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  • Rural and Urban disparities are the largest and most obvious. They are the focus for NGO’s trying to improve the standard of living in isolated villages.
  • Kigoma is located along Lake Tanganyika – the region is the poorest in Tanzania, the most isolated and has the burden of looking after 1 million refugees from Burundi, Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo. Dar Es Salaam (Dar for short) was the old capital city of Tanzania (capital moved to Dodoma for the same reasons as Wellington – geographically more central). Colonial capital and most developed region in the country.
  • Health is of great concern in Tanzania. Aids in rural areas is becoming more of a problem.
  • Bubungo is a small village in the Kigoma Region. There are 5000 members of the village and all of them must use this facility. Unfortunately there is no doctor in the village – they come once or twice a month. There is a trained nurse who works in this building, but she works Monday – Friday only and if someone needs medical attention on the weekend, they must find her somewhere in the village. Both days I visited the dispensary there was no one available.
  • Aga Khan hospital has won awards in Tanzania for it’s health services. This hospital provides all the services of a basic hospital in USA. But, this hospital is costly and only the most wealthy residents in Tanzania can afford this type of health care.
  • Roads in very poor condition. Young boys seen repairing them with spades – hoping for a few cents for their trouble for drivers. This means they are not at school.
  • Roads in CBD and main routes are in excellent condition – all sealed and regularly repaired. In many suburbs however, roads still dirt or gravel, in fairly poor condition.
  • Cell phones were hardly seen in 1997, in 2004 a huge % of the rural population have them – Probably half a million by the end of 2004. They are popular amongst city dwellers with some disposable income. Cell towers are popping up every where. Govt sees this as the way people in Tanzania will communicate – now little is being invested into land lines.
  • The NBC housing is mostly home to wealthier Asian Africans (Indians and Pakistanis) who own businesses and can afford the higher rents. These houses have all the amenities and are similar to western standards.
  • Possible to discuss here – types of employment – primary, secondary and tertiary and even quaternary.
  • This is a nice final image – you could get students to write down words used to describe the children in each photo – discuss clothing, hair styles, and overall lifestyles that they 2 groups of children would have.
  • Discuss push and pull factors and the issues that might be created when rural people begin migrating to urban areas in large numbers… this type of migration has only just started.

Transcript

  • 1. RURAL AND URBAN TANZANIA Vs. 80% of the population 20% of the population
  • 2. DISPARITIES WITHIN TANZANIA RURAL vs.. URBAN
    • Rural Case Study
    • Kigoma Region
    • (1 million in the region)
    • Urban Case Study
    • Dar Es Salaam
    • (3 million in the city)
    Chankele Village in Kigoma District Main street in Dar Es Salaam
  • 3. DISPARITIES IN HEALTH Health statistics 2003 - Summary of key statistics Indicator of Health Rural Ave. Urban Ave. Access to health services 72% 99% Infant mortality rate 115/1000 45/1000 Access to safe water 56% 96% Access to adequate 62% 78% sanitation HIV and AIDS is one of Tanzania’s biggest health concern at present – estimated at 8% of population. A wall painting educating about HIV/AIDS.
  • 4. HEALTH - Rural Dispensary at Chankele Village New dispensary built in 2003 in Bubungo Village (UNDP funding) Basic bed in Bubungo’s new village dispensary
    • Very basic first aid service:
    • No/few drugs.
    • One doctor - if lucky.
    • Nurse - little formal training.
    • Not all services are free.
    Most use traditional medicines
  • 5. HEALTH - Urban Aga Khan Hospital building in Dar Es Salaam Hospital sign shows available services Aids patient in urban hospital room
    • Range of services offered.
    • Specialised with large number
    • of doctors and nurses.
    • Range of drugs available.
    • Only 2% use traditional doctors.
    • Patients are charged:$1 - $10
    • per day
  • 6. SANITATION
    • In Kigoma villages…
    • Water collected from either springs or village taps (tanks).
    • Long drop toilets.
    • Bathing in rivers.
    • 56% have access to safe water.
    School toilets at Bubungo Village Women collecting water and washing clothes in Bubungo Village Malaria is a big problem for rural people
  • 7. SANITATION
    • In Dar Es Salaam...
    • Water delivered via trucks.
    • 75% have communal taps in suburbs.
    • 20% have household taps -
    • (inner city National Housing).
    • Access to flush toilets, shower/bath facilities.
    • Ave. 95% have access to safe water.
    “ maji” means water in Swahili Bathroom facilities in Dar Es Salaam inner city home Cholera is biggest problem for Dar residents in the wet season
  • 8. DISPARITIES IN INFRASTRUCTURE ROADS
    • In Kigoma region…
    • 1% of roads paved.
    • Clay roads become slick in wet season.
    • Few roads connecting villages.
    • Damage to vehicles.
    Main road linking Tanzania with Burundi Road to hotel in Kigoma township
  • 9. DISPARITIES IN INFRASTRUCTURE ROADS
    • In Dar Es Salaam...
    • 45% of Roads paved.
    • Many roads linking Dar with other urban areas.
    • Unaffected by wet season.
    • Less damage to vehicles.
    Main road leading to Dar Road leading to University
  • 10. DISPARITIES IN INFRASTRUCTURE Power and Phone
    • In Kigoma villages….
    • 2% of population has power in the home.
    • 95% use Kerosene & Wood for cooking & light.
    • No phones in villages - some chiefs have mobile ph.
    Village hut typical kitchen WHY? Cost to connect power to home is $300US ($300US is average yearly income in rural areas). Government has no income to invest in telephone lines and phone lines. Little maintenance on existing lines.
  • 11. DISPARITIES IN INFRASTRUCTURE Power and Phone
    • In Dar Es Salaam…
    • 60% have access to power.
    • Cell phone use is increasing dramatically:
    • 1996 - # of cell Ph = 15,000
    • 2003 - # of cell Ph = 227,000
    Cell Ph tower and powerlines are a common sight in Dar. Small electric oven in a poorer socio-economic area of Dar
  • 12. HOUSING
    • In Kigoma villages...
    • Housing mostly mud brick and thatch roof.
    • Ave. number of rooms = 3
    • Ave. number of people = 6
    • In wet season, homes become damp.
    • Generally last 10 - 50 years. - need constant maintenance
    • Recently more homes are being constructed with concrete and iron roofing.
    A typical home in rural Kigoma - Chankele village Abandoned home in Chankele Land free but mud hut can cost up to $1000NZ to build
  • 13. HOUSING
    • In Dar Es Salaam...
    • Housing materials longer lasting e.g. concrete/tiles.
    • More amenities - toilet inside.
    • Very western in style.
    A middle class home in Dar suburbs - built by owner. An upper class area in Dar - Oyster Bay. Full security etc Govt. built housing in inner city. (NBC housing) Rent for 3 bedroom home is 60,000 Sh or $120NZ per month. This is cheap for urban area.
  • 14. DISPARITIES IN EDUCATION…
    • Education statistics 2003 - Summary of key statistics
    • Highest Level of Education Rural Ave. Urban Ave.
    • No education 30% 7%
    • Primary School 66% 68%
    • Secondary School 3% 17%
    • University/Diploma 0.1% 3%
    • Other 0.9% 5%
    • Secondary school costs US$60 - $300 per year.
    • In rural areas 25% of villagers have to travel more than 20 kilometres to nearest secondary school.
  • 15. EDUCATION
    • RURAL AREAS
    • 100 students per class.
    • Lack of teachers.
    • Some villages have no secondary schools nearby.
    • Most don’t pay fees.
    • URBAN AREAS
    • More choice as range of school facilities (private).
    • More teachers.
    • More resources as students can afford materials/fees.
    Private school in Dar Es Salaam Local school at Chankele Village
  • 16. EDUCATION
    • RURAL AREAS
    • No university facilities.
    • 0.1% obtain a university qualification.
    • Rare to have the income that could support a child studying at this level.
    • URBAN AREAS
    • Some Universities.
    • 3% obtain a university qualification.
    • Expensive – up to US$3000 per year to attend.
    The main University in Dar Es Salaam . These universities are recognised internationally and the Govt. sponsors the brightest students to attend.
  • 17. RURAL / URBAN EMPLOYMENT What jobs do you think will earn the larger, more reliable income? Why? Local fisherman drying his fish for market. Owner of a Stationary Shop in Dar Es Salaam. Brewery factory in Dar Es Salaam employs large numbers of workers. Coffee plantation – a common crop in rural areas.
  • 18. DISPARITIES IN EMPLOYMENT
    • Summary of key ideas
    • Rural communities based about primary employment In Kigoma 91% work in agriculture.
    • Urban has more secondary and tertiary jobs In Dar Es Salaam 40% work in agriculture.
    Types of paid employment common in Tanzania include : Rural Urban Farm labourer Sales person Mechanic Taxi Driver Secretary Accountant Rural people selling food and other products to travellers on trains.
  • 19. In just an image can we see the difference between rural and Urban? just look for yourself… A group of children in Dar Es Salaam. A group of children in Chankele Village – Kigoma Region. What are the differences in these 2 photos – and therefore in these children's lives?
  • 20. SUMMARY OF KEY IDEAS
    • URBAN AREAS
    • Wealthier
    • Higher Literacy
    • Better health care
    • More developed infrastructure
    • Better housing conditions
    • More tertiary/secondary employment
    • Overall urban centres give people higher standard of living
    • RURAL AREAS
    • Poorer
    • Lower Literacy
    • Lower health care
    • Little infrastructure available
    • Poor standard of housing
    • Only primary employment (farming)
    • Overall rural areas have a lower standard of living