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www.hvm-uk.com 2014 Talk at HVM Graphene+ Oxford

www.hvm-uk.com 2014 Talk at HVM Graphene+ Oxford

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  • 1. HVM Graphene + Conference, Oxford, UK www.hvm-uk.com 15.5.2014 Gavin Farmer, Carbodeon Carbodeon NanoDiamond Materials: “Hard as Hell, but Cooler” @carbodeon Carbodeon Ltd. Oy.
  • 2. Material selection: Compromise….. Won’t meet next gen. product specs Not strong enough Too brittle Wrong Thermal properties Regulatory Issues Doesn’t fit manufacturing process Some other problem Too expensive Material selection: Compromise…..
  • 3. Material design: Combine….. ……. and Optimise Extreme material Compromise material Optimised properties, process, cost. Too expensiveBase Material Something Extreme! Selected ratio Property combination Structural effects
  • 4. Carbodeon NanoDiamond – Extreme Material. Strength Hardness Surface Friction Chemically Inert Optical Properties Dielectric Thermal Conductivity With some unusual combinations
  • 5. Where, What, & How Polymer Coatings Thermal Polymers Nicanite® Carbon Nitride Plating and Anodising
  • 6. Plating and Anodising  Nanodiamond suspension or dispersion added to solutions  Finer grain structure + embedded hard particles 1. Industrial machine parts with hard chrome: durability improved from 3.5 to 5.5 years 2. Gold plated electrical connectors: wear performance improved by 100% 3. Electroless nickel: Abrasion resistance tripled
  • 7. Polymer Coatings  NanoDiamond powder, suspension, or dispersion  Hard particles bonded to parent material.  Polymer reinforced/ restructured at molecular scale 1. PTFE and FEP coatings – aqueous and solvent. Wear improvement up to 50% Friction reduction up to 66% Surface finish improved 85% 2. Consumer product: unnamed coating formulations on unnamed products: Wear performance improved by >3X
  • 8. Thermal Management  Nanodiamond powders added to existing polymers & composites  Thermal conductivity without compromise to other properties Electronics & LED – TIM & Heat sinks: Thermal, dielectric and structural properties Thermoplastic Development: Thermal conductivity increased >25% with 0.1wt% NanoDiamond Low Carbon Vehicles: Additional Structural, frictional, lightweighting &Tg improvements
  • 9. Where, What, & How  Detonation Produced Nanodiamond – 4-6 nm diamond particles  Proven industrial process: tonnes/ yr scale  With surface functional groups  Graphitic facets Sp3 Diamond Core
  • 10. uDiamond® Portfolio - Vivace Suspension and Andante Dispersion  uDiamond Vivace • A zeta-positive, 5 wt.% aqueous ND suspension • Agglomerated, zeta potential up to + 37 mV • Standard grade for plating within acidic region  uDiamond Andante • A zeta-positive, 5 wt.% aqueous ND dispersion • Dispersion stable within pH range of 3 to 6 • Zeta potential up to + 52 mV • Solvents including Di-Ethylene Glycol Dispersion stable within pH 3 to 6 Singe Digit ND Dispersion D90 = 4.6 nm 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 6 11 Zetapotential(mV) pH Andante ZP (mV) -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 1 6 11 ZetaPotential(mV) pH Vivace ZP (mV)
  • 11. Vivace, Andante, Andante (Diluted)
  • 12. uDiamond® Portfolio - Vox D  A new, patented highly zeta negative nanodiamond dispersion • Fully carboxylated surface • Zeta potentials up to -71 mV • Dispersion stable in pH 5 to 12  Solvents • Aqueous, 5 wt.% • NMP, 2 wt % • NEP, 1 wt% • GBL, other solvents on the way  Applications • Paints, resins, fluoropolymer COOH -80.0 -70.0 -60.0 -50.0 -40.0 -30.0 -20.0 -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 1.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0 zp(mV) pH Robust stability within pH 5 to 12 Singe Digit ND Dispersion D90 = 6.61 nm Particle size distribution Dispersion stability in pH range 2 to 13
  • 13. uDiamond® Portfolio  Options for surface chemistry and morphology  Powders - agglomerated clusters of NanoDiamonds in >100nm scale. Used where no compatible solvent available, e.g. certain thermal polymers.  Suspensions – smaller agglomerates in liquid, easier to incorporate.  Dispersions – single digit 4-6 nm particles in stable dispersion Very easy dispersion – direct mixing Increased surface area Low concentrations 0.05-1.0wt%, <1g/litre (in cases) Paints, resins with no visual effects Choice of Solvents Also for electroplating @ pH>3
  • 14. Where, What, & How Property Requirements, Test Methods, Economics Material and Process Understanding NanoDiamond Material Selection Dispersion Methods & Process Optimisation Communication
  • 15. Where, What, & How Unfortunately, it isn’t as simple as this!
  • 16. Example Application - Electroplating  NanoDiamonds result in a denser, less cracked/ porpous stucture leading to improved corrosion resistance.  Agglomerated NanoDiamond – 100nm plus scale Cracks in conventional coating. NanoDiamond reinforced coating with reduced cracking. 50µm
  • 17. uDiamond® Vivace With CrVI Conventional Hard Chrome High Performance Hard Chrome Typical uDiamond® Vivace Hard Chrome Optimised uDiamond® Vivace Hard Chrome 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Microhardness (HV) Conventional Hard Chrome High Performance Hard Chrome Typical uDiamond® Vivace Hard Chrome Optimised uDiamond® Vivace Hard Chrome 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wear Rate (weight loss%) Conventional Hard Chrome High Performance Hard Chrome Typical uDiamond® Vivace Hard Chrome Optimised uDiamond® Vivace Hard Chrome 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Corrosion Rate (g/m2.yr)  Key improvements: • Microhardness: 20-50% • Wear resistance: >100% • Corrosion resistance: 50-100% • Friction coefficient: -30%  Hurdle: • 10g/litre agglomerated NanoDiamond
  • 18. uDiamond® Andante in Electroless Nickel  Medium phosphorous electroless nickel  No agglomeration – single digit dispersion  Annealing at 350 °C  Nanodiamond surface functionalization has a big impact in electroless processes 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 Microhardness[HV] ND concentration [g/l] As-deposited Annealed Microhardness of electroless nickel with and without ND’s. Annealing at 350 °C.
  • 19. Introducing Carbodeon’s Plating Lab  Material analysis – wear testing  Electroless & Electrolytic Nickel  Trivalent Chromium
  • 20. SEM-images of 0,05 g/l ND containing E/N samples 4µm 400nm
  • 21. Electroless Nickel – Preliminary in-house test results  Medium phosphorous (P = 5-9%)  No heat treatment  Wear resistance measured using Taber 5135, CS-10 rolls ,1 kg load  TWI = average weight loss [mg] / 1000 revolutions  Small change in hardness, large change in wear resistance  Diamond composition in the plating is approx 0.2-0.4wt%  Diamond cost is lower than the Nickel cost 0 g/l 0,05 g/l 0,1 g/l TWI 18.2 5.6 6.8 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 Average Taber Wear Indexes of Electroless Nickel with various ND-concentrations
  • 22. Example Coating Application NanoDiamond-Fluoropolymer Coatings Over 500 samples made and tested to date. Suspension grade: Improvements made, based on around 2wt% addition. Dispersion grade: Matching improvements made using 0.05-0.25wt% Friction, Wear and Surface Finish Improvements Reference With ND’s 50µm 50µm 1.0mm 1.0mm
  • 23. Wear Properties – PTFE (Aqueous)  ND concentrations, in final coatings • Agglomerating grade, 1 wt.% • Single Digit grade, 0.1 wt.%  Wear properties studied up to 2000-3500 cycles  Up to 50% improvement in wear properties , up to 66% friction reduction 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Massreduction(mg) Cycles PTFE_REF - #1 PTFE_KT - #1 PTFE_Ktsingle - #1 REF. PTFE 1.0wt% AGGLOM. ND 0.1wt% SINGLE DIGIT DISPERSION Taber analyses
  • 24. Friction Properties – PTFE (Aq) Example  Friction tests with Allegro ND – not the latest single digit dispersion  ND concentrations varied between 0.1 to 3.0 wt.%  Significant improvements already with very low ND additions  66% reduction received with 2 wt.% ND concentration 0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160 1R 0.1 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 Frictioncoefficient ND concentration (wt.%) Allegro Friction coefficient averages
  • 25. Friction - Wear Collection Plating, coatings, nanocomposites  Powertrain components (friction, wear)  Chassis components (friction, corrosion, elastomer properties)  Interior & Exterior (wear resistant resins & coatings, high performance composites)  Automotive, Aerospace & Defence, Industrial, Electronics etc.
  • 26. Carbodeon – Providing You a Unique Advantage through New Materials Application Techniques Material Technology Unique Customer Value Cooperative Projects Contact Us! gavin.farmer@carbodeon.com / +44 7768 587105