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6 enzyme notes

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Transcript

  • 1. Enzymes
  • 2. Enzymes
    Enzymes are special proteinsthat help control chemical reactionsby acting as catalysts.
    Catalysts can speed up some reactions by more than a billion fold.
  • 3. 3. How they work
    Enzymes work by a physical fit (Lock and Key) between the enzyme and the substrate.
    When connected the enzyme lowers the activation energy needed for the chemical reaction.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. 4. Draw the activation energy graph:
  • 7. 5. Inhibition
    Certain substances can inhibit enzyme function.
    Competitive inhibitors: Get in the way…they “fit” into the active site.
  • 8. 5. Inhibition
    c. Noncompetitive (Allosteric) inhibitors: Change the shape of the enzyme so the substrate(s) no longer fit.

    Substrate

    Enzyme
    NC Inhibitor
    Enzyme
  • 9. CompetitiveInhibition (DRAW this!)
  • 10. Non-Competitive (Allosteric) Inhibition (DRAW this!)
  • 11. 6. Environmental Factors
    Environmental Factors can affect enzymes activity.
    Temperature
    pH
    Salt
    More…
    Really cold…slows down enzymes
    Too hot, too salty, pH…DENATURE (unfold, change shape)
    Denatured protein
  • 12. Questions???
    Quick review:
    What type of macromolecule are enzymes?
    What is the “lock-and-key” model mean?
    How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?
    What are the two types of competitors?
    How do they work?
    What factors can affect enzyme activity?