Sgcp14ford

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Talk delivered at CIR Series http://www.hvm-uk.com/events/register/

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Sgcp14ford

  1. 1. Renewables and storage, markets and intermittency Graham Ford Mansion Ecopartners 1 6th Smart Grids & Cleanpower Conference 3-4 June 2014, Cambridge, UK www.hvm-uk.com
  2. 2. Four Questions ? ? ? ? 2
  3. 3. 1. What contribution can renewables and storage make to powering the UK electricity grid? 3
  4. 4. 2. What storage technologies make sense for this role? 4
  5. 5. 3. Under what market conditions might they be implemented? 5
  6. 6. 4. What keeps the lights on? 6
  7. 7. Pathways to a lower carbon generation mix 7 RENEWABLES EFFICIENCY NUCLEAR CCS
  8. 8. Generation Issues Intermittency! Cost! 8 RENEWABLES EFFICIENCY NUCLEAR CCS Penetration! Cost! Safety! Capacity! Cost! Capacity! Workable? Cost!
  9. 9. Notes from Another Island Caribbean Island: Peak demand = X Average demand = X/2 • PV rating = X • Power storage rating = X/4 • Autonomy = 3 h (6 h @ X/4) • Stable • 30% fuel saving 9
  10. 10. 10 Notes from Another Island Caribbean Island: Peak demand = X Average demand = X/2 • PV rating = X • Power storage rating = X/4 • Autonomy = 3 h (6 h @ X/4) • Stable grid • 30% fuel saving JUST ONE PROJECT
  11. 11. Sources of value in the UK 11 Absorbing the peak output: • Less curtailment of renewables Meeting the peak demand: • Savings in high cost CCS CAPEX • Savings in distribution Greatest value – distributed storage.
  12. 12. Value potential 12 3.5 GW 2030 2050 £2bn/y 11 GW £11 bn/y Cost of storage £200/kW-year (Source: www.carbontrust.com/media/129310/energy-storage-systems-role-value-strategic-assessment.pdf)
  13. 13. 13 Lithium-Ion Fuel cells VR Flow Battery Pumped-hydro/CAES Lead-Acid 1 GW 100 MW 10 MW 1 MW 100 kW 10 kW 1 kW Seconds Minutes 1-2 hours 3-12 hours Day Month Duration Power Flywheels Mature Deployment Demonstration Grid RE Domestic RE Commercial RE Grid Storage UPS Efficiency range Fuel Cells 25-45% Lithium 85-08% Lead Acid 60-80% Fly Wheel 70-95% Comp Air 40-75% VR Flow Batt 75% Pump Hyd 70-85% Grid Services
  14. 14. Which storage technologies? 14 Electrochemical batteries Thermal Compressed air Pumped hydro Planning! Cost! Efficiency! Cost! Efficiency! Cost! Resources! Cost!
  15. 15. What storage technologies? 15 VRFB Zinc Bromine Lead Acid Nickel Cadmium Lithium Ion Sodium Nickel Chloride 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Cyclescharge/discharge Round trip efficiency Performance comparison – Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries vs other electrochemical batteries
  16. 16. 16 Key features for reliability  Power and energy independent - scalable up to 10MW , 6+ hours duration  Very low maintenance – Symmetrical Vanadium chemistry tolerates cross membrane mixing  Safe operation – non flammable reactants operating at ambient temperatures, environmentally sound, fully recyclable  Very long life >10,000 cycles. Electrolyte has 20 year life, reusable, with high residual value Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
  17. 17. Vanadium Resources Mined: – 76,000 tonnes/year Petcoke potential: 100,000 – 200,000 t/y Identified resources – 63,000,000 tonnes World demand for storage by 2050: 300 W-h/person, equivalent to 14,000,000 tonnes vanadium. UK market for storage by 2050: 400 W-h/person equivalent to 160,000 tonnes vanadium. 17
  18. 18. Modular distributed power storage 18 60 kWe/3 hour battery unit Augment to 90 kWe for 15 minutes Link in 1 MWe sets Site maintenance Remote monitoring 20 year expected life
  19. 19. Can Vanadium Flow Batteries provide grid- scale storage for distributed power storage? • £200/kW-year will be achieved before 2030: • Design optimisation • Volume production • Recycled materials • Excluding financing costs, £200/kW-year already achieved. 19
  20. 20. Market Conditions for Storage 1. Commitment to carbon reductions 2. High cost of CCS 3. Low cost of wind and solar 4. Low cost of storage 5. Rapid supply of storage 6. Market mechanisms reflect full value of storage 20
  21. 21. Start where the grid is weak 21
  22. 22. Balancing generation • Gas based generation – conventional • Coal based generation with CCS • Efficiency • Demand-side management • More interconnection • Nuclear 22
  23. 23. Renewables, storage and the rest • Addition of storage will tend to crowd out gas-fired CCS, due to lower cost of storage • More than half of the UK generation capacity could be renewables by 2050 • Storage capacity >4% of grid capacity by 2050 • Storage matches wind variability to generation agility to preserve grid stability. 23
  24. 24. Advantages of renewables+storage pathway • Rapid implementation • Competitive • Least regrets • Home grown (more balance to the economy) • Compatible with alternatives if these are also successful 24
  25. 25. One Big Happy Battery 25 gf.mansion@gmail.com

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