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Spectrum mgmt forum 2013 jussi kahtava


Spectrum sharing on licensed bands

Spectrum sharing on licensed bands

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  • 1. Spectrum Licensing: the evolving toolbox for administrations Spectrum Management Forum 9-10th October, 2013 London, UK Jussi Kähtävä Allied Spectrum Associates 1
  • 2. Outline • how is authorisation of spectrum for MFCN evolving? • the importance of predictable access to spectrum • what tools will NRAs have in future • what role will ASA/LSA play? 2
  • 3. Policy Makers and Industry have Good Reasons to Cooperate Spectrum below 6 GHz (ideally below 3 GHz) Licensed spectrum Timely access to spectrum Regional / globally harmonized spectrum New Spectrum for Mobile Broadband Technology / Service neutral Mobile Allocation at ITU Global standards
  • 4. Types of authorisation General Authorisation • limited to frequency use that does not need to be coordinated to avoid harmful interference • Undertakings may be required to submit a notification Individual Authorisation • Avoid harmful interference; • Ensure technical quality of service; • Safeguard efficient use of spectrum; • Fulfil other objectives of general interest as defined by Member States in conformity with Community law. 4
  • 5. National legislation of radio spectrum Natural physical resource Radio spectrum National legislation governing the access to frequency bands National Table of Frequency Allocations (NTFA) Governmental use Commercial use / non governmental (telecom, broadcasting, amateur, SRDs…) Domain of use / regulatory regime Fine technical management of frequency bands National legislation authorising the use of spectrum Users Defence Public safety Civil aviation Meteorology Maritime & waterways Radio Astronomy … Individual authorisation General authorisation (Individual rights of use) (No individual rights of use) Frequency assignments Individual authorisation issued by NRA General authorisation issued by NRA Users Picture source: ECC Report 205 5
  • 6. Allocation & assignment dilemma • All the spectrum bands are allocated (ITU Radio Regulations) • Traditionally, increasing allocation for one Radio Communication Service means reducing the allocation for another one • Assignments through refarming; problems with migrating previous incumbent services • How to provide spectrum to those services that need it whilst protecting the needs of existing services? 6
  • 7. Why individual rights of use? Investment QoS Interference • Legal certainty of rights • Incentive for NW investments • Predictable Quality of Service • Access to spectrum there when needed • Internalised interference, managed through standards • Harmful interference is minimised 7
  • 8. Co-ordination of spectrum • Need for co-ordination at global and regional level. Common frequency arrangements facilitate: Border coordination Economies of scale for equipment Cost effective systems Wider consumer & citizen choice of different device types and brands – Interoperability roaming – Spectral efficiency A purely market driven approach without any co-ordination leads to fragmentation chaos & ultimately value destruction for all including citizen consumers – – – – 8
  • 9. Shared use of spectrum • Spectrum sharing is taking place today (PMSE, RLAN etc) mostly on a secondary basis i.e. non-interference non-protection • However, secondary use provides no guarantees of QoS and individual rights of use • Providing individual rights of use while sharing spectrum is needed 9
  • 10. What is LSA? • The RPSG working definition: • “A regulatory approach aiming to facilitate the introduction of radiocommunication systems operated by a limited number of licensees under an individual licensing regime in a frequency band already assigned or expected to be assigned to one or more incumbent users. Under the LSA framework, the additional users are allowed to use the spectrum (or part of the spectrum) in accordance with sharing rules included in their rights of use of spectrum, thereby allowing all the authorised users, including incumbents, to provide a certain QoS”. 10
  • 11. Authorisation continuum # of rights holders With increased coordination and radio resource management, licence-exempt domain moves towards LSA High number, uncoordinated Many, coordinated One or few exclusivity low high Individual authorizations given to one or few users seleted by the regulator, approach ranging from simple written license only in a static case to license plus technically facilitated varying secondary spectrum use. Suitable for mobile operators, if average capacity is predictable and QoS is facilitated. In its simplest form very similar to current exclusive cellular licensing Users may be a group selected by a regulator, or it may be open for anyone. Technical means e.g. database used to authorize usage of a certain part of spectrum for a certain time, based on usage requests. Authorizations facilitate Coexistence and QoS. Nr of users may need be limited in case use requests exceed the ”capacity”. No limitation on users or their amount. First-come-first-in, technical means e.g. sensing or database may be used to indicate free portions of band and announce possible technical conditions on the usage. Form of license-exempt use, no QoS facilitated through the authorizations. Current example: TV WS 11
  • 12. How to access spectrum? Licence-exempt • No process • Low investment threshold at beginning • Tragedy of commons • No guarantee on QoS • Existing business model DSA • Flexible process • Initial investment according to market price • No guarantee on QoS • New business models LSA • Flexible process • Initial investment according to market price • Effective QoS reachable • New business models Licensed • Slow process • High investments in beginning • Effective QoS • Existing business model 12
  • 13. Regulatory process for LSA Picture source: ECC Report 205 13
  • 14. LSA role in sharing framework  Sharing is vertical in nature Incumbent  the incumbent and licensee are subject to different regulatory constraints  The incumbent and licensee have non-competing applications  Predictable quality of service  Security of investment to Electronic Communications Providers  Easily managed vertical sharing Administration/ NRA LSA Repository LSA Controller LSA Licensee Picture source: ECC Report 205 14
  • 15. ASA/LSA in Europe CEPT • FM52 Works on the harmonized release of 2.3 GHz (Band 40) based on LSA. The ECC Decision is planned for adoption on June 2014 • FM53 Established to define ASA/LSA and provide guidelines to administrations on how to release spectrum for mobile broadband under LSA. Draft ECC Report 205 was approved for public consultation on 4th October, 2013 ETSI • RRS Responsible for the development of harmonised standards under the EC Mandate M.512. Requirements for LSA for mobile broadband in 2300-2400 MHz under development in TS 103 154 EC • RSPG In its opinion on wireless broadband the Radio Spectrum Policy Group identified the potential in releasing 3.8-4.2 GHz for mobile broadband under LSA 15
  • 16. ASA/LSA in the USA FCC • Vertical sharing on federal bands The FCC is considering ASA for the release of 3550-3650 MHz on a shared basis with coastal radars 16
  • 17. Benefit of harmonisation Harmonised allocation frequency Assignment 1 Country A Share or refarm Assignment 2 Country B Share or refarm Assignment 3 Country C Share or refarm 17
  • 18. Lack of harmonisation Fragmentation frequency Assignment 1 Country A Share Assignment 2 Country B Share Assignment 3 Country C Share 18
  • 19. What is at stake? Whether sharing is done in licensed or licence-exempt way makes no difference to the fundamental need for harmonisation in allocations DSA in general does LSA is based upon TVWS is based upon not necessarily harmonised allocation benefit from harmonised allocation of IMT spectrum of broadcast spectrum harmonisation if done Assignments through wrong Global allocation has LSA build upon the not converted to Unless care is taken, benefits of scale from global scale in sharing fragmentation is the exclusive assignments outcome 19
  • 20. Conclusions • Licensed and licence-exempt use will remain important regimes • Opportunity for complementary spectrum management tools in between • Harmonised approach to spectrum sharing framework is crucial • LSA complementary regulatory framework based on licensed regime and harmonisation • LSA can generate important benefits 20
  • 21. 21