Geschiedenis germany national - socialism consolidation of power


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Geschiedenis germany national - socialism consolidation of power

  1. 1. NS Consolidation and Terror History of Germany Lecture 9
  2. 2. Schedule <ul><li>The Road to Absolute Power: 1933-1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and Social Policy </li></ul><ul><li>NS Terror </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reichstag fire
  4. 4. Nazi propaganda poster “The Reichstag in flames” (March elections 1933) Fight for Germany Booklet on German politics before 1933 München, 1933
  5. 5. Marinus van der Lubbe (1909 – 1934) Georgi Dimitrov (1882 – 1948)
  6. 6. Elections to the Reichstag, March 5, 1933 1,60% Other 12,30% KPD 18,30% SPD 0,90% Deutsche Staatspartei 11,20% Zentrum 2,70% BVP 1,10% DVP 8,00% DNVP 43,90% NSDAP Votes Party
  7. 7. Otto Wels &quot;At this historic hour, we German Social Democrats pledge ourselves to the principles of humanity and justice, of freedom and Socialism. No Enabling Law can give you the power to destroy ideas which are eternal and indestructible ... From this new persecution too Germany Social Democracy can draw new strength. We send greetings to the persecuted and oppressed. We greet our friends in the Reich. Their steadfastness and loyalty deserve admiration. The courage with which they maintain their convictions and their unbroken confidence guarantee a brighter future.&quot; &quot;You can take our lives and our freedom, but you cannot take our honour&quot;. &quot;Wir sind wehrlos aber nicht ehrlos.&quot; - &quot;We are defenceless but not honorless.&quot;
  8. 8. Gesetz zur Behebung der Not von Volk und Reich - Law to remedy the need of the people and the Reich (Ermächtigungsgesetz) Article 1 In addition to the procedure prescribed by the constitution [i.e. decision by parliament] , laws of the Reich may also be enacted by the government of the Reich. This includes laws as referred to by Articles 85 sentence 2 and Article 87 of the constitution. Article 2 Laws enacted by the government of the Reich may deviate from the constitution as long as they do not affect the institutions of the Reichstag and the Reichsrat. The rights of the President remain undisturbed
  9. 9. Potsdam, March 12, 1933
  10. 10. Nazi Party Gau (region) Kreis (district) Ortsgruppe (small town) 1,500 households Zelle (cell) 160-480 households Block (street blocks) 40-60 households
  11. 11. “ In our eyes the German boy of the future must be slender and supple, swift as greyhounds, tough as leather and hard as Krupp steel. We must bring up a new type of human being, men and girls who are disciplined and healthy to the core. We have undertaken to give the German people an education that begins already in youth and will never come to an end. It starts with the child and will end with the ‘old fighter‘. Nobody will be able to say that he has a time in which he is left entirely alone to himself“. Hitler at the Nuremberg Party Rally in 1935
  12. 12. Nazi organisations for the youth <ul><li>6-10 Pimpfen (Cubs) </li></ul><ul><li>10-14 Deutsches Jungvolk (Young German Boys) </li></ul><ul><li>14-18 Hitlerjugend (Hitler Youth) </li></ul><ul><li>Reich Labour Service </li></ul><ul><li>Wehrmacht </li></ul><ul><li>10-14 Jung Mädel (Young Girls) </li></ul><ul><li>14-18 Bund Deutscher Mädel (League of German Girls) </li></ul><ul><li>18-21 Glaube und Schönheit – Faith and Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>NS Frauenwerk – NS Women‘s organisation </li></ul>German Labour Front NSDAP German Students‘s league
  13. 13. “ It is extremely difficult for parents who are opponents of the Nazis to exercise an influence on their children. Either they ask the child not to talk at school about what is said at home. Then the children get the feeling, aha, the parents have to hide what they think. The teacher permits himself to say everything out loud. So he‘s bound to be right. – Or the parents express their opinion without giving the child a warning. Then it‘s not long before they are arrested or at the very least called up before the teacher, who shouts at them and threatens to report them. – ‘Send your father to the school!‘ That is the normal answer to suspicious doubts and questions on the part of the child. If the father is quiet after such a visit, then he gives the child the impression that he has been convinced by what the teacher has told him, and the effect is far worse than if nothing had ever been said.“ Report from a social democratic observer from 1938 (Deutschland Berichte der SPD)
  14. 14. Ernst R öhm, leader of the SA (1887-1934)
  15. 15. Law Regarding Measures of State Self-Defense (in German: Gesetz über Maßnahmen zur Staatsnotwehr ), 3 July 1934 The bill is signed by Reichskanzler Hitler , Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick , and Minister of Justice Dr. Franz Gürtner . Single article. The measures taken on 30 June and 1 and 2 July 1934 in order to put down attacks of high treason shall be legal State self-defense. Einziger Artikel. Die zur Niederlegung hoch- und landesverräterischer Angriffe am 30. Juni, 1. und 2. Juli 1934 vollzogenenen Maßnahmen sind als Staatsnotwehr rechtens. The Reich government has decided upon the following law that is herewith announced: Die Reichsregierung hat das folgende Gesetz beschlossen, das hiermit verkündet wird: English Translation German
  16. 16. “ I swear by God this sacred oath: I will render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, the Führer of the German nation and people, Supreme Commander of the armed forces, and will be ready as a true soldier to risk my life at any time for this oath”. Oath of German soldiers since 1934
  17. 17. “ The Führer is supreme judge of the nation…The Führer is not backed by constitutional clauses, but by outstanding achievements which are based on the combination of a calling and of his devotion to the people. The Führer does not put into effect a constitution according to legal guidelines laid before him but by historic achievements which serve the future of his people… Constitutional law in the Third Reich is the legal formulation of the historical will of the Führer.” Justice Minister Hans Frank in a speech in 1938
  18. 18. John Hite, Chris Hinton, Weimar & Nazi Germany (London, 2000), p. 180
  19. 19. Schedule <ul><li>The Road to Absolute Power: 1933-1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and Social Policy </li></ul><ul><li>NS Terror </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reichsnährstand Amtsschild 1933-1945 DHM, Berlin
  21. 21. Hitler and the president of the Reichsbank, Hjalmar Schacht Hjalmar Schacht 1877-1970 President of the Reichsbank 1923-1930, 1933-1939 Minister of Economy 1934-1937
  22. 22. <ul><li>Reichsautobahnen </li></ul><ul><li>Year km total </li></ul><ul><li>1935 108 108 </li></ul><ul><li>1936 979 1087 </li></ul><ul><li>1937 923 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>1938 1036 3046 </li></ul><ul><li>1939 255 3301 </li></ul><ul><li>1940 436 3737 </li></ul><ul><li>1941 90 3827 </li></ul><ul><li>1942 34 3861 </li></ul><ul><li>35 3896 </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 3896   </li></ul>3896 Gesamt 3896 35 1943 3861 34 1942 3827 90 1941 3737 436 1940 3301 255 1939 3046 1036 1938 2010 923 1937 1087 979 1936 108 108 1935 Entw. km km Stand Ende 3896 Gesamt 3896 35 1943 3861 34 1942 3827 90 1941 3737 436 1940 3301 255 1939 3046 1036 1938 2010 923 1937 1087 979 1936 108 108 1935 Entw. km km Stand Ende
  23. 23. RECYCLING: Jeder muß helfen! Deine Pflichten im Vierjahresplan Propagandaschrift für die Sammlung von Altstoffen zur Erfüllung des Vierjahresplanes
  24. 24. Hermann Göring, Hamburg, 1934, DHM, Berlin
  25. 25. Aviation industry: Junkers-Flugzeugbau, Bayreuth, 1939
  26. 26. John Hite, Chris Hinton, Weimar & Nazi Germany (London, 2000), p. 214
  27. 27. John Hite, Chris Hinton, Weimar & Nazi Germany (London, 2000), p. 214
  28. 28. John Hite, Chris Hinton, Weimar & Nazi Germany (London, 2000), p. 214
  29. 29. Social Policy: Public welfare organisations ‘Power through Joy‘ Frankfurt/Main, 1937
  30. 30. Schedule <ul><li>January 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>The Road to Absolute Power: 1933-1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and Social Policy </li></ul><ul><li>NS Terror </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies </li></ul>
  31. 31. Heinrich Himmler 1900-1945
  32. 32. Reinhard Heydrich 1904-1942
  33. 33. Himmler Reichsführer SS Chief of Police SS Ordnungspolizei (order police) Municipal police Sipo Security Police Heydrich SD Security Service Heydrich Kripo Criminal Police Gestapo Secret state police Foreign intelligence Domestic intelligence
  34. 35. Schedule <ul><li>The Road to Absolute Power: 1933-1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and Social Policy </li></ul><ul><li>NS Terror </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies </li></ul>
  35. 36. Opposition in the Third Reich (Sample) <ul><li>Organising a coup </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to assassinate Hitler and other leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Going on strike </li></ul><ul><li>Helping victims of Nazism </li></ul><ul><li>Spying for foreign governments </li></ul><ul><li>Deserting from the armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Committing suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Emigrating </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing anti-Nazi leaflets </li></ul><ul><li>Underachieving in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly criticising the regime, telling anti-Hitler jokes </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to American jazz and the BBC </li></ul><ul><li>Not giving the Hitler greeting </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing to join Nazi organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Reading banned Nazi literature </li></ul>
  36. 37. Harro Schulze-Boysen (1909-1942) with his wife Libertas Haas-Heye
  37. 38. Georg Elser 1903-1945
  38. 39. Sophie Scholl, 1921-1943 Hans Scholl, 1918-1943
  39. 40. Claus Schenck von Stauffenberg 1907-1944
  40. 41. Schedule <ul><li>January 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>The Road to Absolute Power: 1933-1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and Social Policy </li></ul><ul><li>NS Terror </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies </li></ul>
  41. 42. THE DEBATE ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE THIRD REICH Ignores deliberate policies and the popularity of Hitler, overestimates independence of single organizations and apparatuses, too much focused on anonymous structures Too personalistic, too much centered on Hitler, too rational, too apologetic of Germans in general 4.Critique Spontaneous initiatives of organizations, improvisation, primacy of opportunism Hitler's will Long-term planning Realization of long-term goals Primacy of ideology 3.Implementation of policies Four competing and relatively independent power blocks: economy, army, Nazi party/SS, state administration Obedience to the dictator 2.Structure of the state Weak dictator; depends on competing organizations Strong dictator; can implement his will 1.Hitler's role Functionalist Interpretation Intentionalist Interpretation
  42. 43. Synthesis (according to Bracher and Jäckel): Hitler derived much of his strength from the rivalry and the overlapping responsibilities of state and party institutions. He thus could assume the role of a mediator. Single offices competed to win him over to their policies. Often they tried to implement what was considered to be his wish ... Current consensus (Ian Kershaw) (see Hinton: Weimar & Nazi Germany, p. 190) Hitler is the key activator Policy reflects Hitler‘s overall vision His decisions are accepted by rivals Mobiliser and legitimator but not necessarily initiator of many policies