Opkomst van adolf hitler en zijn nazi ideologie


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Opkomst van adolf hitler en zijn nazi ideologie

  1. 1. The Nazis’ Struggle for Power 1919-1933
  2. 2. <ul><li>The German Civil War (1918-1923) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-War Movement Wins! </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser Flees </li></ul><ul><li>Social Democrats proclaim the “Weimar Republic” </li></ul><ul><li>AT LAST: DEMOCRACY IN GERMANY? </li></ul><ul><li>But: Pro-War Groups arm themselves </li></ul><ul><li>1918-1923: CIVIL WAR </li></ul>
  3. 3. The German Civil War (1918-1923) <ul><li>Open Warfare Continues 1919-1923) </li></ul><ul><li>The FREIKORPS – pro-war vigilantes; anti-peace; anti-democracy; anti-Semitic – instead of a democracy, they demand a military dictatorship ! </li></ul>
  4. 4. The German Civil War (1918-1923) <ul><li>Democracy Doomed? </li></ul><ul><li>Doom #1 : ferocious hostility of pro-war groups: violent, authoritarian, anti-democratic </li></ul><ul><li>1920 Kapp Putsch – failed effort by Freikorps to seize power </li></ul>
  5. 5. The German Civil War (1918-1923) <ul><li>Doom #2 : The Versailles Treaty – </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of territory </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations – Billions to be paid for 50+ years </li></ul><ul><li>Humiliation (Art. 231:“War Guilt Clause”) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Almost all Germans were enraged by the Versailles Treaty – above, “Germany after the treaty;” “Germany cuts through the treaty;” “Versailles executes Germany!”
  7. 7. The German Civil War (1918-1923) <ul><li>Doom #3: HYPER-INFLATION </li></ul><ul><li>Marks/Dollars </li></ul><ul><li>1914 $1 = 4 marks </li></ul><ul><li>1919 1 = 14 </li></ul><ul><li>1921 1 = 76 </li></ul><ul><li>1922 1 = 493 </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 23 $1 = 4, 620, 455 </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 1923 $1 = </li></ul><ul><li>4,200, 000,000,000 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Children use packs of Marks as building blocks; after the inflation, children hold a New Mark, and show how many Old Marks it was worth; a 50 Billion Mark postage stamp Middle classes all but wiped out; profound fear of disorder; “Any Order is better than Disorder!!”
  9. 9. The German Civil War (1918-1923) <ul><li>Democracy Survives </li></ul><ul><li>1924  economy stabilizes </li></ul><ul><li>1924  pro-war/ anti-democratic groups die out </li></ul><ul><li>1924  “Weimar Culture” (experiment, energy, excitement!) </li></ul>
  10. 10. II. Origins: Hitler and the National Socialists (1919-1923) <ul><li>Sep 1919: AH, as Army Intelligence Agent, attends meeting of the National Socialist German Workers Party (its eventual name) </li></ul><ul><li>30 (?) members </li></ul>
  11. 11. Origins: Hitler and the National Socialists (1919-1923) <ul><li>Oct 1919 – AH speaks to group </li></ul><ul><li>“ I Discovered My Vocation!” </li></ul><ul><li>AH expresses furiously all the resentments, fears, hates, of his little group </li></ul><ul><li>AH becomes professional politician </li></ul>
  12. 12. Origins: Hitler and the National Socialists (1919-1923) <ul><li>1919-1923: Munich’s chaotic politics </li></ul><ul><li>November 1923: BEER HALL PUTSCH </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis attempt to take over Bavarian State Gov’t; police break up the march; AH arrested </li></ul>
  13. 13. III. Nazi Ideology <ul><li>1924: 5 months in confinement </li></ul><ul><li>MEIN KAMPF </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nazi Ideology <ul><li>EUROPEAN FASCISM </li></ul><ul><li>1922: Mussolini takes power, legally, in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>AUTHORITARIANISM </li></ul><ul><li>MILITARISM </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONALISM/ RACISM </li></ul><ul><li>IMPERIALISM </li></ul><ul><li>Fascist-like movements across Europe (UK; Spain; France; Poland; Hungary) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Nazi Ideology <ul><li>KAMPF (Struggle) </li></ul><ul><li>VOLK (Folk) </li></ul><ul><li>BLUT UND BODEN (Blood and Soil) </li></ul><ul><li>F ÜHRER (Leader) </li></ul><ul><li>VOLKSGEMEINSHAFT </li></ul><ul><li>(Folk-Community) </li></ul><ul><li>6. LEBENSRAUM (Living-Space) </li></ul>
  16. 16. IV. The Struggle for Power (1925-1933) <ul><li>1925: </li></ul><ul><li>AH consolidates his hold on the NSDAP </li></ul><ul><li>A “ Führer ” party – AH’s word is party law </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive tactics – rallies, posters, parades </li></ul><ul><li>The Storm Troopers (“SA”) – a “party army” – security for AH; attacks on rival parties </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1929 – The Wall Street Crash <ul><li>Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophizing : Apocalypse! Collapse of reasoning ability; </li></ul><ul><li>Us v. Them; Fantasy solutions; Yearning for a Father-figure </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1930 <ul><li>Political crisis – “normal” political parties can’t agree on action </li></ul><ul><li>Chancellor Brüning begins to “Rule by Decree” (allowed in “Emergency Situations” by Art. 48 of the Constitution) </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTIONS: Nazis win 18.3% </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1931 <ul><li>Germany economy shuts down – mass unemployment, mass business failures </li></ul><ul><li>Communists call for Communist Revolution! </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative/ Liberal/Moderate parties clueless </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis call for a “National Revolution!” </li></ul>
  20. 20. What did people understand by the term “NATIONAL REVOLUTION?” <ul><li>Law & Order </li></ul><ul><li>“ Traditional values” </li></ul><ul><li>National Unity </li></ul><ul><li>National Pride (“we don’t need the rest of the world!!”) </li></ul><ul><li>From endless debates & elections  LEADER & FOLLOWER </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1931 – Hitler’s Tactics <ul><li>Hegemony on the Right : NSDAP as the “Conservative” Party (“traditional values;” “patriotism; “we’re the ‘Real’ Germans!) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Appeal to the terrified Middle Class (most workers voted for Communists or Social Democrats; AH vows to protect the Middle Class – he’ll protect property, restore law & order, return to traditional values, restore patriotism, etc. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1931 – Hitler’s Tactics <ul><li>3. Use the Political Revival as a moment for political conversion : night rallies; patriotic music; “testimonial” speakers; warm-up speakers … then the star! </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1931 – Hitler’s Tactics <ul><li>4. AH as Celebrity : J. Goebbels; AH as “common soldier,” who “returned to save the nation;” no family; given all for the country; he’s the very incarnation of the people! AH is super-patriotism incarnate ! Excitement: airplanes; fast cars; crowds of photographers; swooning groupies … </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1931 – Hitler’s Tactics <ul><li>5. Terror – Stormtroopers </li></ul><ul><li>Hoodlums mobilized for politics </li></ul><ul><li>break up opposition meetings </li></ul><ul><li>street fights </li></ul><ul><li>intimidation </li></ul><ul><li>cult of super-patriot hyper-masculinity </li></ul>
  25. 25. 1932: Depth of the Great Depression <ul><li>Jan: “ Dusseldorf Club Speech ” – speaking to business Tycoons, AH vows to protect corporations & break unions </li></ul><ul><li>Mar-Apr – AH loses Presidential election to Paul von Hindenburg (old, infirm, mentally unstable) </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1932: Depth of the Great Depression <ul><li>July Reichstag elections: 37.3% of vote ! The highest vote the Nazis ever receive </li></ul><ul><li>Nov Reichstag elections: 33.1% of the vote – support drifting off? </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1932: Depth of the Great Depression <ul><li>Dec: The Reichstag can’t agree on measures to combat the Depression; </li></ul><ul><li>first Chancellor Brüning fails; </li></ul><ul><li>then Von Papen; </li></ul><ul><li>now Von Schleicher fails to reach democratic solution </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1933 <ul><li>Jan: President von Hindenburg asks AH to form a CONSERVATIVE COALITION GOV’T </li></ul><ul><li>(Consensus: he’ll not last a year!) </li></ul>