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Com 248 Cinematography Powerpoint

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  • 1. Cinematography There are many ways to compose a shot and, subsequently, to convey meaning. Be it through film or video, the subject’s spatial relationship to the camera is very important inestablishing, maintaining, or altering the sense of character and context for the viewer.
  • 2. Distance
  • 3.  Shot ◦ Point of view ◦ Framing  Aspect ratio  Mask  Camera distance ◦ Depth of field ◦ Color ◦ MovementKey terms
  • 4. Extreme Long Shot (ELS): used to establish sense of scale betweensubject and context; its greater distance allows for heightened sense of scale and subject’s insignificance than the Long Shot communicates. Wanda (Barbara Loden,1970)
  • 5. March of the Penguins (Luc Jacquet, 2005)The Long Shot (LS): emphasizes scenery, background, sense of scaleover characters; camera is at a significant distance; shows a widercontext beyond the subject of the shot, tells us extra information.
  • 6. The Searchers (John Ford, 1956)The Long Shot (LS): emphasizes scenery, background, sense of scaleover characters; camera is at a significant distance; shows a widercontext beyond the subject of the shot, tells us extra information.
  • 7. The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012)The Long Shot (LS): emphasizes scenery, background, sense of scaleover characters; camera is at a significant distance; shows a widercontext beyond the subject of the shot, tells us extra information.
  • 8. Medium Long Shot (MLS): This shot shows the full figure of character(s) with a lesser amount of background, contextual info.Bad Boys (Michael Bay, 1995) Daybreakers (Michael and Peter Spierig, 2009)
  • 9. The Medium Shot (MS): produces different meaning from the LS or ELS; here, the character and his/her actions are more visible, thus, more emphasized although background context is still present; usually not a full human figure (cut off at knees, waist, etc.)The Bourne Identity (Doug Liman, 2002) Talledega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby (Adam McKay, 2006)
  • 10. Pride and Prejudice (Joe Wright 2005) Rio Bravo (Howard Hawks, 1959)
  • 11. “American Shot”: MS or MLS featuring several characters with bodiesturned toward camera; allows for multiple characters to exchangedialogue without the need for changes in camera position, perspective. The Philadelphia Story (George Cukor, 1940)
  • 12. Hard-Boiled (John Woo, 1991)Medium Close Up (MCU):A shot from the chest/shoulders up;usually a fairly neutral background,not too much context, butcharacter’s face and emotions areclear. The Matrix (Andy and Lana Wachowski, 1999) X-Men: The Last Stand (Brett Ratner, 2006)
  • 13. Medium Close Up (MCU):A shot from the chest/shouldersup; usually a fairly neutralbackground, not too muchcontext, but character’s face andemotions are clear. The Royal Tenenbaums (Wes Anderson, 2001)
  • 14. Close Up (CU): camera is close to subject; this emphasizes characters,emotions, psychology, and reactions; almost no background contexthere. Also called “head shot.” Alien 3 (David Fincher, 1992)
  • 15. Close Up (CU): camera is close to subject or object; this emphasizescharacters, emotions, psychology, and reactions; almost no backgroundcontext here. Also called “head shot.” The Royal Tenenbaums (Wes Anderson, 2001)
  • 16. Extreme Close Up (ECU): camera is VERYclose to subject or object; backgroundminimal or non-existent, the focus is tighton a single detail. Psycho (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960)
  • 17. Height/Angle
  • 18. The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012)Low Angle (LA): camera is low, aimed up; visual effect makes subjectlook powerful/dominant in the frame; sometimes emphasizes size.
  • 19. The Game (David Fincher, 1997)Low Angle (LA): camera is low, aimed up; visual effect makes subjectlook powerful/dominant in the frame; sometimes emphasizes size.
  • 20. The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012)Low Angle (LA): camera is low, aimed up; visual effect makes subjectlook powerful/dominant in the frame; sometimes emphasizes size.
  • 21. Blade Runner (Ridley Scott, 1982) High Angle (HA): Camera is aimed downward; when filming human figures this way, it emphasizes their smallness in their environment, can give them an appearance of insignificance or vulnerability. “Overhead” or “crane” shots are associated with high angle perspectivesVoyage to Italy (Roberto Rossellini, 1959) Psycho (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960)
  • 22. High Angle (HA): Camera is aimed downward; when filming humanfigures this way, it emphasizes their smallness in their environment, cangive them an appearance of insignificance or vulnerability. “Overhead”or “crane” shots are associated with high angle perspectives. The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012)
  • 23. High Angle (HA): Camera is aimed downward; when filming humanfigures this way, it emphasizes their smallness in their environment, cangive them an appearance of insignificance or vulnerability. “Overhead”or “crane” shots are associated with high angle perspectives. The Game (David Fincher, 1997)
  • 24. High Angle (HA): Camera is aimed downward; when filming humanfigures this way, it emphasizes their smallness in their environment, cangive them an appearance of insignificance or vulnerability. The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012)
  • 25. “Dutch” Angle (also called “canted angle,” “German angle,” and “oblique angle”): the camera is placed at an unusual angle to conveythe subjective state of a character. This state is usually one of unease. Hong Kong Rhapsody (Umetsugu Inoue, 1968)
  • 26. “Dutch” Angle (also called “canted angle,” “German angle,” and“oblique angle”): the camera is placed at an unusual angle to conveythe subjective state of a character. This state is usually one of unease. 12 Monkeys (Terry Gilliam, 1995)
  • 27. Eye Level: camera is positioned roughly around the eye level of the subject; sometimes used as frame of reference for other angles,sometimes used if subject is moving toward camera. More neutral than high, low, and canted angles. American Psycho (Mary Harron, 2000)
  • 28. Depth of field/Focus
  • 29. FOCUS is often used to direct viewer attention to a specific object or plane (e.g.foreground, middle ground, background). A subject or object that is sharplyrendered through the camera is considered to be in focus.FOCAL LENGTH describes the distance between the camera and the principalitem you are shooting.DEPTH OF FIELD describes the zone of sharp focus around your primary target.The closer you are to an object, the smaller a depth of field you have. Thefurther you are from an object, the larger a depth of field you have.
  • 30. Knife of Ice (Umberto Lenzi, 1972)DEEP FOCUS: multiple planes(foreground, middle ground, background)of a shot are in focus. In other words, amuch larger depth of field.SHALLOW FOCUS: a much smallerdepth of fieldRACK FOCUS: if one wishes to altertheir focus within a given camera setup(and therefore avoid the need to changecamera setups altogether), one may“rack,” or adjust, the camera’s focus fromone plane to another. Examples of thisoften jump within the same take betweenfoci in the foreground and background (orvice versa).What do you think likely dictates whois in focus in a scene like this?
  • 31. Movement
  • 32. ESTABLISHING SHOT: shot that sets a scene or establisheslocation; they are often stationary shots, and are usually (but notalways) LS or ELS. They can, but do not have to, include characters.They can be mobile.TRACKING SHOT (“DOLLY,” “FOLLOW,” and “TRUCKING”SHOTs): camera moves freely on a mobile base through the scene,often following (but sometimes leading) the subject. The proximitybetween camera and subject can change during the shot.PAN SHOT (“PAN”): camera moves horizontally on a fixed base.TILT SHOT (“TILT”): camera moves vertically on a fixed base.BOOM SHOT (“CRANE SHOT”): camera moves through the sceneon a crane; camera is off the ground and can move in a non-linearway that a person holding it could not do.When the camera moves from one position to another within thesame shot, the frame has been changed and REFRAMING hasoccurred. These can be very small or very dramatic changes.