Geschiedenis   germany during the cold war
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Geschiedenis germany during the cold war






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Geschiedenis   germany during the cold war Geschiedenis germany during the cold war Presentation Transcript

  • Cold War Division of Germany HI136 History of Germany
  • Schedule
    • Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero hour)
    • Occupation Policies
    • The First Berlin Crisis
    • The Second Berlin Crisis
    • Conclusion
  • Liberation of the Concentration Camp Dachau
  • ‘ A badly managed disaster area’ Refugees arriving in Berlin, 1945 Black market raid in Berlin, 1945
  • The Formal Division
    • Teheran Feb. 1943: Germany will be divided and occupied
    • London Sept. 1944: three zones envisaged (joined by French in 1945)
    • Potsdam July 1945: Germany to be single economic unit, but administered by zonal commanders meeting in Allied Control Council
    • Officially, temporary situation pending peace treaty, but de facto consolidation
    • 1947 Economic Council appears in western zones as proto-government
    • June 1948 separate currencies introduced
    • May 1949 Federal Republic of (West) Germany announced; Oct. 1949 German Democratic Republic (East) follows
    • May 1955 FRG joins NATO; GDR joins Warsaw Pact
    • August 1961 Berlin Wall built cementing division
  • Principles
    • Denazification
    • Democratisation
    • Demilitarisation
    • Decentralisation
    • Decartelisation
    • (Dismantlement)
  • Soviet Occupation
    • Gradualist approach with creeping Sovietisation (no one-party copy of USSR)
    • Lack of planning, but ‘smash and grab’ (Beria) versus ‘reconstruction’ (Tyulpanov) factions
    • Mass rapes alienate women
    • Nationalisation of industry popular (77% support), but dismantling of 30% of factories unpopular (approx. 30%)
    • Land reform (popular among farmers, but set unilateral precedent, upsetting western partners)
    • Refugees: USSR mainly blamed for inhumane treatment of refugees, ca. 1.5 million die)
    • Norman Naimark, The Russians in Germany
  • Revisionist views of Russia
    • Stalin’s perceived desire for a deal on Germany (united but neutral)
    • Message to KPD leaders in June 1945 that Germany would remain united
    • Brakes on separatist pressures from East German leaders (June 1948)
    • National unity offers (March 1952 Stalin Notes); was this to try to scupper FRG integration into military bloc?
    • Rolf Steininger, Wilfried Loth, Stalin’s Unwanted Child
  • French Occupation
    • Hopes for dismemberment of Germany (Rhinelandia
    • International control of Ruhr
    • Oppose centralised institutions
    • Non-signatories to Potsdam (no refugees allowed into French Zone)
    • Punitive reparations from German industry and forestry
    • Only join Anglo-American Bizone in 1948
    General Koenig, French commander
  • British Occupation
    • April 1946 British alarm at communist-SPD merger in Soviet Zone (bid for all-zone superparty?)
    • Mid-1946 British sterling crisis; occupation becoming liability
    • Invite other occupiers to merge zones (only US accept > Bizonia, Jan. 1947)
    • Britain now seen as proactive & keen to encourage firmer line from Americans (Deighton, The Impossible Peace )
    • Post-revisionist synthesis stresses regional actors
    Ernest Bevin, British foreign secretary
  • American Occupation
    • JCS 1067: no fraternisation; population to be kept at subsistence level
    • May 1946: US halt reparations deliveries to Soviet Zone
    • Byrnes’ speech (Sept. 1946): America pledges to stay in Germany for long haul
    • 1947 governor Clay blocks moves to nationalisation of industry
    • Carolyn Eisenberg, Drawing the Line , for a critical view of the Americans
  • Marshall Aid, June 1947-1952
    • West Germany as ‘locomotive’ to economic recovery of western Europe
    • Internationalisation of economy to satisfy French security worries
    • Renewed West German infrastructure of Ruhr mines
    • Was it more psychological than real aid? (Werner Abelshauser v. Christoph Buchheim)
    • Cf dismantling policy in eastern Germany
  • Schedule
    • Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero hour)
    • Occupation Policies
    • The First Berlin Crisis
    • The Second Berlin Crisis
    • Conclusion
  • Berlin: the quadripartite city
  • Berlin: cont.
    • Liberated by USSR in April 1945 at cost of 100,000 casualties; western sectors occupied July 1945
    • Formal access only recognised via air
    • Easy access to West via open border, including U-Bahn or flown out of Tempelhof
  • Berlin Airlift
    • Soviet concerns at western preparations for separate West German state (London talks from Jan. 1948)
    • Currency reform: June western Allies introduce deutschmark into western zones and West Berlin
    • Soviets retaliate with closure of access to West Berlin
    • General Clay organises airlift with political support from Mayor Reuter; despite difficulties in autumn 1948, tonnages rise in Nov.
    • Propaganda debacle for East
    • Western Allies move from being ‘victor powers’ to ‘protector powers’
    American transport aircraft (‘raisin bomber’) lands at Tempelhof; note the children waiting for possible sweets thrown overboard
  • Berlin: the Divided City
    • During blockade two city governments
    • U-Bahn (West) & S-Bahn (East)
    • Currency speculation
    • ‘ Shopwindow Berlin’: Ku-Damm as showcase of western standard of living
    • Espionage centre (CIA Berlin tunnel, human intelligence)
    • Broadcasting: RIAS American radio
    Poster showing smuggling of currency between sectors ‘ Beware RIAS poison’: communist anti-American poster warning of US broadcasts
  • Schedule
    • Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero hour)
    • Occupation Policies
    • The First Berlin Crisis
    • The Second Berlin Crisis
    • Conclusion
  • Refugees via Berlin & Inner-German border
  • Berlin Crisis, 1958-61
    • GDR’s desire for recognition by West
    • USSR’s hopes for peace treaties & removal of atomic weaponry from FRG
    • Khrushchev ultimatum for West to leave West Berlin within 6 months
    • Western intransigence & threat of nuclear weapons to preserve West Berlin; but non-intervention in East Berlin
    • Economic race to overtake West German economy falters in 1960
    • Wall cheap alternative to subsidies by USSR
  • Conclusion: Division of Germany
    • Traditional interpretation: Soviet Union is responsible
    • Revisionist interpretation: USA are mainly responsible
    • Post-revisionist interpretation: both sides are responsible