Biochemistry Terms Biomolecule: contain carbon, produced by living things. Organic Compounds – Carbon containing compounds produced by living organisms. Macromolecule– when smaller molecules join together to form a larger more complex molecule.
4. Important Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates 5. Organic macromolecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1C:2H:1O (i.e. CH2O, C6H12O6, etc.) Source of relatively “quick” energy because bonds store lots of energy. CHO
6. Simple Carbohydrates A. Simple = Monosaccharides (C6H12O6) Glucosefrom a plant Fructosefrom fruits on a plant Galactosefrom milk GlucoseFructose
8. Very Complex Carbohydrates A. Very Complex =Polysaccharides(CxHyOz) -- many Starchis stored in parts of plants like grains & potatoes Celluloseis found in plant cell walls & wood Glycogenis stored in animal livers & muscles Cellulose
9. Interesting Facts about Carbs: Celluloseis made of many glucose subunits. When humans eat cellulose it passes through our body undigested (this is good for dietary fiber).
C. cows & horses have very tiny microorganisms in their stomachs which can breakdown cellulose. They can digest cellulose and receive its stored energy.
Lipids CHO 10. Organic macromolecules that are not soluble (do not dissolve) in water and are useful for storing energy. A. Composed of C, O, H B. Betterfor storing energy because they have more bondsthan carbohydrates.
Lipid Types 13. There are three basic types of lipids: A. Fats = energy storage B. Steroids = hormones & cholesterol C. Waxes = protective coatings
14. Two Types of Fats Saturated – most carbon atoms are bonded to two hydrogen atoms. i. Mostly solids like butter, lard, grease ii. Can lead to heart disease
14. Two Types of Fats Unsaturated – most carbon atoms are bonded to one hydrogen atom. i. Mostly liquids like corn oil, olive oil, fish oil ii. Usually a healthier alternative
15. Steroids Organic macromolecules composed of four carbon rings. Found in hormones (increase cell growth), nerve tissues, and plant poisons.
16. Waxes Organic macromolecules that serves as a protective coating and is waterproof. Plants have a thin layer on their leaves Animals produce earwax
Proteins CHON Organic macromolecules that are the building blocks of cells (muscles, skin, blood, etc.) and enzymes. Contain C, H, O, N atoms Our bodies contain thousands of different proteins. Proteins are made of very long chains of amino acids put together like beads on a necklace.
18. Amino Acids (AA) 20different types of amino acids Can form new proteins based upon their order and the number of them present in a protein chain. Generalized Amino Acid