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Nazism and the church

Nazism and the church



Geschiedenis - Nazisme en de kerk ...

Geschiedenis - Nazisme en de kerk

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    Nazism and the church Nazism and the church Presentation Transcript

    •  starter activity This extraordinary photo taken in the 1930s shows Catholic bishops in Germany giving the Nazi salute. List as many reasons as you can, why you might expect the Catholic Church to support the Nazis and why you might expect them to oppose them.
      • Reasons for supporting Nazis
      • 1933-45 Nazis were in government
      • Nazis projected themselves as guardians of moral values
      • Fear & intimidation
      • July 1933 Concordat
      • Tradition of anti-Semitism?
      • Reasons for opposing Nazis
      • Nazi ideology contradicted Christian values
      • Zentrum Party natural choice for Catholic supporters
      • Threat to religious authority & influence of Catholic Church
    • Did Churches collaborate with or resist the Nazi regime? Winning over hearts & minds to create a Volksgemeinschaft
    •  Your task
      • Read sources 16.1-9 on p.304-5 in Hite and Hinton and put a ‘+’ if you think they suggest Hitler and the Church could work together, or a ‘– ’ if you think he saw the Church as a threat. Include a note explaining your reasons why.
    • Nazism & Catholic Church
      • 22 million members (esp. in South & West)
      • Well-organised – youth organisations, schools, welfare provision
      • July 1933, Catholic Church & Nazi govt. sign ‘Concordat’ (agreement)
      • 1936, Bishop Galen asks God to bless Hitler’s govt.
    • Nazism & Protestant Church
      • 40 million members
      • Different ‘Churches’, e.g. Lutheran, Calvin etc.
      • Reich Church – umbrella organisation of Protestant Churches set up by Nazi govt; Reich Bishop (L.Muller, 1934)
      • German Christians (Deutche Christen) – ‘the SA of the Church’, ‘Nazified’ Protestants, ‘the swastika on our breasts and the cross in our hearts’
      • German Faith Movement – replace Christianity with pagan rituals
    •  Your task
      • Read the biographies of 7 key religious figures within German society on pp.310-111. Match the soundbites (on p.311) with an individual and explain your reasons why.
       starter activity Muller Pius XII Galen
    • Answers
      • Ludwig Muller (ii)
      • Alfred Rosenberg (iv)
      • Pope Pius XI (iii)
      • Pope Pius XII (i)
      • Bishop Clemens von Galen (vi)
      • Martin Niem ö ller (vii)
      • Dietrich Bonh ö ffer (v)
    •  Your task
      • Hitler’s policy towards the Church can best be summarised as control, weaken and replace. Read p.308-9 and find evidence of these stages. Record your findings in a table similar to the one below.
      Notes Replace Weaken Control Evidence Stage
    • Control
      • Reich Church
      • Concordat (1933)
      • Law against Formation of New Parties (1933) ended Zentrum party
      • German Christians
      • But … Confessional Church, outcry over oath of loyalty, challenges to Reich Church
    • Weaken
      • Church groups disbanded & Hitler Youth compulsory from 1936
      • Education secularised, e.g. less emphasis on RE, crucifixes removed from classes; denominational schools closed (65% of children went to Ch schools in 1933, 5% by 1937)
      • Show trials of priests who were possibly falsely accused of abuses
      • Ch. Secession Campaign, 1937 100,000 Christians left Ch.
    • Replace
      • 1939 3.5 million Germans were members of Gottglaubig (God-believing) neo-pagan movement
      • After WWII Hitler intended to replace Christianity with new German Faith Movement
    • Support for Nazis within Church
      • Ludwig Muller, Reich Bishop
      • Alfred Rosenberg, German Faith Movement
      • Pope Pius XII, negotiated Concordat, refused to excommunicate Catholics participating in genocide
      Muller Rosenberg Pius XII
    • Resistance to Nazis from within Church
      • 1934, Confessional Church – broke away from Reich Church due to resistance to state interference; Martin Niem öller & Dietrich Bonhöffer
      • Bishop Galen, Catholic Bp. Munster, aka ‘Lion of Munster’ for outspoken sermons
      Niem öller Bonh öffer Galen
    •  Your task
      • Read the historians’ views on the evidence of support or resistance to the Nazi regime. You may want to record your answers in a table similar to this.
      Support (Author & examples) Resistance (Author & examples) Overlap? Notes
    • Did Churches collaborate with or resist the Nazi regime? Winning over hearts & minds to create a Volksgemeinschaft
    •  Your task
      • Write a judgement paragraph in answer to the key question, “Did Churches collaborate with or resist the Nazi regime?”