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1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
1 molecules of life
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1 molecules of life

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  • 1. Molecules of Life
    Macromolecules
  • 2. Biochemistry Terms
    Biomolecule: contain carbon, produced by living things.
    Organic Compounds – Carbon containing compounds produced by living organisms.
    Macromolecule– when smaller molecules join together to form a larger more complex molecule.
  • 3. 4. Important Macromolecules
    Carbohydrates
    Lipids
    Proteins
    Nucleic Acids
  • 4. Carbohydrates
  • 5. Carbohydrates
    5. Organic macromolecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1C:2H:1O (i.e. CH2O, C6H12O6, etc.)
    Source of relatively “quick” energy because bonds store lots of energy.
    CHO
  • 6. 6. Simple Carbohydrates
    A. Simple = Monosaccharides (C6H12O6)
    Glucosefrom a plant
    Fructosefrom fruits on a plant
    Galactosefrom milk
    GlucoseFructose
  • 7. 7. Complex Carbohydrates
    A. Complex = Disaccharides(C12H24O12) -- two
    Sucrose= glucose & fructose
    Lactose= glucose & galactose
    Maltose= glucose & glucose
    Lactose
    Sucrose
  • 8. 8. Very Complex Carbohydrates
    A. Very Complex =Polysaccharides(CxHyOz) -- many
    Starchis stored in parts of plants like grains & potatoes
    Celluloseis found in plant cell walls & wood
    Glycogenis stored in animal livers & muscles
    Cellulose
  • 9. 9. Interesting Facts about Carbs:
    Celluloseis made of many glucose subunits.
    When humans eat cellulose it passes through our body undigested (this is good for dietary fiber).
  • 10. C. cows & horses have very tiny microorganisms in their stomachs which can breakdown cellulose. They can digest cellulose and receive its stored energy.
  • 11. Lipids
  • 12. Lipids
    CHO
    10. Organic macromolecules that are not soluble (do not dissolve) in water and are useful for storing energy.
    A. Composed of C, O, H
    B. Betterfor storing energy because they have more bondsthan carbohydrates.
  • 13. Lipid Types
    13. There are three basic types of lipids:
    A. Fats = energy storage
    B. Steroids = hormones & cholesterol
    C. Waxes = protective coatings
  • 14. 14. Two Types of Fats
    Saturated – most carbon atoms are bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
    i. Mostly solids like butter, lard, grease
    ii. Can lead to heart disease
  • 15. 14. Two Types of Fats
    Unsaturated – most carbon atoms are
    bonded to one hydrogen atom.
    i. Mostly liquids like corn oil, olive oil, fish oil
    ii. Usually a healthier alternative
  • 16. 15. Steroids
    Organic macromolecules composed of four carbon rings.
    Found in hormones (increase cell growth), nerve tissues, and plant poisons.
  • 17. 16. Waxes
    Organic macromolecules that serves as a protective coating and is waterproof.
    Plants have a thin layer on their leaves
    Animals produce earwax
  • 18. Proteins
  • 19. Proteins
    CHON
    Organic macromolecules that are the building blocks of cells (muscles, skin, blood, etc.) and enzymes.
    Contain C, H, O, N atoms
    Our bodies contain thousands of different proteins.
    Proteins are made of very long chains of amino acids put together like beads on a necklace.
  • 20. 18. Amino Acids (AA)
    20different types of amino acids
    Can form new proteins based upon their order and the number of them present in a protein chain.
    Generalized Amino Acid
  • 21.
  • 22. 19. Enzymes
    Special proteins that help control chemical reactions by acting as catalysts.
    Catalysts can speed up some reactions by more than a billion fold!
  • 23. 19. Enzymes
    c. Enzymes work by a “lock and key” mechanism between the enzyme and the substrate.
    d. When connected the enzyme lowers the activation energy needed for the chemical reaction.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. Nucleic Acids
  • 28. 20. Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA
    CHONP
    Organic macromolecules used to control an organisms genetic or heredity information.
    Composed of C, H, O, N, P
    Made up of very long chains of nucleotides.
  • 29. 21. Types of Nucleic Acids
    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    directs all cell activities and codes for genes
    RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    directs proteins creation and transfers information

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