFLICT BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS Colleagues not speaking to each other or ignoring each other Contradicting and bad-mouthing one another Deliberately undermining or not co-operating with each other.
Multiple factors Identify the boundaries of the conflict. Understand the factors that limit the possibilities of managing the conflict constructively.
CONT………. . Be aware of whether more than one issue is involved. Be open to the ideas, feelings, and attitudes expressed by the people involved. Be willing to accept outside help to mediate the conflict.
Handling conflict situations
Conflict-ManagementStrategies DEFENSIVE MODE COMPROMISE PROBLEM SOLVING
Suppress the conflict.
Restrict or isolate the conflict
Smooth it over
Avoid the conflict
Separete the contending parties
COMPROMISE With this each party wins something and loses something. In the settlement, each side gives up a part of its demands. Thus each side may "go halfway" or "split the difference
PROBLEM SOLVING Initiate a discussion, timed sensitively and held in an environment conducive to private discussion. Respect individual differences. Be empathic with all involved parties. Have an assertive dialogue that consists of separating facts from feelings, clearly defining the central issue, differentiating viewpoints, making sure that each person clearly states their intentions, framing the main issue based on common principles, and being an attentive listener consciously focused on what the other person is saying. .Agree on a solution that balances the power and satisfies all parties, so that a consensus on a win-win solution is reached
Conflict handling intentions Assertiveness (satisfying one’s own concerns) Cooperativeness (attempting to satisfy another’s concerns
Conflict-Resolution Strategies Avoiding: Withholding or withdrawing: In this avoidance strategy, one party opts out of participation. They remove themselves from the situation. Smoothing over or reassuring: This is the strategy of saying "Everything will be OK." By maintaining surface harmony, parties do not withdraw but simply attempt to make everyone feel good
Accommodating: This strategy is used when there is a large power differential. The more powerful party is accommodated to preserve harmony Forcing: This technique is a dominance move and an arbitrary way to manage conflict. Competing: Compromising
Confronting: This technique is called assertive problem solving and is focused on the issues. Individuals speak for themselves, but in a way that decreases defensiveness and allows another person to hear the message Collaborating: This is an assertive and cooperative strategy in which the parties work together to find a mutually satisfying solution. It is invoked with the phrase "Two heads are better than one.“ Bargaining and negotiating Problem solving:
Preventing Conflict Frequent meeting of your team Allow your team to express openly Sharing objectives Having a clear and detailed job description Distributing task fairly Never criticize team members publicly Always be fair and just with your team Being a role model
negotiation It is a compromise. That is,each party gives up something with the emphasison accommodating differences between the two parties Focus on a Win-Win Solution,Want both parties to be satisfiedwith the outcome
STEPS IN NEGOTIATION PROCESS BEFORE THE NEGOTIATION DURING NEGOTIATION CLOSURE OR FOLLOW –UP TO NEGOTIATION
Step 1 – Before Negotiating Be prepared (Do your research) . Start with high, realistic goals . Know what you will settle for . Know what to trade off
Step 2 During Negotiation
Be a good listener
Be open minded
Try to understand all points of view
Focus on the conflict, Not the people
Step 3 Closure & Follow-up to Negotiation State what has been agreed to Close on a friendly note Send a memo regarding what has been agreed to
CONSENSUS Consensus means that negotiating parties are able to reach an agreement that all parties can support, or at least not oppose, even though it does not represent everyone's first priorities .