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Geschiedenis germany of adenauer

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  • 1. History of Germany Lecture: Adenauer Germany
  • 2. Schedule
    • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany
    • West integration and German unity
    • The ‘Economic Miracle‘
    • The burden of the past
    • The culture of the 1950’s
    • The end of an era
    • Conclusion
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Basics
    • Basic Law
    • Human rights are part of constitution and bind both executive and legislative
    • Federal Constitutional Court checks laws and actions of government if they are compatible with constitution
    • Federal Structure: Bundesrat (federal council) part of legislative
    • Parliament (Bundestag): 50% of deputies elected in constituencies, 50% on party lists in lands, decisive for number of deputies is more or less relative share of national votes, a party has to have at least 5% of the votes or 1 (later 3) elected deputy(ies) in constituency
    • Weak Federal President, strong Federal Chancellor
    • Chancellor elected by parliament, can only be removed when parliament elects in the same procedure new chancellor
  • 6. Election Campaign 1949
    • CDU
    • Social market economy
    • Close cooperation with Occupation powers
    • German unity (but priority given to Western integration)
    • Anti-communism
    • Konrad Adenauer
    • SPD
    • Plan economy
    • A more independent policy
    • German unity (free and democratic, but neutral Germany acceptable)
    • Anti-communism
    • Kurt Schumacher
  • 7. Kurt Schumacher (1895-1952), the leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967), the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU)
  • 8.  
  • 9. 1949 Elections August 14, 1949 16 9,1% Sonstige 10 3,1% Zentrum 17 4,2% BP 17 4,0% DP 5 1,8% DRP 15 5,7% KPD/DKP 52 11,9% FDP 131 29,2% SPD 139 31,0% CDU/CSU       deputies % Party
  • 10. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Minister of Economics Ludwig Erhard, President Theodor Heuss
  • 11.  
  • 12. Why were extremist parties not successfull
    • Allied control: parties needed concession of High Commissioner
    • SRP forbidden 1951 by Federal Constitutional Court
    • KPD forbidden 1956 by Federal Constitutional Court
    • Right wing parties as Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteteten (BHE) absorbed by CDU/CSU
    • Nationalist takeover of Liberal party (FDP) prevented by Allies (arrest of leaders)
    • Economic success story
  • 13. 1957 1953
  • 14. Schedule
    • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany
    • West integration and German unity
    • The ‘Economic Miracle‘
    • The burden of the past
    • The culture of the 1950’s
    • The end of an era
    • Conclusion
  • 15. Adenauer’s Strategy for West Germany
    • International recognition by integration, Democratisation by Westernisation, reconciliation with France, close relationship with United States – essential for security in bipolar international system (Soviet Threat)
    • Western allies and Western European countries
    • Defeat German militarism and idea of revenge by integration
    • What helped?
    • Perceived Soviet Threat: especially after 1949 (Soviet Atomic Bomb): German participation needed, good bargaining position for Adenauer: concessions
    • Korean War 1950 - 1953
  • 16. Economic, political and military integration
    • 1951 Signing (in Paris) of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
    • 1952 Signing (in Paris) of the European Defense Community (EDC)
    • 1954 Signing of the Paris Agreements. FRG/BRD is invited to join NATO permitting West German rearmament and Italy and the FRG/BRD accede to the Western European Union (WEU)
    • 1957 The Treaty of Rome is signed establishing the European Economic Community
    • 1963 French-German Friendship Treaty is signed in Paris
  • 17. 1956 The fight for the rearmament of Germany
  • 18.  
  • 19. Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle, 1962 Reims
  • 20. Germany
    • 1952 Stalin note: offer of neutral, unified Germany
    • 1952 Signing (in Bonn) of FRG's "Germany Treaty" (which includes reunification as a political goal)
    • 1953 (June 17): Riots in East Berlin
    • 1955 Paris Treaty in force (establishing sovereignity for West Germany [FRG/BRD])
    • 1955 Chancellor Adenauer visits Moscow
    • 1957 The Saar returns to Germany as a Land (to be followed in 3 years by economic reintegration)
    • 1958 Chrushchev’s Berlin ultimatum
    • 1961 Berlin Wall – cementing partition
  • 21.
    • Stalinnote of March 10, 1952 and April 9, 1952
    • Offer: Unification of Germany
    • Price: Neutralisation of Germany
    • Aim: To prevent integration of West Germany in Western military alliance system
    • Historiography :
    • Serious offer of Soviet Union
    • Move in propaganda war
  • 22.  
  • 23. Schedule
    • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany
    • West integration and German unity
    • The ‘Economic Miracle‘
    • The burden of the past
    • The culture of the 1950’s
    • The end of an era
    • Conclusion
  • 24. Cologne 1945
  • 25. Problems
    • Limited souvereignity
    • Total government expenditures in 1950: 11.6 billion DM, 4.2 billion DM for occupation costs (36% of budget)
    • High unemployment (1950: 10%)
    • Almost 8 million displaced persons had to be integrated
    • Housing shortage
    • War destructions, war invalids
    • Reparation payments and demontage (until 1949 more than 3,4 billion $ (in prices of 1938)
  • 26. Pluses
    • Level of destruction not as high as expected
    • American aid (Marshal plan)
    • Interest of Western European countries and the United States in a prosperous German economy as precondition for the reconstruction of European economy
    • Skilled workforce available
    • Successful currency reform in 1948
    • Conflict between Western Allies and Soviet Union
    • Korean War
    • Long period of economic growth in most important capitalist countries
    • Ludwig Erhard and his Soziale Marktwirtschaft (social market economy)
    • Trade unions united under social democratic leadership, cooperative
    • Work as an compensation for refusal to confront with the German war crimes ?
  • 27. Growth Rate Gross National Product
    • 1951: 10.9%
    • 1952: 9.0
    • 1953: 7.9
    • 1954: 7.2
    • 1955: 12.0
    • 1956: 7.0
    • 1957: 5.8
    • 1958: 3.3
    • 1959: 6.9
    • 1960: 8.8
    • 1961: 4.3
    • 1962: 4.7
    • 1963: 2.8
    • 1950 983.7 Billion DM
    • 1963 2003.0 Billion DM
    • Per capita
    • 1950 2,100 DM
    • 1963 6,700 DM
  • 28. Successes
    • Unemployment 1950: 2 Million 1960: a few ten thousand
    • Export surplus
    • Improved living standard (‘Fresswelle’)
    • Real wages 1965 twice as high as 1950
    • Mobility (social and other)
    • Social policy: Equalization of burden (Lastenausgleich) 1952, Progressive growth of pensions 1957
  • 29. The German actor Gert Fröbe in Berliner Ballad (1948) Gert Fröbe in the 1960‘s
  • 30. Schedule
    • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany
    • West integration and German unity
    • The ‘Economic Miracle‘
    • The burden of the past
    • The culture of the 1950’s
    • The end of an era
    • Conclusion
  • 31. Nazi past
    • Conscious effort to break with Nazi past, “inventing” a liberal, democratic, western Germany
    • Amnesty laws 1949 and 1950: people with ‘minor’ crimes, sentences amnestied
    • Rehabilitation of the Wehrmacht
    • Integration of old elites – including leading members of Nazi party and organisations
    • Stabilizing effect: no strong nationalist (national socialist) opposition – potential absorbed by CDU and CSU
    • Costs: Ethical, have not to confront Nazi past and many thousands not punished for crimes
  • 32. Nazi Past Hans Globke (1898-1973) Wrote in 1935 a commentary to the Nuremberg laws Director of the Federal Chancellery, 1953-1963 Theodor Oberländer (1905-1998) Advising officer of the Wehrmacht on minority questions (Eastern Front) Minister for Displaced Persons and Refugees (1953-1960)
  • 33. But…
    • 1952 Signing of the Reconciliation Treaty between Israel and West Germany
    • Financial compensation for Jewish property
    • Since end of 1950’s: Trials against War Criminals and guards of Concentration Camps
    • Zentralstelle der Landesjustizverwaltung zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen 1958 (Ludwigsburger Zentralstelle)
    • Historians publish books on Holocaust
    • Critical novels, poems, theatre productions, films on Nazi past
  • 34. Schedule
    • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany
    • West integration and German unity
    • The ‘Economic Miracle‘
    • The burden of the past
    • The culture of the 1950’s
    • The end of an era
    • Conclusion
  • 35. The Fifties
    • Escapist Optimism: Dominance of Hollywood
    • Heimatfilms, Romances and “Sissi” (Austrian Empress Elisabeth) Films These films stressed a timeless world of unchanged social order and were kitschy
    • [Later, in the early 1960s some Westerns (Karl May Westerns), and Thrillers (Edgar Wallace, with Klaus Kinski).]
    • The Fifties were very successful at the Box office.
    • But also some films which did not fit in this picture: Die Suenderin (the sinner) with Hildegard Knef 1950, Der Untertan by Wolfgang Staudte 1951, Die Halbstarken (1957) with Horst Buchholz
  • 36. 1951 1956 – 1958: 96 youth riots in major German cities 1956
  • 37. German ‘schlager’ music
    • 80% of all sold copies: recordings of German ‘schlager’
    Conny Froboess Freddy Quinn
  • 38. 1956 Americanisation Peter Kraus
  • 39. Schedule
    • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany
    • West integration and German unity
    • The ‘Economic Miracle‘
    • The burden of the past
    • The culture of the 1950’s
    • The end of an era
    • Conclusion
  • 40. Ludwig Erhard (1897-1977) Minister of Economy, 1949-1963 Bundeskanzler, 1963-1966 Willy Brandt (1913-1992) Mayor of Berlin, 1957-1966 Bundeskanzler, 1966-1972
  • 41. 1. Konrad Adenauer , Politiker (1876-1967) 2. Martin Luther , Kirchenreformator (1483-1546) 3. Karl Marx , Philosoph und Nationalökonom (1818-1883) 4. Sophie und Hans Scholl , Widerstandskämpfer (" Weiße Rose ") (1921/1918-1943) 5. Willy Brandt , Politiker (1913-1992) 6. Johann Sebastian Bach , Komponist (1685-1750) 7. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Schriftsteller (1749-1832) 8. Johannes Gutenberg , Erfinder des Buchdrucks (1400-1468) 9. Otto von Bismarck , Politiker (1815-1898) 10. Albert Einstein , Naturwissenschaftler (1879-1955) Unsere Besten, ZDF Ranking 2003
  • 42. Conclusion
    • Stabilisation
    • Diversification (Pluralisierung)
    • Internationalisation
    • Tradition AND Mondernity