Geschiedenis west germany


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Geschiedenis west germany

  1. 1. HI136 The History of Germany Lecture 16 West Germany
  2. 2. The Basic Law <ul><li>Based on 4 key principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rule of law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic participation for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social welfare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established the Federal Republic of Germany as a federal parliamentary democracy with separation of powers between the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of government. </li></ul><ul><li>Bi-cameral parliament: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundestag – Elected every 4 years through universal suffrage. 50% of members directly elected, 50% elected through party lists. Parties need to win over 5% of the vote to gain representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundesrat – Made up of representatives of the L änder , has the power to approve or veto legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President of the Republic – a largely ceremonial head of state elected by Bundestag members & representatives of the federal L änder . </li></ul><ul><li>Chancellor – head of government & elected by the Bundestag. Can only be removed from office through a constructive vote of no confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>L änder have extensive powers over administration, education, law & order. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Constitutional Court – based on the US Supreme Court, designed to protect the constitution and had powers to settle disputes between the federal government and the L änder . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Party Politics <ul><li>SPD – Basically the same party which had existed since 1875. Espoused a programme calling for public ownership & a planned economy. Committed to reunification and opposed European integration in the 1950s. From 1959 moved away from its Marxist roots towards a more inclusive and moderate position. </li></ul><ul><li>Christlich Demokratische Union (Christian Democratic Union, CDU) – a break from the pre-1933 parties that amalgamated the constituency of the old Centre Party with a number of centre-right groups. Formed in June 1945, it was based on the principles of Christian Socialism & stood for free market economics and opposed economic liberalism & social democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, FDP) - Founded in Dec. 1948, it stood for individualism and liberalism & appealed to those who were alienated by the socialism of the SPD & the Clericalism of the CDU. Despite its small size & limited electoral strength it wielded considerable power & influence, often acting as ‘kingmaker’. Members of the FDP served in nearly every federal coalition between 1949 & 1990, and it provided 2 of West Germany’s 5 Presidents. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The 1949 Bundestag Elections Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard and President TheodorHeuss, 1949 16 9,1% Sonstige 10 3,1% Zentrum 17 4,2% BP 17 4,0% DP 5 1,8% DRP 15 5,7% KPD/DKP 52 11,9% FDP 131 29,2% SPD 139 31,0% CDU/CSU       deputies % Party
  5. 5. Election Results Source: T. Kirk, Cassell’s Dictionary of Modern German History (2002)
  6. 6. Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967) <ul><li>Born in Cologne, he was a devout Catholic and passionate Rhinelander. </li></ul><ul><li>1917-33: Served as mayor of Cologne. </li></ul><ul><li>1921-33: Chairman of the Prussian Council of State. </li></ul><ul><li>1934: Imprisoned by the Nazis. </li></ul><ul><li>1948-49: Chairman of the Parliamentary Council. </li></ul><ul><li>1949-63: Chancellor of the FRG. </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic & authoritarian he has been compared to Bismarck and Stresemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Determined to integrate Germany into Western Europe, but did too little to address the problems of the recent past. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Spiegel Affair (1962) <ul><li>The affair tested limits of freedom of the press. </li></ul><ul><li>News magazine Spiegel had reported the Bundeswehr’s limited readiness for conflict with Russians. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiegel offices were occupied by police, Augstein arrested, as well as the article’s author. </li></ul><ul><li>The Defence Minister lost his job after lying about his involvement in the arrests; Adenauer himself only lasted to 1963. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular demonstrations began to free Augstein; beginnings of widespread protest culture? </li></ul>Copies of Der Spiegel being confiscated from the magazine’s offices.
  8. 8. West Germany after Adenauer <ul><li>1965-69: Grand Coalition. </li></ul><ul><li>1969 election: CDU = 46.1% of vote, SPD = 42.7%, FDP = 5.8% - SPD-FDP Coalition formed under Willy Brandt. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide-ranging reforms: marriage & family law modernized, welfare reform & educational reform. A response to growing unrest in the 1960s. </li></ul><ul><li>1974: Brandt forced to resign in spy scandal. </li></ul><ul><li>1982: SPD & FDP unable to agree on a budget – vote of no-confidence brought the CDU’s Helmut Kohl to power. </li></ul><ul><li>1983 election: CDU won nearly 50% of the vote, the Green Party emerges as a national political party with 5.4% of the vote & 27 deputies in the Bundestag. </li></ul><ul><li>A move to the right in the 1980s, accompanied by efforts to cast off the stigma of Nazism & take pride in being German. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Konrad Adenauer (CDU) 1949-1963 Ludwig Erhard (CDU) 1963-1966 Kurt Georg Kiessinger (CDU) 1966-1969 Willy Brandt (SPD) 1969-1974 Helmut Schmidt (SPD) 1974-1982 Helmut Kohl (CDU) 1982-1998
  10. 10. Why were extremist parties not successful? <ul><li>Allied control: parties needed concession of High Commissioner. </li></ul><ul><li>SRP forbidden 1951 by Federal Constitutional Court. </li></ul><ul><li>KPD forbidden 1956 by Federal Constitutional Court. </li></ul><ul><li>Right wing parties as Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteteten (BHE) absorbed by CDU/CSU. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist takeover of Liberal party (FDP) prevented by Allies (arrest of leaders). </li></ul><ul><li>Economic success story. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Wirtschaftswunder (‘economic miracle’) <ul><li>Rapid economic growth after 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for ‘economic miracle’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of the Deutschmark halted inflation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US investment through the Marshal Plan ($4.4 million). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, adaptable workforce (partly made up of refugees from Eastern Europe). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German determination to pull together for the national good – few disputes between labour and capital. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany had fewer burdens on her exchequer than other powers – no overseas commitments, colonial wars etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Korean War (1950-53) increased demand for industrial goods and removed reluctance to buy German goods – exports boomed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unemployment fell from 1.9 million in 1950 to 200,000 in 1961. </li></ul><ul><li>GNP trebled during the 1950s, annual growth averaged just under 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Gap between rich and poor widened, but standards of living rose across the board – average income for industrial workers rose by 250% between 1950 and 1962. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Social Market Economy <ul><li>Ludwig Erhard (1897-1977), Economics Minister (1949-63) and Chancellor (1963-66). </li></ul><ul><li>The free market allowed to drive the economy, with minimal state interference. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the state to pick up the slack left by the market and introduce welfare measures to cancel out the inequalities caused by capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>General agreement that the state should provide a safety net to make sure that citizens did not fall below a certain standard of living. </li></ul><ul><li>Equalization of Burdens Law (1950): transferred wealth from the well off to provide for those who had lost everything during the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of 40 hour working week. </li></ul><ul><li>1957: Pensions increased & index-linked so they would keep pace with cost of living. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dealing with the Nazi Legacy <ul><li>Measures to confront the Nazi past limited in the 1950s. </li></ul><ul><li>Moves to compensate victims of National Socialism, extremist parties banned by the Constitutional Court. </li></ul><ul><li>But many former Nazis in the civil service – Hans Globke, head of the Chancellors Office (1953-1963) had drafted Nazi anti-Semitic legislation in the 1930s. </li></ul><ul><li>The judiciary reluctant to censure sadistic Nazi judges. </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged Germany’s reputation abroad & led to a feeling that the Germans had buried their heads in the sand rather than confronting the legacy of National Socialism. </li></ul>Hans Globke (1898-1973)
  14. 14. Foreign Policy <ul><li>Adenauer’s aims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International recognition by integration, Democratisation by Westernisation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconciliation with France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close relationship with United States – essential for security in bipolar international system (Soviet Threat) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aims of the Western Powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeat German militarism and idea of revenge by integration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors which helped rehabilitation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived Soviet Threat: especially after 1949 (Soviet Atomic Bomb) – German participation needed, good bargaining position for Adenauer: concessions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean War (1950-1953). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Foreign Policy <ul><li>1951: Signing (in Paris) of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). </li></ul><ul><li>1952: Signing (in Paris) of the European Defense Community (EDC). The ‘Stalin note’ offering a united neutral Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>1954: Signing of the Paris Agreements. FRG/BRD is invited to join NATO permitting West German rearmament and Italy and the FRG/BRD accede to the Western European Union (WEU). </li></ul><ul><li>1955: Full sovereignty returned to the Federal Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>1957: The Treaty of Rome is signed establishing the European Economic Community. The Saar returns to Germany as a Land (to be followed in 3 years by economic reintegration). </li></ul><ul><li>1963: French-German Friendship Treaty is signed in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>1969-72: Ostpolitik = attempts to normalize relations between the two German states. </li></ul><ul><li>1972: Basic Treaty – German states agree to develop good relations, settle disputes without force & respect one another’s independence. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Anti-Authoritarianism <ul><li>By the 1960s increasing resistance to the authoritarian social conservatism of the Adenauer era. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual opposition – resisted ‘petit-bourgeois’ values of the Adenauer era. </li></ul><ul><li>Materialism – Frankfurt School philosopher Herbert Marcuse warned of late-industrial capitalism creating ‘one-dimensional man’, alienated by consumerism & ‘latent authoritarianism’ of liberal state. </li></ul><ul><li>Generational Conflict – a new generation untainted by Nazism & war growing up – increasingly suspicious of the parental generation. </li></ul>Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979)
  17. 17. Anti-Authoritarianism <ul><li>Opposition to re-armament (‘ ohne mich ’). </li></ul><ul><li>Student Politics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Vietnam war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls for greater student democracy & reform of universities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1965-69: Extra-Parliamentary Opposition ( Ausserparlamentarische Opposition , APO) staged protest marches, demonstrations etc. </li></ul><ul><li>1968: demonstrations in German cities. </li></ul>Socialist German Students’ League poster: ‘Everyone’s talking about the weather. Not us.’
  18. 18. Terrorism <ul><li>The Red Army Faction (RAF) or Baader-Meinhof Gang formed by former student radicals frustrated by the failure of the mainstream student movement to change German society. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to unmask latent authoritarianism of state by provoking police overreaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted symbols of capitalism, such as bankers, as well as former NSDAP members, but also US military. </li></ul><ul><li>Founder generation leaders all in prison by 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>1977: RAF & the Palestinian Liberation Organization hijacking Lufthansa plane in Mogadishu foiled by special forces. </li></ul><ul><li>RAF leadership commit suicide in prison shortly afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>1972: anti-terrorist laws increase police powers & require job applicants to undergo political scrutiny. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>The Federal Republic became a stable parliamentary democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, continuity with the past, particularly under Adenauer. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid economic recovery leading to prosperity. </li></ul><ul><li>But this brought its own problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West Germany ‘a viable democracy with a distinctly conservative colouration.’ (Carr) </li></ul>
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