Special Considerations for Teaching Listening -Understanding-
1. What Makes Listening Difficult? 2 . How Can We Remove Listening Difficulties? 3. Why Understanding is a Consideration? 4. The teaching method to help students
1. What Makes Listening Difficult? The Speaker: 1. How many people speak at the same time? 2. How quickly do they speak? The Listener: 1. What is the purpose in listening? 2. What is the level of response? The Content: 1. Grammar 2. Vocabulary
2 . How Can We Remove Listening Difficulties? Choosing speaker depends on the situation Adjust the speed of speech with practice Telling the reason why students need to listen Figuring out the level of students’ listening skills Providing information
3. Why Understanding is a Consideration? Progress of Class: Impossibility of learning without understanding Absence of Interest: Easy way to lose interest Learning Effect: Impossibility of expectation of learning effect
4. The teaching method to help students 4-1.Telling the Movie Story Instructor divide two groups A & B Group A members find partner in group of B Group A listen to part of the movie and Group B goes out side at the same time Group A tells story to their partner from B group
4. The teaching method to help students 4-2.Using Podcasts Learners listen and take note Learners summarize what they listened to and find the main idea Learners record their voice to their partners Learners listen partner’s voice and ask question Learners response to the question
4. The Teaching Method to Help Students 4-3.Listening(Watching) the Music(Movie ) Instructor gives information about music(movie) Instructor provides vocabulary words Learners listen(watch) music(movie) Instructor gives the paper/ provides lyrics(script) Learners practice with their partner Learners listen to music
Because students who are learning speaking tend to be exhausted because of the following reasons.
We can easily notice how students have improved in reading or grammar.
It can be tested by tests or quizzes on paper.
On the other hand, it is hard to notice
how much students have improved in speaking.
Students are not sure whether they have improved or not.
1. They don’t know how much they have improved .
In Chinese, there is no past tense or future tense.
Chinese friends hardly use these tenses in English speaking.
In Korean, when someone was asked by question sentence of negative form, "yes” means “negative,” and “no” means “affirmative.”
In English, on the contrary to this, no matter the question is positive or negative, "yes” means “affirmative,” and “no” means “negative.”
2. It is hard to overcome difference between native language and second language.
1. Keep motivating !
- We have to keep motivating students in order to encourage and keep them interested in speaking.
2. Praise specifically !
- When you praising, you have to praise specifically. For example, “your ‘r’ pronunciation got better than yesterday!”
3. Give authentic tasks !
Assign tasks to students. It could help students to be more familiar with the different usage in second language.
4. Give interesting tasks !
When we give interesting tasks such as role playing favorite dramas or show dialogs to students, students acquire the different usage in second language and also keep interest in speaking.
Spoken discourse is different from written discourse. It is complex. Some features include :
Spoken of idea units (conjoined short phrases and clauses)
May be planned (lectures) or unplanned (conversations)
Employs more vague or generic words than written language.
Contains slips and errors reflecting on-line processing
Involved reciprocity (interactions are jointly constructed)
Shows variation (between formal and casual speech), reflecting speaker roles, speaking purpose, and the context (Richards, Jack).
Talk as Interaction
Talk as Transaction
Talk as Performance
“ Conversation” (primarily social function)
Focus is more on the speaker than on the message
Casual or formal depending on circumstance
Reflects role relationships ( like speaker identity)
Uses conversational conventions and registers
Reflects degrees of politeness
Employs many generic words
Is jointly constructed
Opening and closing conversations
Recounting personal incidents and experiences
Reacting to others
Using an appropriate style of speaking
Message is central focus; making oneself understood clearly and accurately more than social interaction (information focus)
Participants employ communication strategies to be understood