Defense (6.14.13)

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  • New definition adapted from World Bank 2007 The application of “knowledge of all types to achieve social and economic” goals that are new and novel to the farmer regardless of whether it is new to others across the nation or the world. It doesn ’t have to be something that nobody has ever done. It just has to be something that you haven’t done. Innovation is novelty
  • New definition adapted from World Bank 2007 The application of “knowledge of all types to achieve social and economic” goals that are new and novel to the farmer regardless of whether it is new to others across the nation or the world. It doesn ’t have to be something that nobody has ever done. It just has to be something that you haven’t done. Innovation is novelty
  • Embedded Participatory research
  • Occurs during the depression – 1929-1939 By 1940’s over 75% of Iowan corn farmers had adopted – rapid diffusion One of the most successful innovation diffusions. Research question -How social relationships with neighbors influence the decision to adopt 95% of today’s corn acreage is hybrid corn
  • Steepness of the curve affected by a range of factors including characteristics of innovations, characteristics of adopters, and communication networks
  • Progression through these stages is influenced by characteristics of adopters, perceived attributes of the innovation, and information through communication networks.
  • Same data on a frequency rather than cumulative curve. Used to predict innovation diffusion and adoption patterns
  • RELATIVE ADVANTAGE - Examples: economic benefits, less time/effort, low initial costs, immediacy of benefits and social prestige. Considered one of the best predictors of adoption. COMPATIBILITY - When new ideas clash with old ideas, adoption can be slowed. COMPLEXITY - Innovations with greater complexity are generally adopted at a slower rate. TRIALABILITY - D iffusion is more rapid if the practice is conducive to experimentation under “one’s own conditions” most important in the early phases of diffusion. You know what ’s missing from this list is Adaptability. All innovations are adaptable. Rogers does point out that initially they failed to look at the importance of re-invention, addressing that innovations are not static
  • RELATIVE ADVANTAGE - Examples: economic benefits, less time/effort, low initial costs, immediacy of benefits and social prestige. Considered one of the best predictors of adoption. COMPATIBILITY - When new ideas clash with old ideas, adoption can be slowed. COMPLEXITY - Innovations with greater complexity are generally adopted at a slower rate. TRIALABILITY - D iffusion is more rapid if the practice is conducive to experimentation under “one’s own conditions” most important in the early phases of diffusion. You know what ’s missing from this list is Adaptability. All innovations are adaptable. Rogers does point out that initially they failed to look at the importance of re-invention, addressing that innovations are not static
  • Essentially this typology is also a means to assess practices adopted to address needs. There are many other needs identified on farms that are not addressed by adopted innovations, but innovations may suggest some degree of importance.
  • It ’s not necessarily the one’s that occur on the most farms. Perhaps it’s the ones that solve the most problems. What about the innovations that aren ’t very applicable but are extremely forward thinking – like Biochar
  • Research is unknown to help support or deny the results of the practice. Of all practices observed this one is also most problematic in how it treats the soil resource. Does it enhance or does it deplete the resource? Can microbial priming speed up Carbon loss? Or does it just activate passive Carbon pools. Is this harmful? Highest benefits may be realized on largest farms that will have trouble moving giant volumes of compost.
  • RELATIVE ADVANTAGE - Examples: economic benefits, less time/effort, low initial costs, immediacy of benefits and social prestige. Considered one of the best predictors of adoption. COMPATIBILITY - When new ideas clash with old ideas, adoption can be slowed. COMPLEXITY - Innovations with greater complexity are generally adopted at a slower rate. TRIALABILITY - D iffusion is more rapid if the practice is conducive to experimentation under “one’s own conditions” most important in the early phases of diffusion. You know what ’s missing from this list is Adaptability. All innovations are adaptable. Rogers does point out that initially they failed to look at the importance of re-invention, addressing that innovations are not static
  • RELATIVE ADVANTAGE - Examples: economic benefits, less time/effort, low initial costs, immediacy of benefits and social prestige. Considered one of the best predictors of adoption. COMPATIBILITY - When new ideas clash with old ideas, adoption can be slowed. COMPLEXITY - Innovations with greater complexity are generally adopted at a slower rate. TRIALABILITY - D iffusion is more rapid if the practice is conducive to experimentation under “one’s own conditions” most important in the early phases of diffusion. You know what ’s missing from this list is Adaptability. All innovations are adaptable. Rogers does point out that initially they failed to look at the importance of re-invention, addressing that innovations are not static
  • RELATIVE ADVANTAGE - Examples: economic benefits, less time/effort, low initial costs, immediacy of benefits and social prestige. Considered one of the best predictors of adoption. COMPATIBILITY - When new ideas clash with old ideas, adoption can be slowed. COMPLEXITY - Innovations with greater complexity are generally adopted at a slower rate. TRIALABILITY - D iffusion is more rapid if the practice is conducive to experimentation under “one’s own conditions” most important in the early phases of diffusion. You know what ’s missing from this list is Adaptability. All innovations are adaptable. Rogers does point out that initially they failed to look at the importance of re-invention, addressing that innovations are not static
  • It ’s not necessarily the one’s that occur on the most farms. Perhaps it’s the ones that solve the most problems. What about the innovations that aren ’t very applicable but are extremely forward thinking – like Biochar
  • Grounded theory approach
  • Similarly
  • Defense (6.14.13)

    1. 1. Sustainable farmer innovationsSustainable farmer innovationsin emerging local food systems:in emerging local food systems:Farmers as innovators not adoptersFarmers as innovators not adoptersPhD DefenseJustin EllisJune 14, 2013
    2. 2. What is Innovation in Agriculture?What is Innovation in Agriculture?ConventionalConventionalViewViewAlternative ViewAlternative ViewWhatWhat Often TechnologyOften TechnologyorientedorientedIncludes any tools thatIncludes any tools thataddress the problemaddress the problemWhyWhy Focused on commodityFocused on commodityyields and profitabilityyields and profitabilityAddress broader problems ofAddress broader problems ofsocial, environmental andsocial, environmental andeconomic challengeseconomic challengesHowHow Diffusion occurs throughDiffusion occurs throughtechnology transfer bytechnology transfer byinformation authoritiesinformation authoritiesInnovation adaptation andInnovation adaptation anddevelopment are asdevelopment are asimportant as Diffusionimportant as DiffusionA unique or novel solution to problemsthat is new to the user regardless if it is new to the world
    3. 3. Technology Transfer ModelResearchResearchExtensionExtensionFarmersFarmersNeeds
    4. 4. The Local Food System of Northeast GeorgiaThe Local Food System of Northeast GeorgiaNCSCWhiteWhiteHabershamHabershamRabunRabunFocus on•Sustainability•Small scale•Resource limited•Newer farms
    5. 5. Change question fromChange question fromWhy do farmers adopt?Why do farmers adopt?totoWhy do farmers innovate?Why do farmers innovate?What do farmers innovate?What do farmers innovate?How do farmers innovate?How do farmers innovate?Production Marketing NetworkingInnovation InventoryInnovation InventoryInnovation TypologyInnovation TypologyAdaptation andAdaptation andDevelopmentDevelopmentProcessesProcesses
    6. 6. • Hybrid seed introduced in the ’30’s• Positives + improved vigor, disease anddrought resistance, 20% higher yields.• Negatives - inability to reproduce and cost• Ryan and Gross (Iowa State -1943) studied thediffusion of hybrid seed corn amongst farmersto understand how innovations are spread. Inspecting ears of hybrid seedcorn. Iowa, 1939. IPTV.orgThe Diffusion of InnovationsThe Diffusion of InnovationsHybrid Seed CornHybrid Seed CornA historical perspectiveA historical perspectiveon the study of agricultural innovationson the study of agricultural innovations
    7. 7. Innovation Diffusion theoryInnovation Diffusion theoryPATTERNPATTERN MANIFESTATIONMANIFESTATIONRate of AdoptionRate of Adoption Follows S curveFollows S curveStarts slowStarts slowIncreases rapidly afterIncreases rapidly after10%-15% adoption10%-15% adoptionStages ofStages ofAdoptionAdoptionCategories ofCategories ofAdoptersAdoptersAttributes ofAttributes ofInnovationsInnovationsCritiqueCritique• Emphasis is on Adoption• Single innovations• Assumes adoption is good for all
    8. 8. PATTERNPATTERN MANIFESTATIONMANIFESTATIONRate of AdoptionRate of Adoption Follows S curveFollows S curveStarts slowStarts slowIncreases rapidly afterIncreases rapidly after10%-15% adoption10%-15% adoptionStages ofStages ofAdoptionAdoptionAdoption is an indvidualAdoption is an indvidualprocessprocessCategories ofCategories ofAdoptersAdoptersAttributes ofAttributes ofInnovationsInnovationsStages of AdoptionStages of AdoptionInnovation Diffusion theoryInnovation Diffusion theoryCritiqueCritique• Assumes innovations should beadopted by all (pro innovation bias)• Little discussion of adaptations orre-invention
    9. 9. PATTERNPATTERN MANIFESTATIONMANIFESTATIONRate of AdoptionRate of Adoption Follows S curveFollows S curveStarts slowStarts slowIncreases rapidly afterIncreases rapidly after10%-15% adoption10%-15% adoptionStages ofStages ofAdoptionAdoptionAdoption is an individualAdoption is an individualprocessprocessCategories ofCategories ofAdoptersAdoptersAdopters at differentAdopters at differentphases sharephases sharecharacteristicscharacteristicsAttributes ofAttributes ofInnovationsInnovationsInnovation Diffusion theoryInnovation Diffusion theoryCritiqueCritique• Blames non-adopters (individualblame bias).• Non-adoption not due to problemswith the innovation or its effects.• Issues with Equality• Bias in favor of wealthy farms
    10. 10. PATTERNPATTERN MANIFESTATIONMANIFESTATIONRate of AdoptionRate of Adoption Follows S curveFollows S curveStarts slowStarts slowIncreases rapidly afterIncreases rapidly after10%-15% adoption10%-15% adoptionStages ofStages ofAdoptionAdoptionAdoption is an individualAdoption is an individualprocessprocessCategories ofCategories ofAdoptersAdoptersAdopters at differentAdopters at differentphases sharephases sharecharacteristicscharacteristicsAttributes ofAttributes ofInnovationsInnovationsQualities of innovationsQualities of innovationsaffect adoption ratesaffect adoption ratesInnovation Diffusion theoryInnovation Diffusion theory
    11. 11. Attributes of InnovationsAttributes of InnovationsRelative AdvantageBenefits above and beyond those offered byexisting practices.Compatibility Consistent with existing needs, previous ideas, andindividual and cultural values.Complexity Extent to which an innovation is considereddifficult to understand and implement.Trialability Extent to which an innovation can beexperimented with on a limited basis.Observability Extent to which an innovation can be seen byothers.Innovation Diffusion theoryInnovation Diffusion theoryCritiqueCritique• Only assesses innovations according to their adoptiveness• Doesn’t address adaptability (or sustainability)
    12. 12. Participant ObservationParticipant Observation• 36 farms visited – 28 included in study• 240 hours of participant observation• Semi-structured interviews• Participatory Action Research in years 2-4Or in this case “Or in this case “Agroecologist!Agroecologist!””
    13. 13. Innovation InventoryInnovation InventoryBlackberry stakes with washeradaptation for stationary wireMulched rows withclover cover crop inthe pathsBody SavingBetter PerformanceWeed controlSOM / FertilityWheel hoeAmish stool
    14. 14. Innovation InventoryInnovation InventorySeason ExtensionCost saving, timesaving, body saving,nutrient cyclingFood SafetyIrrigationChicken WagonCob FurnaceSand Filter
    15. 15. Innovation InventoryInnovation InventoryTime SavingSeason ExtensionCost SavingsPlanting MarkerHigh Tunnels andPipe BendersInsect ControlParasitic Wasps
    16. 16. Innovation AnalysisInnovation Analysiscategorized by “challenges designed to address”
    17. 17. ProductionInnovationsNetwork /Knowledge /Marketing1. Time Saving2. Cost Saving3. Energy Saving4. Recycled / Reuse5. Body / Labor Saving6. Better Performance7. Yield Enhancement8. SOM (soil organic matter) Management and Soil Amendment9. Nutrient Cycling10. Irrigation / Watering11. Season Extension12. Insect / Pest / Disease Control13. Weed Control14. Harvest / Product Quality15. Manufactured Equipment16. Livestock / Animal Management17. Labor Assistance18. Assessment Planning19. Outside Income20. Quality of Life / Lifestyle21. Feedback22. Network / Organizational23. Farmer Training / Knowledge24. Crop / Food Types and Uses25. Marketing26. Income Enhancement27. Food Processing28. Food Policy29. Food SafetyLabor /Planning/ LifestyleFoodProcessing /SafetyInnovation TypesInnovation Types
    18. 18. Innovation TypologyInnovation TypologyIndicatesIndicates marketingmarketing andandnetworkingnetworking innovationsinnovationsare as common as someare as common as someproductionproduction innovationsinnovationsSuggests where farmersSuggests where farmersin a food system arein a food system areinvesting in solutions toinvesting in solutions toproblemsproblemsDoes notDoes not tell us whichtell us whichinnovations are mostinnovations are mostimportantimportant
    19. 19. Type Category Occurrence RankBetter performance Production 62 1Cost Saving Production 58 2Marketing Network / Knowledge / Marketing 55 3Network / Organizational Network / Knowledge / Marketing 40 4Body / Labor Saving Production 30 5Crop / Food Types and Uses Network / Knowledge / Marketing 29 6Time Saving Production 27 7Yield Enhancement Production 26 8SOM management / soil amendment Production 26 9Season Extension Production 25 10Insect / Disease Control Production 24 11Manufactured equipment Production 23 12Nutrient Cycling Production 22 13Harvest / Product Quality Production 22 14Recycled/Reuse Production 19 15Income Enhancement Network / Knowledge / Marketing 18 16Weed / Control Production 17 17Assessment Planning Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 15 18Farmer Training / Knowledge Network / Knowledge / Marketing 15 19Food Processing Food Processing / Safety 12 20Irrigation / Watering Production 10 21Livestock/Animal Management Production 10 22Outside Income/ Grants Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 10 23Quality of Life / Lifestyle Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 9 24Feedback Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 7 25Labor assistance Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 6 26Energy Saving Production 5 27Food Safety Innovation Food Processing / Safety 5 28Food Policy Food Processing / Safety 3 29Homemade Greenhousesn=5Greenhouse Case StudyGreenhouse Case StudyPipe BenderExample of aCOST SAVINGSInnovation
    20. 20. Type Category Occurrence RankBetter performance Production 62 1Cost Saving Production 58 2Marketing Network / Knowledge / Marketing 55 3Network / Organizational Network / Knowledge / Marketing 40 4Body / Labor Saving Production 30 5Crop / Food Types and Uses Network / Knowledge / Marketing 29 6Time Saving Production 27 7Yield Enhancement Production 26 8SOM management / soil amendment Production 26 9Season Extension Production 25 10Insect / Disease Control Production 24 11Manufactured equipment Production 23 12Nutrient Cycling Production 22 13Harvest / Product Quality Production 22 14Recycled/Reuse Production 19 15Income Enhancement Network / Knowledge / Marketing 18 16Weed / Control Production 17 17Assessment Planning Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 15 18Farmer Training / Knowledge Network / Knowledge / Marketing 15 19Food Processing Food Processing / Safety 12 20Irrigation / Watering Production 10 21Livestock/Animal Management Production 10 22Outside Income/ Grants Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 10 23Quality of Life / Lifestyle Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 9 24Feedback Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 7 25Labor assistance Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 6 26Energy Saving Production 5 27Food Safety Innovation Food Processing / Safety 5 28Food Policy Food Processing / Safety 3 29NRCS FundedGreenhousesn=6
    21. 21. Type Category Occurrence RankBetter performance Production 62 1Cost Saving Production 58 2Marketing Network / Knowledge / Marketing 55 3Network / Organizational Network / Knowledge / Marketing 40 4Body / Labor Saving Production 30 5Crop / Food Types and Uses Network / Knowledge / Marketing 29 6Time Saving Production 27 7Yield Enhancement Production 26 8SOM management / soil amendment Production 26 9Season Extension Production 25 10Insect / Disease Control Production 24 11Manufactured equipment Production 23 12Nutrient Cycling Production 22 13Harvest / Product Quality Production 22 14Recycled/Reuse Production 19 15Income Enhancement Network / Knowledge / Marketing 18 16Weed / Control Production 17 17Assessment Planning Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 15 18Farmer Training / Knowledge Network / Knowledge / Marketing 15 19Food Processing Food Processing / Safety 12 20Irrigation / Watering Production 10 21Livestock/Animal Management Production 10 22Outside Income/ Grants Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 10 23Quality of Life / Lifestyle Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 9 24Feedback Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 7 25Labor assistance Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 6 26Energy Saving Production 5 27Food Safety Innovation Food Processing / Safety 5 28Food Policy Food Processing / Safety 3 29• Primary Income Farms• What’s unique is the innovative use of capital.• No one purchased a kit.• Reducing costs with labor• Different types of growing environmentsTotal Square Feet and Material Costs of Greenhouses built by Farmsbetween 2009-2013
    22. 22. ``Type Category Occurrence RankBetter performance Production 62 1Cost Saving Production 58 2Marketing Network / Knowledge / Marketing 55 3Network / Organizational Network / Knowledge / Marketing 40 4Body / Labor Saving Production 30 5Crop / Food Types and Uses Network / Knowledge / Marketing 29 6Time Saving Production 27 7Yield Enhancement Production 26 8SOM management / soil amendment Production 26 9Season Extension Production 25 10Insect / Disease Control Production 24 11Manufactured equipment Production 23 12Nutrient Cycling Production 22 13Harvest / Product Quality Production 22 14Recycled/Reuse Production 19 15Income Enhancement Network / Knowledge / Marketing 18 16Weed / Control Production 17 17Assessment Planning Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 15 18Farmer Training / Knowledge Network / Knowledge / Marketing 15 19Food Processing Food Processing / Safety 12 20Irrigation / Watering Production 10 21Livestock/Animal Management Production 10 22Outside Income/ Grants Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 10 23Quality of Life / Lifestyle Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 9 24Feedback Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 7 25Labor assistance Labor / Planning / Lifestyle 6 26Energy Saving Production 5 27Food Safety Innovation Food Processing / Safety 5 28Food Policy Food Processing / Safety 3 29Basement GrowingCob FurnaceAlternative HeatAlternative HeatSeason ExtensionSeason ExtensionCase StudyCase Study• Only occur on one farm• Growing Year Round• Will People Adopt?• System Level Innovations
    23. 23. Identifying Key InnovationsIdentifying Key InnovationsInnovation PracticesInnovationtypes addressedCompost Tea 9Aquaponics system 8Compost Tea 8NRCS Rainwater irrigation system 8Compost Tea 8Compost Slurry 8CSA shares system / Cafeteria Style 7Impact Grazing 7Using cardboard / hay for weedsuppression 7Focusing on Locally Grown internetmarket 7On-farm Farmers Market 7Locally Grown market 7Basement growing using grow lights 7Well and watering lines Grant 6NRCS high tunnel and irrigationgrants 6Biodynamic treatments 6NRCS Irrigation system 6Recycled Black Plastic under tomatoes 6Use of inexpensive tunnels 6Locally Grown market 6• Which innovations address themost problems?• Which innovations have widestapplicability?• Which innovations moststrongly shape farmmanagement?• Which innovations are shapingthe local food system as awhole?Specific Innovations and the number of innovationtypes they address
    24. 24. Compost Tea Case StudyCompost Tea Case StudySoil Food Web Priming Techniquescompost teas / slurries• Occurence – 4 of 28 farms• Source – Local specialists (& Dr. Elaine Ingham)• Impact – Addressed broadest # of productionneeds (9)• Adaptation – variations in recipes, applicationequipment• Performance – strong• Benefits - yes• Replicability – maybe (Research?) lowcommunication on the practice.• Process of Innovation Development – challengeshave included sifting debris from compost, notknowing when the microbial flush is activeExample of a Key InnovationExample of a Key Innovation
    25. 25. Compost Tea throughCompost Tea throughthe Attributes of Innovationsthe Attributes of InnovationsRelative Advantage Benefits are numerous and immediate.Compatibility StrongComplexityRelatively complex• Requires specialized equipment• Microbes are difficult / impossible to measureTrialability Strong. Most farms that had a trial adopted.Observability Somewhat of a challenge
    26. 26. Compost Tea throughCompost Tea throughthe Attributes of Innovationsthe Attributes of InnovationsRelative Advantage Benefits are numerous and immediate.Compatibility StrongComplexityRelatively complex• Requires specialized equipment• Microbes are difficult / impossible to measureTrialability Strong. Most farms that had a trial adopted.Observability Somewhat of a challengeAdaptabilityAdaptabilityExtent to which an innovation can be modified orExtent to which an innovation can be modified orimproved in order to better address the specificimproved in order to better address the specificcontexts, problems and challenges in a setting.contexts, problems and challenges in a setting.
    27. 27. Compost TeaCompost TeaKey Innovations analysisKey Innovations analysisDoes the innovation address the mostproblems? YESDoes the innovation have wideapplicability? YES, though not widelyadoptedDoes the innovations have the potentialto strongly shape farm management? YES, it is a system levelinnovationDoes the innovation have the potential toshape the local food system as awhole? YES
    28. 28. Identifying Key InnovationsIdentifying Key InnovationsInnovation PracticesInnovationtypes addressedCompost Tea 9Aquaponics system 8Compost Tea 8NRCS Rainwater irrigation system 8Compost Tea 8Compost Slurry 8CSA shares system / Cafeteria Style 7Impact Grazing 7Using cardboard / hay for weedsuppression 7Focusing on Locally Grown internetmarket 7On-farm Farmers Market 7Locally Grown market 7Basement growing using grow lights 7Well and watering lines Grant 6NRCS high tunnel and irrigationgrants 6Biodynamic treatments 6NRCS Irrigation system 6Recycled Black Plastic under tomatoes 6Use of inexpensive tunnels 6Locally Grown market 6• Which innovations address themost problems?• Which innovations have widestapplicability?• Which innovations moststrongly shape farmmanagement?• Which innovations are shapingthe local food system as awhole?Specific Innovations and the number of innovationtypes they address
    29. 29. Biochar case studyBiochar case studyBENEFITS – reduces cost of fuel, reduces emissions, increases SOM,improves plant performance (due to charcoal), stable form of carbonstorage, utilizes local materials, inexpensive, tells a story?
    30. 30. Role of Participatory ResearchRole of Participatory Research• Began in April 2010 with initiation of Online Farmers Market• Also in April 2010 founded a Community Garden• Spring/Summer of 2011 my wife and I named our operationSoque Lover Gardens and began selling at weekend markets• Applied for Network Organizer position with CNG in 2011• Received the position in September and launched the GeorgiaMountains Farmers Network in January 2012.Benefits SetbacksAllows for weekly interactionswith farmers and customersFolks may be confused what hatI’m wearing when.Incredible access to data. Reasonto answer my questions beyondresearch benefitsDifficult to stand objectively.Participation makes observationmore difficult, time consuming
    31. 31. Internet Based Farmers MarketInternet Based Farmers Marketa rural food distribution networka rural food distribution networkAdvantages DisadvantagesLess time / Labor relative tofarmers marketsLower overall sales compared tolive markets (no impulse buys)Less risk of waste (products arepresold)More risk by customer inunknown productsReach customers across broadregionLess farmer / customerinteraction (less correction)Midweek market enhancesfreshnessGreater packaging and timepackagingDrop off locations createopportunities for networking/knowledge exchangeExtra time required to list anddescribe itemsMarket generates its own funds Table fees (12%) reduce profitsBut it’s central value is as a CENTRALIZED MARKETPLACE across awide rural region. And as a DISTRIBUTION NETWORK.
    32. 32. Internet Based Farmers MarketInternet Based Farmers Marketa rural food distribution networka rural food distribution network
    33. 33. Initiation of a Regional Farmers NetworkInitiation of a Regional Farmers Network• September 2011 –CNG awards $2,000to help spur a“farmer centered”NETWORK• First meeting inJanuary 2012• Formally becomesGeorgia MountainsFarmers Network
    34. 34. Initiation of a Regional Farmers NetworkInitiation of a Regional Farmers Network• 4 hosted farm tours,potlucks, meetings• 1 bulk order• Hosted a regional farmtour of 18 farms attendedby 150• Innovation adoption hasbegun

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