UNIT 4


PEOPLE & TERMS.
SECTION 1
Anglo-Saxonism
     •       Anglo-Saxons is the term usually used to describe the invading Germanic tribes in the south
  ...
Matthew C. Perry
•   Matthew Calbraith Perry was born
    in Newport, Rhode Island, on 10
    April 1794, son of Captain
 ...
•
           Queen Liliuokalani
             Queen Lili‘uokalani was born on September 2, 1838, in Honolulu.


She was the...
Pan-Americanism
According to Joseph B. Lockey, the closest
student of Pan-Americanism's early days, the
adjective "Pan-Ame...
a
                Alfred T. Mahan
 United States Navy flag officer,
geostrategist, and historian, who
has been called "the m...
Henry Cabot Lodge
         An American statesman,
         a Republican politician,
            and a noted historian.
   ...
SECTION 2
José Martí
    José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban
 national hero and an important figure...
William Randolph
      Hearst
       William Randolph Hearst was born on April 29, 1863,
             in San Francisco, Ca...
Joseph Pulitzer
Joseph Pulitzer, the son of a grain dealer, was born in
Budapest, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in April,...
Theodore Roosevelt
         Born in New York into one of the old
         Dutch families which had settled in
         Ame...
Platt Amendment
The Platt Amendment of 1901 was a rider appended to the
Army Appropriations Act presented to the U.S. Sena...
Section 3
Boxer Rebellion
Beginning in 1898, groups of peasants in
northern China began to band together into
a secret society known...
Great White Fleet
          The Great White Fleet was the
          popular nickname for the United
          States Navy ...
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
          In 1901 the United States and the United Kingdom signed the Hay-
          Pauncefote Trea...
The Roosevelt
 Corollarry
      The Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of the
      Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Th...
Works Cited
13, By May. "José Martí." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J...
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Chapter 4 Terms

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Chapter 4 Terms

  1. 1. UNIT 4 PEOPLE & TERMS.
  2. 2. SECTION 1
  3. 3. Anglo-Saxonism • Anglo-Saxons is the term usually used to describe the invading Germanic tribes in the south and east of Great Britain from the early 5th century AD, and their creation of the English nation, to the Norman conquest of 1066. The Benedictine monk, Bede, writing three centuries later, identified them as the descendants of three Germanic tribes: • The Angles, who may have come from Angeln (in modern Germany), and Bede wrote that their whole nation came to Britain, leaving their former land empty. The name England (Old English: Engla land or Ængla land) originates from this tribe). • The Saxons, from Lower Saxony (in modern Germany; German: Niedersachsen) and the Low Countries • The Jutes, possibly from the Jutland peninsula (in modern Denmark; Danish: Jylland) Their language, Old English, derives from "Ingvaeonic" West Germanic dialects and transformed into Middle English from the 11th century. Old English was divided into four main dialects: West Saxon, Mercian, Northumbrian and Kentish.
  4. 4. Matthew C. Perry • Matthew Calbraith Perry was born in Newport, Rhode Island, on 10 April 1794, son of Captain Christopher R. Perry, a distinguished officer of the Revolutionary War, and Sarah Wallace (Alexander) Perry. In 1814 he was married to Jan Sliddell, and they had ten children. He died in New York City, on 4 March 1858, and was interred in the vaults of the Church of St. Mark's-in-the-Bouwerie in New York. On 21 March 1866, the bodies of Commodore Perry and his child, Anna who died in 1839, were reinterred in Newport, Rhode Island.
  5. 5. • Queen Liliuokalani Queen Lili‘uokalani was born on September 2, 1838, in Honolulu. She was the daughter of high ranking chiefs Caesar Kapa‘akea and Anale‘a Keohokālole, and sister of David Kalākaua, Miriam Likelike and William Pitt Leleiōhoku.  Upon her birth she became the hanai child of chiefs Laura Konia and Abner Paki. She was given the name Lydia Lili‘u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka‘eha.  In her youth she was called "Lydia" or "Lili‘u" and then "Lili‘uokalani" when she became heir apparent.   Lili‘u married John O. Dominis on September 16, 1862.  They lived with his widowed mother at Washington Place, today the official residence of Hawai‘i's Governor.   In 1891 her brother, King Kalākaua, died and Lili‘uokalani succeeded to the throne.   Queen Lili‘uokalani sought to amend the constitution to restore some of the power lost during the reign of her brother. Local sugar planters and businessmen feared a loss of revenue and influence and instigated an overthrow. To avoid bloodshed, the Queen yielded her throne on January 17, 1893.  A provisional government was established. In 1895 Lili‘uokalani was imprisoned for eight months in ‘Iolani Palace for her alleged knowledge of a counterrevolutionary attempt by her supporters.   On September 6, 1896, Lili‘uokalani was released on parole, but she was forbidden to leave the island of O‘ahu. On May 18, 1896, at 6:30 a.m., Lili‘uokalani was baptized and confirmed by Bishop Willis into the Episcopal Church.  Though she had been a long-time member of Kawaiha‘o Church, she decided to leave citing the lack of pastoral care and support during her imprisonment. On July 7, 1898, President McKinley signed the resolution annexing Hawaii to the United States.   In her Deed of Trust dated December 2, 1909, which was later amended in 1911, Lili`uokalani entrusted her estate to provide for orphan and destitute children in the Hawaiian Islands, with preference for Hawaiian children. Her legacy is perpetuated through the Queen Lili`uokalani Children’s Center. Queen Lili‘uokalani died at Washington Place on November 11, 1917, at the age of 79.  After a state funeral, her remains were placed in the Royal Mausoleum
  6. 6. Pan-Americanism According to Joseph B. Lockey, the closest student of Pan-Americanism's early days, the adjective "Pan-American" was first employed by the New York Evening Post in 1882, and the noun "Pan-Americanism" was coined by that same journal in 1888. The convening of the first inter-American conference in Washington the next year led to wider usage of the first term about 1890 and popularization of Pan- Americanism in the early years of the twentieth century. While the terms have since become familiar expressions to most of the reading public in the Western Hemisphere, their connotations remain vague. Broadly defined, Pan-Americanism is cooperation between the Western Hemisphere nations in a variety of activities including economic, social, and cultural programs; declarations; alliances; and treaties—though some
  7. 7. a Alfred T. Mahan United States Navy flag officer, geostrategist, and historian, who has been called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that the most powerful navy will control the globe; it was most famously presented in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783 (1890). The concept had an enormous influence in shaping the strategic thought of navies across the world, especially in the United States, Germany, Japan and Britain. His ideas still permeate the U.S. Navy.
  8. 8. Henry Cabot Lodge An American statesman, a Republican politician, and a noted historian. While he did not claim the title, he is considered to be the first Senate majority leader.
  9. 9. SECTION 2
  10. 10. José Martí José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life he was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, and a political theorist. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba's bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence.[1]" He also fought against the threat of United States expansionism into Cuba. From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his murder was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt.
  11. 11. William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst was born on April 29, 1863, in San Francisco, California, as the only child of George Hearst, a self-made multimillionaire miner and rancher, and Phoebe Apperson Hearst. In 1887, at 23 he became "Proprietor" of the San Francisco Examiner which his father, George Hearst, accepted as payment for a gambling debt... In 1903, Mr. Hearst married Millicent Willson in New York City. The couple had five sons together during their marriage: George, William Randolph Jr., John and twins Randolph and David. Hearst died in Beverly Hills, Calif., on Aug. 14, 1951, at age 88. He is interred at the Cypress Lawn Cemetery in Colma, California.
  12. 12. Joseph Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer, the son of a grain dealer, was born in Budapest, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in April, 1847. He emigrated to the United States in 1864 and settled in St. Louis. He worked as a mule tender, waiter and hack driver before studying English at the Mercantile Library. In 1868 Pulitzer was recruited by Carl Schurz for his German-language daily, the Westliche Post. Pulitzer joined the Republican Party and was elected to the Missouri State Assembly. In 1872 he, like many Radical Republicans, supported Horace Greeley against Ulysses S. Grant, the official Republican candidate. Despite the efforts of Pulitzer and Carl Schurz in Missouri, Grant won the presidential election by 286 electoral votes to 66. In 1872 Pulitzer was able to purchase the St. Louis Post for $3,000. This venture was a success and six years later was able to buy the St. Louis Dispatch for $2,700. He combined the two newspapers and launched crusades against government corruption, lotteries, gambling, and tax fraud.
  13. 13. Theodore Roosevelt Born in New York into one of the old Dutch families which had settled in America in the seventeenth century. At eighteen he entered Harvard College and spent four years there, dividing his time between books and sport and excelling at both. After leaving Harvard he studied in Germany for almost a year and then immediately entered politics. He was elected to the Assembly of New York State, holding office for three years and distinguishing himself as an ardent reformer.
  14. 14. Platt Amendment The Platt Amendment of 1901 was a rider appended to the Army Appropriations Act presented to the U.S. Senate by Connecticut Republican Senator Orville H. Platt (1827– 1905) replacing the earlier Teller Amendment. The amendment stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba after the Spanish- American War, and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations. The Amendment ensured U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs, both foreign and domestic, and gave legal standing to U.S. claims to certain economic and military territories on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
  15. 15. Section 3
  16. 16. Boxer Rebellion Beginning in 1898, groups of peasants in northern China began to band together into a secret society known as I-ho ch'üan ("Righteous and Harmonious Fists"), called the "Boxers" by Western press. Members of the secret society practiced boxing and calisthenic rituals (hence the nickname, the "Boxers") which they believed would make them impervious to bullets. At first, the Boxers wanted to destroy the Ch'ing dynasty (which had ruled China for over 250 years) and wanted to rid China of all foreign influence (which they considered a threat to Chinese culture). When the Empress Dowager backed the Boxers, the Boxers turned solely to ridding China of foreigners.
  17. 17. Great White Fleet The Great White Fleet was the popular nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. It consisted of 16 battleships divided into two squadrons, along with various escorts. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water navy capability.
  18. 18. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty In 1901 the United States and the United Kingdom signed the Hay- Pauncefote Treaty. This agreement nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across Central America, connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. The British, recognizing their diminishing influence in the region and cultivating friendship with the United States as a counterweight to Germany, stepped aside in the treaty to permit a solely U.S.-run canal. This occurred under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. The treaty was negotiated under the table by United States Secretary of State, John Hay, and the British Ambassador to the United States, Lord Pauncefote. This treaty, though it handed all canal-building power over to the United States, provided that all nations will be allowed to freely use and access the canal and that the canal should never be taken by force.
  19. 19. The Roosevelt Corollarry The Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the United States to intervene to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts. The alternative, according to the U.S. assumptions, was intervention by European powers, especially Great Britain and France, which had lent money to countries that were unable to repay. As with many high-risk investments, these loans were made with the lenders fully aware of the financial difficulties these countries were going through, and they were part of a broader campaign to gain economic control of nations with unstable economies. The catalyst for the new policy was the British and German gunboat diplomacy in the
  20. 20. Works Cited 13, By May. "José Martí." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/José_Martí>. "Alfred Thayer Mahan." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Thayer_Mahan>. "Anglo-Saxons." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxons>. "Biography - Commodore Matthew C. Perry." Naval History and Heritage Command. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.history.navy.mil/bios/perry_mc.htm>. "Dipity Timelines - Kelly Gleason - Topics." Dipity - Find, Create, and Embed Interactive Timelines. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.dipity.com/mannfordenglish/ topics>. "File:Foreign Armies in Beijing during Boxer Rebellion.jpg." Wikimedia Commons. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Foreign_armies_in_Beijing_during_Boxer_Rebellion.jpg>. "Graphic Witness: Frederick Opper." Graphic Witness: Visual Arts & Social Commentary. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.graphicwitness.org/historic/op69.htm>. "Great White Fleet." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_White_Fleet>. "Hay–Pauncefote Treaty." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hay–Pauncefote_Treaty>. "Henry Cabot Lodge." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Cabot_Lodge>. Jeff, By. "William Randolph Hearst [1863-1951]." Zpub. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// www.zpub.com/sf/history/willh.html>. "Joseph Pulitzer." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jpulitzer.htm>. "Platt Amendment." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platt_Amendment>. "Queen Lili‘uokalani." QLCC - Queen Lili‘uokalani Children's Center. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.qlcc.org/queen.htm>. "Roosevelt Corollary." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roosevelt_Corollary>. Rosenberg, By Jennifer. "Boxer Rebellion - A History of the Boxer Rebellion." 20th

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