Notes on the Third reich The Third reich is probably the most popular and controversial field of historical study in the w...
The large context <ul><li>1871 - 1918 The German Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian and aggressive </li></...
 
The Nazi ideology <ul><li>Nazism is a revolutionary rightist movement and its main features are ultra-nationalism and the ...
Nazism also defined itself by hatred towards: <ul><li>Liberalism and Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism...
 
Why did Weimar fail <ul><li>Weak democratic legacy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right wing wanted autocratic government <...
The negative image of Weimar <ul><li>The system of the victors   </li></ul><ul><li>The Weimar republic was connected to th...
Weak government <ul><li>The constitution allowed for many parties  </li></ul><ul><li>G overnment s  were weak and usually ...
Economic  depression from 1929 <ul><li>The collapse of the mark in 1923 left many middle-class people in ruin and dissatis...
 
<ul><li>Elections 1932 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In spite of this poster it is not neccesserely the unemployd that vote for th...
 
Parties in the reichstag   Political Parties in the Reichstag June 1920 May  1924 Dec.  1924 May 1928 Sep. 1930 July 1932 ...
Hitler Chancellor in Jan 1933 <ul><li>Clique of nationalists and generals bring Hitler into coalition government 3/10 </li...
Who supported the nazis? <ul><li>Voters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul></u...
What made Hitler so special? <ul><li>Great orator  </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling for the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Political in...
Nazis turned Germany totalitarian <ul><li>Totalitarian system : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized government, single party...
 
Gleichschaltung <ul><li>Put society in line with the party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KPD and SPD banned and leaders put in pri...
Culture and education <ul><li>Nazi ideals in eduction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on history, biology, German and gymn...
“ One people, one state, one leader!” “ Youth serves the Führer. All 10-year-olds into the Hitler Youth. ”  Membership in ...
Third Reich economics <ul><li>Immediate economic goal  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
First actions <ul><li>Hitler reduced unemployment from 6 m to 2.2 million in oct 1934 by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State fund...
 
 
 
Recovery problems <ul><li>Rearmament, construction projects and increased consumer demand called for increased  im ports  ...
The Four-year plan 1936 <ul><li>Hitler wanted faster rearmament and selfsufficiency than the conventional economics of Sch...
The peoples community <ul><li>Hitler formed organisations to bring worker into line in the new state </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Nazis and the Church <ul><li>“ National socialism and christianity are irreconcilable”  Martin Borman </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
The Catholics were also powerful <ul><li>8. July 1933 the catholic church and nazis made a Concordat between state and chu...
Girls in uniform <ul><li>What is the general purpose of the BDM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What was its purpose before the ...
The consequences <ul><li>Germans said farewell to democracy and gave in to criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul...
Questions <ul><li>Was Germany prepared for war in 1939? (p. 23) </li></ul><ul><li>What classes gained most and least from ...
The attraction of Hitler <ul><li>Albert Speer became a minister in Hitlers Government during the war. In his autobiography...
Hitler <ul><li>Discuss in groups of four: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe Hitler in one sentence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
The Historical issues <ul><li>How and why did the Nazis gain power? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the Weimar-republic fail? </...
What happened after 1929 <ul><li>Brunings deflationary tactics earned him the title “hunger canchellor” </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Historical Debate <ul><li>Why did Germans fall so easily for nazism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four main schools of explan...
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Geschiedenis het derde rijk opkomst en ideologie

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  • Selfsuffiency to make the English naval blockade from ww1 useless
  • Hitler had no intension of directly overthrowing capitalism but he was ready to control the and bypass them when the needs of the states demanded so.
  • Old authoritarianism and love of power, bismarck kaiser Versailles, weimar. Depression hitting Germany hard Middle classes afraid of Communists. He is a unique fenomenon, evil genious
  • Geschiedenis het derde rijk opkomst en ideologie

    1. 1. Notes on the Third reich The Third reich is probably the most popular and controversial field of historical study in the world
    2. 2. The large context <ul><li>1871 - 1918 The German Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian and aggressive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1919 - 1933 The Weimar republic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most democratic constitution in the world </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1933 - 1945 The Third Reich </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive dictatorship </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1945 - 1990 split Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic and authoritarian </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1990 United Germany again. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 4. The Nazi ideology <ul><li>Nazism is a revolutionary rightist movement and its main features are ultra-nationalism and the leadership principle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nation is connected by blood relations which should not be severed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nation should follow the leader that reads the nations will and takes decisions for the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One will of the nation, one party, one leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism (lebensraum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racism - anti-semitism </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Nazism also defined itself by hatred towards: <ul><li>Liberalism and Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism divides the nation. Profit becomes the highest goal. Heroic action and sacrifice is extinct. Democracy is ineffective. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nazism puts emphasis on feelings, will and intuition.Discussions and argumentation hamper the will to action. They glorify action and war. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Marxism </li></ul><ul><li>Modernism </li></ul>
    5. 7. Why did Weimar fail <ul><li>Weak democratic legacy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right wing wanted autocratic government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The communists wanted revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism was not connected with democracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it has sometimes be said that Weimar was a republic without republicans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Center party and the Social democrats were the only real democratic parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The army was still of Junker origin </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 8. The negative image of Weimar <ul><li>The system of the victors </li></ul><ul><li>The Weimar republic was connected to the defeat in the war and to Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>The stab in the back myth of Nationalists </li></ul><ul><li>Communist attac k ed the republic after the rebellions 1919 had been suppressed with violence </li></ul><ul><li>Pillars of the state like army and civil servants and educators resented it </li></ul>
    7. 9. Weak government <ul><li>The constitution allowed for many parties </li></ul><ul><li>G overnment s were weak and usually didnt last long </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition and minority governments </li></ul><ul><li>The best q u a l i f ie d people didn ’ t want to make a career in politics </li></ul><ul><li>Stresemann died in 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Hindenburg earned it some respect as president </li></ul>
    8. 10. Economic depression from 1929 <ul><li>The collapse of the mark in 1923 left many middle-class people in ruin and dissatisfied with the government </li></ul><ul><li>Economic recovery 1924-28, investment still based on short term American loans </li></ul><ul><li>The world depression hit Germany hard </li></ul><ul><li>Loans have to be paid </li></ul><ul><li>Bankrupcies and unemploy ment goes from 1,5 mill to 6 million . </li></ul>
    9. 12. <ul><li>Elections 1932 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In spite of this poster it is not neccesserely the unemployd that vote for the Nazis. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 14. Parties in the reichstag   Political Parties in the Reichstag June 1920 May 1924 Dec. 1924 May 1928 Sep. 1930 July 1932 Nov. 1932 Mar. 1933 Communist Party (KPD) 4 62 45 54 77 89 100 81 Social Democratic Party (SDP) 102 100 131 153 143 133 121 120 Catholic Centre Party (BVP) 65 81 88 78 87 97 90 93 Nationalist Party (DNVP) 71 95 103 73 41 37 52 52 Nazi Party (NSDAP) - - - 12 107 230 196 288 Other Parties 98 92 73 121 122 22 35 23
    11. 15. Hitler Chancellor in Jan 1933 <ul><li>Clique of nationalists and generals bring Hitler into coalition government 3/10 </li></ul><ul><li>Hoped to control Hitler even if Hitler got the Chancellorhsip as he demanded </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler decides on new elections march 5 th </li></ul><ul><li>Reichstag fire 27 th of february </li></ul><ul><li>Gets 44% in elections, 288 out of 647 </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling law march 23th 441 to 94 (needed 2/3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling Hitlers dictatorship </li></ul></ul>
    12. 16. Who supported the nazis? <ul><li>Voters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower middle class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial support from nationalistic industrialist like Alfred Hugenberg </li></ul>
    13. 17. What made Hitler so special? <ul><li>Great orator </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling for the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Political intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Steadfast opportunist </li></ul>
    14. 18. Nazis turned Germany totalitarian <ul><li>Totalitarian system : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized government, single party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All political opposition sup p res s ed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media and social organizations used to control peoples minds and actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propaganda, personal cult, censorship, purges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State intervention in the economy. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 20. Gleichschaltung <ul><li>Put society in line with the party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KPD and SPD banned and leaders put in prison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unions dissolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German labor front established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazis take over local government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissal of jewish and “incompetent” civil servants and teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army and church remained out of reach for awhile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazis and big business went hand in hand – politics first </li></ul></ul>
    16. 21. Culture and education <ul><li>Nazi ideals in eduction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on history, biology, German and gymnastics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Einsteins theory of relativity banned as jewish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children should enter nazi youth organizations, Jungvolk and Jungmadel </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi art: nationalistic, physical and mediocre. Films more subtle. </li></ul>
    17. 22. “ One people, one state, one leader!” “ Youth serves the Führer. All 10-year-olds into the Hitler Youth. ” Membership in the Hitler Youth had become mandatory in 1936.
    18. 23. Third Reich economics <ul><li>Immediate economic goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longterm economic goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare Germans for war. This includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selfsufficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rearmament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The government must keep up the living standard and thus the morale of the people. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 24. First actions <ul><li>Hitler reduced unemployment from 6 m to 2.2 million in oct 1934 by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State funded projects like the autobahns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary labor service for young unemployed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women sent home </li></ul></ul>
    20. 28. Recovery problems <ul><li>Rearmament, construction projects and increased consumer demand called for increased im ports </li></ul><ul><li>Hjalmar Schacht was appointed minister of finance 1934 and he introduced the New Plan to solve the balance of payment crises: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importers had to seek clearance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He also managed to pay for some import by marks. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 29. The Four-year plan 1936 <ul><li>Hitler wanted faster rearmament and selfsufficiency than the conventional economics of Schacht allowed </li></ul><ul><li>German Economy must be fit for war within four years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Göring directed the Four Year plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercised control over investment capital, labour and raw materials. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reichswerke Herman Göring, the la r gest industrial enterprise in Europe 1939 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber and oil lacking </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 30. The peoples community <ul><li>Hitler formed organisations to bring worker into line in the new state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German labour front (Daf) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C ampaigned for better working conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kraft durch Freude controlled workers leisure and provided cheap vac a tion packages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Volkswagen was intended for the every German </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 31. Nazis and the Church <ul><li>“ National socialism and christianity are irreconcilable” Martin Borman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is that? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The German C hristians (protestants) wanted to remove the Old testament from he Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler removed two protestant bishops but reinstated the after upproar </li></ul><ul><li>After that nazis try do diminish protestand influence over education and youth movements gradually. </li></ul>
    24. 32. The Catholics were also powerful <ul><li>8. July 1933 the catholic church and nazis made a Concordat between state and church. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The church stayed out of politics but church institutions and schools were intact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In spite of the concordat nazis waged war against church schools by demanding changing of curriculum and dismissal of teachers. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 33. Girls in uniform <ul><li>What is the general purpose of the BDM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What was its purpose before the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What was its purpose in the war? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why would a girl voluntarily enter such an organisation? What pressures were put on girls to enter BDM </li></ul><ul><li>What is the argument of the paper? </li></ul>
    26. 34. The consequences <ul><li>Germans said farewell to democracy and gave in to criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why did Weimar fail: divide causes into short term causes and long term causes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where did the supporters of Weimar go wrong? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any relation between Nazi electoral support and the figures in the handout and table 14.2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 35. Questions <ul><li>Was Germany prepared for war in 1939? (p. 23) </li></ul><ul><li>What classes gained most and least from the economic recovery? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the Nazi government a front for German capitalism? </li></ul>
    28. 36. The attraction of Hitler <ul><li>Albert Speer became a minister in Hitlers Government during the war. In his autobiography written in jail he describes how he became a member of the Party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… he (Hitler) had a great gift for adjusting…” (pg. 44) How was this evident at the meeting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the effect of Hitlers speech on Speer. What was memorable about the speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What made Hitler a good political choice for Speer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How was Goebbels different from Hitler as a speaker? What did they have in common? </li></ul></ul>
    29. 37. Hitler <ul><li>Discuss in groups of four: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe Hitler in one sentence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From where have you got your knowledge of Hitler? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should we remember Hitler? Why? How? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of a few problems that you as a proto-historian would like to do research on regarding Hitler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was Hitler a historical freak or could history repeat itself? </li></ul></ul>
    30. 38. The Historical issues <ul><li>How and why did the Nazis gain power? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the Weimar-republic fail? </li></ul><ul><li>How could they maintain such a brutal government? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of Hitler? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of the individual in history? </li></ul><ul><li>Was Nazism a unique phenomenon or is it a part of a European trend? </li></ul><ul><li>Was Nazism a unique phenomenon in German history or a natural offspring of German history? </li></ul>
    31. 39. What happened after 1929 <ul><li>Brunings deflationary tactics earned him the title “hunger canchellor” </li></ul><ul><li>Both Bruning and Papen resorted to early elections 1930 and 1932 which gave the Nazis extra opportuninty </li></ul><ul><li>In July 1932 Nazis biggest party </li></ul><ul><li>Losing votes in nov 1932 elections </li></ul>
    32. 40. The Historical Debate <ul><li>Why did Germans fall so easily for nazism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four main schools of explanation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A German phenomenon: A natural offspring of German history. (A.J.P. Taylor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome of the social and political chaos and upheavals of the 20s and 30s. (Ritter) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The last resort of besieged capitalism. (Marxist) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hitlers dynamic personality. (Alan Bullock) </li></ul></ul></ul>
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